Ubatuba is a Brazilian municipality, located on the southeast coast, in the state of São Paulo. It is part of the Metropolitan Region of Vale do Paraíba e Litoral Norte; the population is 86,392 in an area of 723.88 km². Ubatuba is linked with the Rodovia Longitudinal or the BR-101, it is located east of east/north/east of Santos and west of Rio de Janeiro. The city lies on the Tropic of Capricorn; the urban area is concentrated in the Atlantic and valley areas. The city receives rain, hence the nickname Uba Chuva. Much of the land to the north is forested and mountainous, forming a part of the Serra do Mar mountains. Serra do Mar State Park covers 83% of the city and has few connector roads through the mountain range; the municipality contains part of the Tupinambás Ecological Station, which protects some of the coastal islands. A marine park was created under Projeto TAMAR to protect sea turtles. In addition, the Oceanographic Institute of the University of São Paulo runs the Clarimundo de Jesus research base in Ubatuba.
Ubatuba is an important tourist city. Ubatuba features over 100 beaches. Among these are Maranduba, Lázaro, Vermelha, Enseada, Perequê, Saco da Ribeira. Ubatuba features an island named Anchieta after José de Anchieta, it has been a nature preserve since March 22, 1977. Ubatuba is considered, by law, as "The Surf Capital of São Paulo State"; the city has received this honour because more than ten important surf contests are held off its beaches every year, including two world qualifying series, two Super Surf Pro series, other competitions supported by such well-established brands as Billabong and Dunkelvolk. The city is known by its biodiversity in relation to birds. There are more than 565 different birds species identified, what has each day attracted more and more birdwatchers; the origin of the name comes from tuba. Ubatuba was the place where the Portuguese signed the first treaty of peace of the Americas with the Tupinambá Indians, a treaty that kept Brazil in Portuguese hands, with only one language and one faith.
Back in the 16th century the Tupinambá families were forced into slavery, working on sugar cane plantations along the Southern Shores surrounding the towns of Saint Vincent and Itanhaém, a region called "Morpion" at that time. The Tupinambá responded to this outrage with the Tamoio Confederation, a powerful military alliance that stood to destroy Saint Vincent, with the help of the French, who had founded a Protestant refugee colony, France Antarctique in Guanabara Bay before the foundation of Rio de Janeiro; the Portuguese sent two Jesuit priests, Fathers Anchieta and Nobrega, to Ubatuba, to make peace with the Tupinambá Indians. Anchieta was kept as a hostage and Nobrega returned to Saint Vincent along with the Chief Cunhambebe to make arrangements for the final Treaty; the Portuguese won, keeping the land. Green ubatuba Media related to Ubatuba at Wikimedia Commons Ubatuba travel guide from Wikivoyage City Hall website Ubatuba on Explorevale
André Thevet was a French Franciscan priest, explorer and writer who travelled to Brazil in the 16th century. He described the country, its aboriginal inhabitants and the historical episodes involved in the France Antarctique, a French settlement in Rio de Janeiro, in his book The New Found World, or Antarctike. Thevet was born in Angoulême. At ten years of age, he entered the convent of Franciscans of Angoulême. Not much impressed by religion, he preferred to read books, he visited Italy at the same time as Guillaume Rondelet. In 1549, thanks to the support of John, Cardinal of Lorraine, he embarked in an extended exploration trip to Asia, Rhodes and Egypt, he accompanied the French ambassador Gabriel de Luetz to Istanbul. Upon his return to France in 1554, he published an account of this voyage under the title of Cosmography of the Levant. After this, he set sail again as the chaplain of the fleet of vice-admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon to colonize Brazil. In the New World, he collected many specimens of animals and minerals, as well as aboriginal potteries and weapons.
Thevet died in Paris. Thevet relied on the accounts of the French sailors to write his most important work, the Singularities of France Antarctique, it had many coarse errors and extravagant accounts, but it described for the first time native plants used by the Indians, such as the manioc, pineapples and tobacco, as well as the macaw and tapir. Father Thevet was an able historiographer who published in 1584 eight volumes about the life of famous people, he became the chaplain of Catherine de' Medici and official historiographer and cosmographer of the king. Antarctic France Old Tupi Cantacuzene, J. M. Frère André Thevet. Miscellanea. Bogliolo Bruna, introduzione, traduzione e note delle Singolarità della Francia Antarctica di André Thevet, Reggio Emilia, Diabasis, 247 p. 1997 Lestringant, Frank. Sous la leçon des vents: le monde d'André Thevet, cosmographe de la Renaissance. Presses Paris Sorbonne. Trudel, Marcel. "Thevet, André". In Brown, George Williams. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. I. University of Toronto Press
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, in many navies is the highest rank. It is abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM"; the rank is thought to have originated in Sicily from a conflation of Arabic: أمير البحر, amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea", with Latin admirabilis or admiratus, although alternative etymologies derive the word directly from Latin, or from the Turkish military and naval rank miralay. The French version – amiral without the additional d – tends to add evidence for the Arab origin. In the Commonwealth and the U. S. a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general in the army, is above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet. In NATO, admirals have a rank code of OF-9 as a four-star rank; the word admiral in Middle English comes from Anglo-French amiral, "commander", from Medieval Latin admiralis, admirallus. These themselves come from Arabic amīr, or amīr al-, "commander of", as in amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea"; the term was in use for the Greco-Arab naval leaders of Norman Sicily, ruled by Arabs, at least by the early 11th century.
The Norman Roger II of Sicily, employed a Greek Christian known as George of Antioch, who had served as a naval commander for several North African Muslim rulers. Roger styled George in Abbasid fashion as Amir of Amirs, i.e. "Commander of Commanders", with the title becoming Latinized in the 13th century as ammiratus ammiratorum. The Sicilians and Genoese took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, from their Aragon opponents; the French and Spanish gave their sea commanders similar titles while in Portuguese the word changed to almirante. As the word was used by people speaking Latin or Latin-based languages it gained the "d" and endured a series of different endings and spellings leading to the English spelling admyrall in the 14th century and to admiral by the 16th century; the word "admiral" has today come to be exclusively associated with the highest naval rank in most of the world's navies, equivalent to the army rank of general. However, this wasn't always the case.
The rank of admiral has been subdivided into various grades, several of which are extinct while others remain in use in most present day navies. The Royal Navy used colours to indicate seniority of its admirals until 1864; the generic term for these naval equivalents of army generals is flag officer. Some navies have used army-type titles for them, such as the Cromwellian "general at sea"; the rank insignia for an admiral involves four stars or similar devices and/or 3 stripes over a broad stripe, but as one can see below, there are many cases where the insignia do not involve four stars or similar devices. Admiral is a German Navy OF-9 four-star flag officer rank, equivalent to the German Army and German Air Force rank of General. Post-WWII rank is Bakurocho taru kaishō or Admiral serve as Chief of Staff, Joint Staff（幕僚長たる海将） with limited function as an advisory staff to Minister of Defense, compared to Gensui during 1872–1873 and 1898–1945. Admiral of Castile was a post with a important history in Spain.
Comparative military ranks Laksamana, native title for naval leaders in Indonesia and Malaysia Ranks and insignia of officers of NATO Navies Admiralty Nebraska admiral "Admiral". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Admiral". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Joseph of Anchieta
José de Anchieta y Díaz de Clavijo, S. J. was a Spanish Jesuit missionary to the Portuguese colony of Brazil in the second half of the 16th century. A influential figure in Brazil's history in the first century after its European discovery, Anchieta was one of the founders of São Paulo in 1554 and of Rio de Janeiro in 1565, he is the first playwright, the first grammarian and the first poet born in the Canary Islands, the father of Brazilian literature. Anchieta was involved in the religious instruction and conversion to the Catholic faith of the Indian population, his efforts along with those of another Jesuit missionary, Manuel da Nóbrega, at Indian pacification were crucial to the establishment of stable colonial settlements in the colony. With his book Arte de gramática da língua mais usada na costa do Brasil, Anchieta became the first person to provide an orthography to the Old Tupi language most spoken by the indigenous people of Brazil. Anchieta is known as "the Apostle of Brazil", he was canonized by Pope Francis on 3 April 2014.
He was the second native of the Canary Islands, after Peter of Saint Joseph Betancur a missionary to Latin America, declared a saint by the Catholic Church. Anchieta is considered the third saint of Brazil. Anchieta was born on 19 March 1534, in San Cristóbal de La Laguna on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, Spain, to a wealthy family, he was baptized on 7 April 1534 in the Parish of Our Lady of Remedies. His father, Juan Anchieta y Zelaiaran, was a landowner from Urrestilla, in the Basque Country, who had escaped to Tenerife in 1525 after participating in an unsuccessful rebellion against the Emperor Charles V. Through him, Anchieta was related to Ignatius of founder of the Society of Jesus, his mother was a descendant of the conquerors of Tenerife. Mencia was the daughter of Sebastián de Llarena, a Jew who had converted to Christianity, from the kingdom of Castile; when he was 14 years old, Anchieta went to study in Portugal at the Royal College of Arts in Coimbra. He felt he had a vocation to the priesthood.
He sought admission to the Jesuit College of the University of Coimbra and was accepted into the Jesuits on 1 May 1551, at the age of 17. While he was a novice, he nearly ruined his health by his excessive austerity, causing an injury to the spine that made him a hunchback, he learned to write Latin as well as his mother tongue. In 1553, the Jesuits included Anchieta among the third group of their members sent to the Portuguese colony of Brazil, believing that the climate would improve his health. After a perilous journey and a shipwreck and his small group arrived in São Vicente, the first village, founded in Brazil in 1534. There he made his first contact with the Tapuia Indians living in the region. In late 1553, Manuel da Nóbrega, the first Provincial of the Jesuits in Brazil, sent 13 Jesuits including Anchieta to climb the Serra do Mar to a plateau along the Tietê River that the Indians called piratininga. There the Jesuits established a small missionary settlement and celebrated Mass for the first time on 25 January 1554, date of the conversion of Saint Paul, according to tradition.
That date is now celebrated as the founding of São Paulo. Anchieta and his Jesuit colleagues began their efforts to instruct the native people in the rudiments of Christianity and convert them, while introducing basic education in other subjects, he taught Latin to the Indians, began to learn their language, Old Tupi, started compiling a dictionary and a grammar. Their mission settlement, the Jesuit College of São Paulo of Piratininga, soon developed into a small population center. Anchieta and Nóbrega had long opposed the way the Portuguese colonists were treating the Indians and had a serious conflict about it with Duarte da Costa, who served as Governor-General of Brazil from 1553 to 1558, they supported the Portuguese against their French rivals in establishing claims to Brazil and welcomed the support of Portuguese authorities against the Huguenot Protestants whom the French at times welcomed to their settlements. In fact, the two Jesuits saw the French colony as a Protestant enterprise, ignoring its Catholic components and making no distinction between Lutherans and Calvinists.
Anchieta recognized that violence could be necessary to create the conditions for evangelizing the indigenous inhabitants and praised the colony's third Governor General, Mem de Sá, for what he accomplished in killing large numbers of Amerindians. Due to the systematic killings and ransacking of their villages by the Portuguese colonists and attempts at enslaving them, the Indian tribes along the coast of the present-day states of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo rebelled and formed an alliance, the Tamoyo Confederation, which soon allied themselves to the French colonists who had settled in Guanabara Bay in 1555 under the command of Vice-Admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon; the conflict was at once international and inter-religious. In one instance the Portuguese hung ten Frenchmen in an attempt to intimidate their enemies into submission. In another in 1557, a Protestant named Jacques le Balleur was put to death and Anchieta, in some interpretations, helped the executioner carry out the sentence, though the facts are much disputed.
The Tamoyo Confederation attacked São Paulo several times between 1564 without success. Anchieta and Nóbrega initiated peace negotiations with the Tamoyos in the vil
Human cannibalism is the act or practice of humans eating the flesh or internal organs of other human beings. A person who practices cannibalism is called a cannibal; the expression cannibalism has been extended into zoology to mean one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food, including sexual cannibalism. Some scholars have argued, that no firm evidence exists that cannibalism has been a acceptable practice anywhere in the world, at any time in history; the Island Carib people of the Lesser Antilles, from whom the word cannibalism is derived, acquired a long-standing reputation as cannibals following the recording of their legends in the 17th century. Some controversy exists over the accuracy of these legends and the prevalence of actual cannibalism in the culture. Cannibalism was practiced in New Guinea and in parts of the Solomon Islands, flesh markets existed in some parts of Melanesia. Fiji was once known as the "Cannibal Isles". Cannibalism has been well documented around the world, from Fiji to the Amazon Basin to the Congo to the Māori people of New Zealand.
Neanderthals are believed to have practiced cannibalism, Neanderthals may have been eaten by anatomically modern humans. Cannibalism was practiced in the past in Egypt during ancient Egypt, Roman Egypt and during famines such as the great famine in the year 1201. Cannibalism has been both practiced and fiercely condemned in several wars in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, it was still practiced in Papua New Guinea as of 2012, for cultural reasons and in ritual and in war in various Melanesian tribes. Cannibalism has been said to test the bounds of cultural relativism because it challenges anthropologists "to define what is or is not beyond the pale of acceptable human behavior". Cannibalism has been practiced as a last resort by people suffering from famine in modern times. Famous examples include the ill-fated Donner Party and, more the crash of Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571, after which some survivors ate the bodies of dead passengers; some mentally ill people have done so, such as Jeffrey Dahmer and Albert Fish.
There is resistance to formally labeling cannibalism a mental disorder. The word "cannibalism" is derived from Caníbales, the Spanish name for the Caribs, a West Indies tribe that may have practiced cannibalism, from Spanish canibal or caribal, "a savage", it is called anthropophagy. In some societies tribal societies, cannibalism is a cultural norm. Consumption of a person from within the same community is called endocannibalism. Exocannibalism is the consumption of a person from outside the community as a celebration of victory against a rival tribe. Both types of cannibalism can be fueled by the belief that eating a person's flesh or internal organs will endow the cannibal with some of the characteristics of the deceased. In most parts of the world, cannibalism is not a societal norm, but is sometimes resorted to in situations of extreme necessity; the survivors of the shipwrecks of the Essex and Méduse in the 19th century are said to have engaged in cannibalism, as did the members of Franklin's lost expedition and the Donner Party.
Such cases involve necro-cannibalism as opposed to homicidal cannibalism. In English law, the latter is always considered a crime in the most trying circumstances; the case of R v Dudley and Stephens, in which two men were found guilty of murder for killing and eating a cabin boy while adrift at sea in a lifeboat, set the precedent that necessity is no defence to a charge of murder. In pre-modern medicine, the explanation given by the now-discredited theory of humorism for cannibalism was that it came about within a black acrimonious humor, being lodged in the linings of the ventricle, produced the voracity for human flesh. A well-known case of mortuary cannibalism is that of the Fore tribe in New Guinea, which resulted in the spread of the prion disease kuru. Although the Fore's mortuary cannibalism was well documented, the practice had ceased before the cause of the disease was recognized. However, some scholars argue that although post-mortem dismemberment was the practice during funeral rites, cannibalism was not.
Marvin Harris theorizes that it happened during a famine period coincident with the arrival of Europeans and was rationalized as a religious rite. In 2003, a publication in Science received a large amount of press attention when it suggested that early humans may have practiced extensive cannibalism. According to this research, genetic markers found in modern humans worldwide suggest that today many people carry a gene that evolved as protection against the brain diseases that can be spread by consuming human brain tissue. A 2006 reanalysis of the data questioned this hypothesis, because it claimed to have found a data collection bias, which led to an erroneous conclusion; this claimed bias came from incidents of cannibalism used in the analysis not being due to local cultures, but having been carried out by explorers, stranded seafarers or escaped convicts. The original authors published a subsequent paper in 2008 defending their conclusions. Cannibalism features in the folklore and legends of many cultures and is most attributed to evil characters or as extreme retribution for some wrongdoing.
Examples include the witch in "Hansel and Gretel", Lamia of Greek mythology and Baba Yaga of Slavic folklore. A number of stories in Greek mythology involve cannibalism, in particular cannib
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Military history of Brazil
The military history of Brazil comprises centuries of armed actions in the territory encompassing modern Brazil, the role of the Brazilian Armed Forces in conflicts and peacekeeping worldwide. For several hundreds of years, the area was the site of intertribal wars of indigenous peoples. Beginning in the 16th century, the arrival of Portuguese explorers led to conflicts with the aboriginal peoples. Sporadic revolts of African slaves marked the colonial period, with a notable rebellion led by Zumbi dos Palmares. Conflicts were encountered with other European nations as well – two notable examples being the France Antarctique affair, a conflict with the Netherlands in the early 17th century over control of much of the Northeast. Although Portugal retained its possessions during conflicts with other nations, it lost control of the colony after the Brazilian war of Independence, which led to the establishment of the Empire of Brazil. Brazil's history after independence is marked by early territorial wars against its neighboring countries which have affected the formation of current political boundaries.
For example, the Cisplatine War, fought over the present day territory of Uruguay established that nation's independence. Brazil was affected in its infancy by minor – and unsuccessful – revolts in the Northern provinces. An armed conflict with Paraguay led to an establishment of Brazil's current border with that nation after a decisive victory. Internal conflicts between the executive government and the power of wealthy landowners led to the abolishment of the Brazilian Empire, the rise of the current republican government. Modern activity includes participation in both World Wars along with internal struggles due to military rule, participation in right wing military operations, such as Operation Condor. Recent developments include participation in peacekeeping efforts after the 2004 Haiti rebellion; the Tamoyo Confederation was a military alliance of aboriginal chieftains of the sea coast ranging from what is today Santos to Rio de Janeiro, which occurred from 1554 to 1567. The main reason for this rather unusual alliance between separate tribes was to react against slavery and wholesale murder and destruction wrought by the early Portuguese discoverers and colonisers of Brazil onto the Tupinambá people.
In the Tupi language, "Tamuya" means "elder" or "grandfather". Cunhambebe was elected chief of the Confederation by his counterparts, together with chiefs Pindobuçú, Araraí and Aimberê, declared war on the Portuguese. Slave rebellions were frequent until the practice of slavery was abolished in 1888; the most famous of the revolts was led by Zumbi dos Palmares. The state he established, named the Quilombo dos Palmares, was a self-sustaining republic of Maroons escaped from the Portuguese settlements in Brazil, was "a region the size of Portugal in the hinterland of Pernambuco". At its height, Palmares had a population of over 30,000. Forced to defend against repeated attacks by Portuguese colonial power, the warriors of Palmares were expert in capoeira, a martial arts form developed in Brazil by African slaves in the 16th century. An African known only as Zumbi was born free in Palmares in 1655, but was captured by the Portuguese and given to a missionary, Father António Melo when he was 6 years old.
Baptized Francisco, Zumbi was taught the sacraments, learned Portuguese and Latin, helped with daily mass. Despite attempts to "civilize" him, Zumbi escaped in 1670 and, at the age of 15, returned to his birthplace. Zumbi became known for his physical prowess and cunning in battle and was a respected military strategist by the time he was in his early twenties. By 1678, the governor of the captaincy of Pernambuco, Pedro Almeida, weary of the longstanding conflict with Palmares, approached its leader Ganga Zumba with an olive branch. Almeida offered freedom for all runaway slaves if Palmares would submit to Portuguese authority, a proposal which Ganga Zumba favored, but Zumbi was distrustful of the Portuguese. Further, he refused to accept freedom for the people of Palmares while other Africans remained enslaved, he challenged Ganga Zumba's leadership. Vowing to continue the resistance to Portuguese oppression, Zumbi became the new leader of Palmares. Fifteen years after Zumbi assumed leadership of Palmares, Portuguese military commanders Domingos Jorge Velho and Vieira de Mello mounted an artillery assault on the quilombo.
February 6, 1694, after 67 years of ceaseless conflict with the cafuzos, or Maroons, of Palmares, the Portuguese succeeded in destroying Cerca do Macaco, the republic's central settlement. Palmares' warriors were no match for the Portuguese artillery. Though he survived and managed to elude the Portuguese, he was betrayed, captured two years and beheaded on the spot November 20, 1695; the Portuguese transported Zumbi's head to Recife, where it was displayed in the central praça as proof that, contrary to popular legend among African slaves, Zumbi was not immortal. It was done as a warning of what would happen to others if they tried to be as brave as him. Remnants of the old quilombos continued to reside in the region for another hundred years. In 1864, the Paraguayan War started due to the expansionist desires of Paraguayan president, Francisco Solano López; the start of the war has been attributed to causes as varied as the after-effects of colonialism in Latin America, the struggle for physical power over the strategic River Plate region and Argentinian meddling in internal Uruguayan politics.
Since Brazil and Argentina ha