A tablespoon is a large spoon used for serving or eating. In many English-speaking regions, the term now refers to a large spoon used for serving, however, in some regions, including parts of Canada, it is the largest type of spoon used for eating. By extension, the term is used as a measure of volume in cooking. In this capacity, it is most abbreviated tbsp or T, referred to as a tablespoonful to distinguish it from the utensil; the unit of measurement varies by region: a United States tablespoon is 14.8 ml, a United Kingdom and Canadian tablespoon is 15 ml, an Australian tablespoon is 20 ml. The capacity of the utensil is not defined by law or custom and bears no particular relation to the measurement. Before about 1700, it was customary for Europeans to bring their own spoons to the table. Spoons were carried as personal property in much the same way as people today carry wallets, key rings, etc. From about 1700 the place setting became popular, with it the "table-spoon", "table-fork" and "table-knife".
Around the same time the tea-spoon and dessert-spoon first appeared, the table-spoon was reserved for eating soup. The 18th century witnessed a proliferation of different sorts of spoons, including the mustard-spoon, salt-spoon, coffee-spoon, soup-spoon. In the late 19th century UK, the dessert-spoon and soup-spoon began to displace the table-spoon as the primary implement for eating from a bowl, at which point the name "table-spoon" took on a secondary meaning as a much larger serving spoon. At the time the first edition of the Oxford English Dictionary was published in 1928, "tablespoon" still had two definitions in the UK: the original definition and the new definition. Victorian and Edwardian era tablespoons used in the UK are 25 ml or sometimes larger, they are used only for serving food, not as part of a place-setting. Common tablespoons intended for use as cutlery hold 7–14 ml less than some tablespoons used for serving. In recipes, an abbreviation like tbsp. is used to refer to a tablespoon, to differentiate it from the smaller teaspoon.
Some authors additionally capitalize the abbreviation, as Tbsp. while leaving tsp. in lower case, to emphasize that the larger tablespoon, rather than the smaller teaspoon, is wanted. The tablespoon abbreviation is sometimes further abbreviated to "Tb." or T. In most places except Australia, one tablespoon equals three teaspoons—and one tablespoon is 14.8 ml or 15 ml. The traditional US interpretation of the tablespoon as a unit of volume is: In nutrition labeling in the US and the UK, a tablespoon is defined as 15 ml. A metric tablespoon is equal to 15 ml; the Australian definition of the tablespoon as a unit of volume is: For dry ingredients, if a recipe calls for a level tablespoon, the usual meaning without further qualification, is measured by filling the spoon and scraping it level. In contrast, a heaped, heaping, or rounded spoonful is not leveled off, includes a heap above the spoon; the exact volume of a heaped tablespoon depends somewhat on the shape and curvature of the measuring spoon being used, so is not a precise unit of measurement.
In the 18th century, the table-spoon became an unofficial unit of the Apothecaries' system of measures, equal to 4 drams or 1⁄2 fl oz. It was more known by the Latin cochleare majus or, in Apothecaries' notation, f℥ss or f℥ß. Dessert spoon Teaspoon
A fluid ounce is a unit of volume used for measuring liquids. Various definitions have been used throughout history, but only two are still in common use: the British Imperial and the United States customary fluid ounce. An imperial fluid ounce is 1⁄20 of an imperial pint, 1⁄160 of an imperial gallon or 28.41 ml. A US fluid ounce is 1⁄16 of a US fluid pint and 1⁄128 of a US liquid gallon or 29.57 ml, making it about 4% larger than the imperial fluid ounce. The fluid ounce is distinct from the ounce as a unit of weight or mass, although it is sometimes referred to as an "ounce" where context makes the meaning clear, such as ounces in a bottle; the fluid ounce was the volume occupied by one ounce of some substance, such as wine or water. The ounce in question varied depending on the system of fluid measure, such as that used for wine versus ale. Various ounces were used over the centuries, including the Tower ounce, troy ounce, avoirdupois ounce, various ounces used in international trade, such as Paris troy.
The situation is further complicated by the medieval practice of "allowances", whereby a unit of measure was not equal to the sum of its parts. For example, the 364-pound woolsack had a 14-pound allowance for the weight of the sack and other packaging materials. In 1824, the British Parliament defined the imperial gallon as the volume of ten pounds of water at standard temperature; the gallon was divided into four quarts, the quart into two pints, the pint into four gills, the gill into five ounces. Thus, there were 160 imperial fluid ounces to the gallon making the mass of a fluid ounce of water one avoirdupois ounce; this relationship is still valid though the imperial gallon's definition was revised to be 4.54609 litres, making the imperial fluid ounce 28.4130625 ml. The US fluid ounce is based on the US gallon, based on the wine gallon of 231 cubic inches, used in England prior to 1824. With the adoption of the international inch, the US fluid ounce became 29.5735295625 ml or about 4% larger than the imperial unit.
Imperial fluid ounceUS customary fluid ounceUS food labelling fluid ounce US regulation 21 CFR 101.9 defines a fluid ounce as 30 millilitres, but this is for use in nutrition labelling only
Tasse à café
A tasse à café is a cup of white porcelain and of around 120 ml, in which coffee is served. It is sometimes used to serve small portions of rich drinks, such as hot chocolate The word originates from Arabic ṭās طاس, from the Persian ṭās طاس, meaning cup or bowl. A half-sized cup is called a demi-tasse "half-cup"
A dessert spoon is a spoon designed for eating dessert and sometimes used for soup or cereals. Similar in size to a soup spoon but with an oval rather than round bowl, it has a capacity around twice that of a teaspoon. By extension the term'dessert spoon' is used as a cooking measure of volume of 10ml of 0.4 fl oz. The use of dessert spoons around the world varies greatly. In most traditional table settings, the dessert spoon is placed above the plate or bowl, separated from the rest of the cutlery, or it may be brought in with the dessert; as a unit of culinary measure, a level dessertspoon equals 2 teaspoons. In the United States this is 0.4 of a fluid ounce. In the UK it is 10 ml; as a unit of Apothecary measure, the dessert-spoon was an unofficial but used unit of fluid measure equal to two fluid drams, or 1⁄4 fluid ounce. In the United States and pre-1824 England, the fluid ounce was 1⁄128 of a Queen Anne wine gallon thus making the dessert-spoon 7.39 ml. The post-1824 imperial Apothecaries' dessert-spoon was 1⁄4 fluid ounce, but the ounce in question was 1⁄160 of an imperial gallon, defined as 277.274 cubic inches, but adjusted to 277.419433 cubic inches, in either case yielding a dessert-spoon of 7.10 ml.
In both the British and American variants of the Apothecaries' system, two tea-spoons make a dessert-spoon, while two dessert-spoons make a table-spoon. In pharmaceutical Latin, the Apothecaries' dessert-spoon is known as cochleare medium, abbreviated as cochl. Med. or less coch. med. as opposed to the tea-spoon and table-spoon. Cooking weights and measures Teaspoon Tablespoon Silver place settings, from Butler's Guild
The British Empire comprised the dominions, protectorates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2, 24% of the Earth's total land area; as a result, its political, legal and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories. During the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries and Spain pioneered European exploration of the globe, in the process established large overseas empires.
Envious of the great wealth these empires generated, England and the Netherlands began to establish colonies and trade networks of their own in the Americas and Asia. A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left England and following union between England and Scotland in 1707, Great Britain, the dominant colonial power in North America, it became the dominant power in the Indian subcontinent after the East India Company's conquest of Mughal Bengal at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The independence of the Thirteen Colonies in North America in 1783 after the American War of Independence caused Britain to lose some of its oldest and most populous colonies. British attention soon turned towards Asia and the Pacific. After the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, Britain emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century. Unchallenged at sea, British dominance was described as Pax Britannica, a period of relative peace in Europe and the world during which the British Empire became the global hegemon and adopted the role of global policeman.
In the early 19th century, the Industrial Revolution began to transform Britain. The British Empire expanded to include most of India, large parts of Africa and many other territories throughout the world. Alongside the formal control that Britain exerted over its own colonies, its dominance of much of world trade meant that it controlled the economies of many regions, such as Asia and Latin America. During the 19th century, Britain's population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, which caused significant social and economic stresses. To seek new markets and sources of raw materials, the British government under Benjamin Disraeli initiated a period of imperial expansion in Egypt, South Africa, elsewhere. Canada and New Zealand became self-governing dominions. By the start of the 20th century and the United States had begun to challenge Britain's economic lead. Subsequent military and economic tensions between Britain and Germany were major causes of the First World War, during which Britain relied upon its empire.
The conflict placed enormous strain on the military and manpower resources of Britain. Although the British Empire achieved its largest territorial extent after World War I, Britain was no longer the world's pre-eminent industrial or military power. In the Second World War, Britain's colonies in East and Southeast Asia were occupied by Japan. Despite the final victory of Britain and its allies, the damage to British prestige helped to accelerate the decline of the empire. India, Britain's most valuable and populous possession, achieved independence as part of a larger decolonisation movement in which Britain granted independence to most territories of the empire; the Suez Crisis confirmed Britain's decline as a global power. The transfer of Hong Kong to China in 1997 marked for many the end of the British Empire. Fourteen overseas territories remain under British sovereignty. After independence, many former British colonies joined the Commonwealth of Nations, a free association of independent states.
The United Kingdom is now one of 16 Commonwealth nations, a grouping known informally as the Commonwealth realms, that share a monarch Queen Elizabeth II. The foundations of the British Empire were laid when Scotland were separate kingdoms. In 1496, King Henry VII of England, following the successes of Spain and Portugal in overseas exploration, commissioned John Cabot to lead a voyage to discover a route to Asia via the North Atlantic. Cabot sailed in 1497, five years after the European discovery of America, but he made landfall on the coast of Newfoundland, mistakenly believing that he had reached Asia, there was no attempt to found a colony. Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was heard of his ships again. No further attempts to establish English colonies in the Americas were made until well into the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, during the last decades of the 16th century. In the meantime, the 1533 Statute in Restraint of Appeals had declared "that this realm of England is an Empire".
The subsequent Protestant Reformation turned Catholic Spain into implacable enemies. In 1562, the English Crown encouraged the privateers John Hawkins and Francis Drake to engage in slave-raiding attacks against Spanish and Portuguese ships off the coast of West Africa with the aim of breaking into the Atlantic slave tr
A cup is an open-top container used to hold liquids for pouring or drinking. Cups may be made of clay, stone, metal, styrofoam, plastic, or other materials, are sometimes fixed with a stem, handles, or other adornments. Cups are used for quenching thirst across a wide range of cultures and social classes, different styles of cups may be used for different liquids or in different situations. Cups of different styles may be used for different liquids or other foodstuffs, in different situations, or for decoration. Cups are an obvious improvement on using cupped feet to hold liquids, they have certainly been used since before recorded history, have been found at archaeological sites throughout the world. Prehistoric cups were sometimes hollowed out stones. In ancient Mesopotamia, cups were made for a variety of purposes including the transportation and drinking of alcoholic beverages. There is evidence the Roman Empire may have spread the use of cups throughout Europe, with notable examples including silver cups in Wales and a color-changing glass cup in ancient Thrace.
In England, cups have been discovered which date back to several thousand years, including the Rillaton Gold Cup, about 3,700 years old. Cups were used in the Americas several centuries prior to the European arrivals. Around the Gulf of Mexico, Native American societies used the Horse conch for drinking cups, among other purposes. Since cups have been an integral part of dining since time immemorial, they have become a valued part of human culture; the shape or image of a cup appears in various places in human cultures. Monarchs have been concerned about assassination via poisoning. To avoid this fate, they used dedicated cups, with cup-bearers to guard them. A "divining cup" was supposed to be able to detect poison. In the Bible, Joseph interpreted a dream for Pharaoh's cup-bearer, a silver divining cup played a key role in his reconciliation with his brothers. Spa cups are a special cup used to drink mineral or thermal water directly from a spring, developed in north-west Bohemia during the 17th century and are now part of Czech folklore.
In the Christian ritual of Communion, adherents drink from a cup of wine to commemorate the Last Supper of Jesus. A chalice is used for this purpose. Ancient Greek religious practices included libations; the rhyton was one cup used for libations. The measuring cup, an adaptation of a simple cup, is a standard tool in cooking, in use at least as far back as Roman times. Apart from serving as drinking vessels, cups can be used as an alternative to bowls as a receptacle for soup. Recipes have been published for cooking various dishes in cups in the microwave. Chalices are sometimes used in heraldry ecclesiastical heraldry. A Kronkåsa is a type of elaborate wooden cup, used by the Swedish nobility during the Renaissance. Drinking from a cup is a significant step on a baby's path to becoming a toddler. Sippy cups are used for this transition. Many trophies take the form of a large, decorated cup. In cases such as the FIFA World Cup and the Stanley Cup, the competition itself may grow to take on the name of the trophy, awarded to the winner.
Owing to the common usage of cup-shaped trophies as prizes for the winners, a large number of national and international competitions are called "cups". In Tarot divination, the suit of cups is associated with the element of water and is regarded as symbolizing emotion and the soul. Cards that feature cups are associated with love, relationships and desires. Various cups have been designed; these are called puzzle cups. Pythagorean cup Fuddling cup Puzzle jugThe. In the developed world, cups are distributed for promotional purposes. For example, a corporation might distribute cups with their logo at a trade show, or a city might hand out cups with slogans promoting recycling. There are companies. Solo cups carry strong cultural connotations in America referring to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Names for different types of cups may overlap. Any transparent cup, regardless of actual composition, is to be called a "glass". While in theory, most cups are well suited to hold drinkable liquids, hot drinks like tea are served in either insulated cups or porcelain teacups.
Coffee cup Mazagran Mug Teacup Thermos Travel mug Disposable cups are intended to be used only once. They are used by fast-food restaurants and coffee shops to serve beverages. Institutions that provide drinking water, such as offices and hospitals, may use disposable cups for sanitary reasons. Paper cup Plastic cup Glass cup styrofoam cup Some styles of cups are used for alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. There are over a dozen distinct styles of cups for drinking beer, depending on the precise variety of beer; the idea that a certain beer should be served in a cup of a certain shape may have been promulgated more for marketing purposes, but there well may be some basis in fact behind it. Wine glasses come in different shapes, depending on the color and style
The pint is a unit of volume or capacity in both the imperial and United States customary measurement systems. In both of those systems it is traditionally one-eighth of a gallon; the British imperial pint is about 20% larger than the American pint because the two systems are defined differently. All other countries have standardized on the metric system, so the size of what may be called a pint varies depending on local custom; the imperial pint is used in the United Kingdom and Ireland and to a limited extent in Commonwealth nations. In the United States, two pints are used: a less-common dry pint; each of these pints is one-eighth of its respective gallon. This difference dates back to 1824, when the British Weights and Measures Act standardised various liquid measures throughout the British Empire, while the United States continued to use the earlier English measure; the imperial pint consists of 20 imperial fluid ounces and the US liquid pint is 16 US fluid ounces, making the imperial fluid ounce about 4% smaller than the US fluid ounce.
All of the other former British colonies, such as Canada, South Africa and New Zealand, converted to the metric system in the 1960s and 1970s. In the United Kingdom, the imperial pint is still the primary unit for draught beer and cider, as it is for milk sold in returnable bottles and some cartons. In the UK, legislation mandates that draught beer and cider may be sold by the imperial pint in perpetuity, in public houses can only be sold in a third of a pint, two-thirds of a pint or multiples of half a pint, which must be served in stamped measured glasses or from government-stamped meters. Since the majority of countries in the world no longer use American or British imperial units, most are non-English speaking, a "pint of beer" served in a tavern outside the United Kingdom and the United States may be measured by other standards. In Commonwealth countries it may be a British imperial pint of 568 ml, in countries serving large numbers of American tourists it might be a US liquid pint of 473 ml, in many metric counties it is a half-litre of 500 ml, or in some places it is another measure reflecting national and local laws and customs.
Units called a pint were used across much of Europe, with values varying between countries from less than half a litre to over one litre. Within continental Europe, these pints were replaced with liquid measures based on the metric system during the 19th century; the term is still in limited use in parts of France, where "une pinte" means an imperial quart, 2 imperial pints, whereas a pint is "une chopine"—and Central Europe, notably some areas of Germany and Switzerland, where "ein Schoppen" is colloquially used for half a litre. In Spanish holiday resorts frequented by British tourists,'pint' is taken to mean a beer glass. Half-pint and pint mugs may therefore be referred to as pinta pinta grande. Pint comes from the Old French word pinte and ultimately from Vulgar Latin pincta meaning "painted", for marks painted on the side of a container to show capacity; the imperial pint is equal to one-eighth of an imperial gallon. In the United States, the liquid pint is defined as one-eighth of a liquid gallon of 231 cubic inches.
In the United States, the dry pint is one-eighth of a dry gallon. The United States dry pint is equal to one-eighth of a United States dry gallon, it is not as common as the liquid pint. A now-obsolete unit of measurement in Scotland known as the Scottish pint or joug equals three imperial pints, it remained in use until the 19th century, surviving longer than most of the old Scottish measurements. This is one of numerous false friends which exist between French, they are not the same unit. The French word pinte is etymologically related, but described a larger unit; the Royal pint was 48 French cubic inches. But regional pints varied in size depending on locality and on commodity varying from 0.95 L to over 2 L. In Canada, the Weights and Measures Act, which has the laws in English and French printed side-by-side, defines a pint in English as 1/8 of a gallon, but defines a pinte in French as 1/4 of a gallon. Thus, if you speak English and order "a pint of beer", servers are required to serve you 568 ml of beer, but if you speak French and order "une pinte de bière", they are required to serve an Imperial quart, 1136 ml—twice as much.
To order an Imperial pint when speaking French in Canada, one must instead order une chopine de bière. In Flanders, the word pintje, meaning'little pint', refers only to a 250 ml glass of lager; some West- and East-Flemish dialects use it as a word for beaker. The equivalent word in German, refers to a glass of a third of a litre in Cologne and the Rhineland. In South Australia, ordering "a pint of beer" results in 425 ml being served. Customers must request "an Imperial pint of beer" to get 570 ml. Australians from other states contest the size of their beers in Adelaide. One US fluid pint of water weighs about a pound, resulting in the popular saying, "A pint's a pound, the world around." However, a US pint of water weighs 1.04375 pounds and the statement does not hold the world around because the impe