1.
Triangles
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A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices. It is one of the shapes in geometry. A triangle with vertices A, B, and C is denoted △ A B C, in Euclidean geometry any three points, when non-collinear, determine a unique triangle and a unique plane. This article is about triangles in Euclidean geometry except where otherwise noted, triangles can be classified according to the lengths of their sides, An equilateral triangle has all sides the same length. An equilateral triangle is also a polygon with all angles measuring 60°. An isosceles triangle has two sides of equal length, some mathematicians define an isosceles triangle to have exactly two equal sides, whereas others define an isosceles triangle as one with at least two equal sides. The latter definition would make all equilateral triangles isosceles triangles, the 45–45–90 right triangle, which appears in the tetrakis square tiling, is isosceles. A scalene triangle has all its sides of different lengths, equivalently, it has all angles of different measure. Hatch marks, also called tick marks, are used in diagrams of triangles, a side can be marked with a pattern of ticks, short line segments in the form of tally marks, two sides have equal lengths if they are both marked with the same pattern. In a triangle, the pattern is no more than 3 ticks. Similarly, patterns of 1,2, or 3 concentric arcs inside the angles are used to indicate equal angles, triangles can also be classified according to their internal angles, measured here in degrees. A right triangle has one of its interior angles measuring 90°, the side opposite to the right angle is the hypotenuse, the longest side of the triangle. The other two sides are called the legs or catheti of the triangle, special right triangles are right triangles with additional properties that make calculations involving them easier. One of the two most famous is the 3–4–5 right triangle, where 32 +42 =52, in this situation,3,4, and 5 are a Pythagorean triple. The other one is a triangle that has 2 angles that each measure 45 degrees. Triangles that do not have an angle measuring 90° are called oblique triangles, a triangle with all interior angles measuring less than 90° is an acute triangle or acute-angled triangle. If c is the length of the longest side, then a2 + b2 > c2, a triangle with one interior angle measuring more than 90° is an obtuse triangle or obtuse-angled triangle. If c is the length of the longest side, then a2 + b2 < c2, a triangle with an interior angle of 180° is degenerate
2.
Square (geometry)
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In geometry, a square is a regular quadrilateral, which means that it has four equal sides and four equal angles. It can also be defined as a rectangle in which two adjacent sides have equal length, a square with vertices ABCD would be denoted ◻ ABCD. e. A rhombus with equal diagonals a convex quadrilateral with sides a, b, c, d whose area is A =12 =12. Opposite sides of a square are both parallel and equal in length, all four angles of a square are equal. All four sides of a square are equal, the diagonals of a square are equal. The square is the n=2 case of the families of n-hypercubes and n-orthoplexes, a truncated square, t, is an octagon. An alternated square, h, is a digon, the perimeter of a square whose four sides have length ℓ is P =4 ℓ and the area A is A = ℓ2. In classical times, the power was described in terms of the area of a square. This led to the use of the square to mean raising to the second power. The area can also be calculated using the diagonal d according to A = d 22. In terms of the circumradius R, the area of a square is A =2 R2, since the area of the circle is π R2, in terms of the inradius r, the area of the square is A =4 r 2. Because it is a polygon, a square is the quadrilateral of least perimeter enclosing a given area. Dually, a square is the quadrilateral containing the largest area within a given perimeter. Indeed, if A and P are the area and perimeter enclosed by a quadrilateral, then the isoperimetric inequality holds,16 A ≤ P2 with equality if. The diagonals of a square are 2 times the length of a side of the square and this value, known as the square root of 2 or Pythagoras constant, was the first number proven to be irrational. A square can also be defined as a parallelogram with equal diagonals that bisect the angles, if a figure is both a rectangle and a rhombus, then it is a square. If a circle is circumscribed around a square, the area of the circle is π /2 times the area of the square, if a circle is inscribed in the square, the area of the circle is π /4 times the area of the square. A square has an area than any other quadrilateral with the same perimeter
3.
Polygon
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In elementary geometry, a polygon /ˈpɒlɪɡɒn/ is a plane figure that is bounded by a finite chain of straight line segments closing in a loop to form a closed polygonal chain or circuit. These segments are called its edges or sides, and the points where two edges meet are the vertices or corners. The interior of the polygon is called its body. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides, for example, a polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions. The basic geometrical notion of a polygon has been adapted in various ways to suit particular purposes, mathematicians are often concerned only with the bounding closed polygonal chain and with simple polygons which do not self-intersect, and they often define a polygon accordingly. A polygonal boundary may be allowed to intersect itself, creating star polygons and these and other generalizations of polygons are described below. The word polygon derives from the Greek adjective πολύς much, many and it has been suggested that γόνυ knee may be the origin of “gon”. Polygons are primarily classified by the number of sides, Polygons may be characterized by their convexity or type of non-convexity, Convex, any line drawn through the polygon meets its boundary exactly twice. As a consequence, all its interior angles are less than 180°, equivalently, any line segment with endpoints on the boundary passes through only interior points between its endpoints. Non-convex, a line may be found which meets its boundary more than twice, equivalently, there exists a line segment between two boundary points that passes outside the polygon. Simple, the boundary of the polygon does not cross itself, there is at least one interior angle greater than 180°. Star-shaped, the interior is visible from at least one point. The polygon must be simple, and may be convex or concave, self-intersecting, the boundary of the polygon crosses itself. Branko Grünbaum calls these coptic, though this term does not seem to be widely used, star polygon, a polygon which self-intersects in a regular way. A polygon cannot be both a star and star-shaped, equiangular, all corner angles are equal. Cyclic, all lie on a single circle, called the circumcircle. Isogonal or vertex-transitive, all lie within the same symmetry orbit. The polygon is cyclic and equiangular
4.
List of spherical symmetry groups
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Spherical symmetry groups are also called point groups in three dimensions, however, this article is limited to the finite symmetries. There are five fundamental symmetry classes which have triangular fundamental domains, dihedral, cyclic, tetrahedral, octahedral and this article lists the groups by Schoenflies notation, Coxeter notation, orbifold notation, and order. John Conway uses a variation of the Schoenflies notation, based on the groups quaternion algebraic structure, the group order is defined as the subscript, unless the order is doubled for symbols with a plus or minus, ±, prefix, which implies a central inversion. The crystallography groups,32 in total, are a subset with element orders 2,3,4 and 6, there are four involutional groups, no symmetry, reflection symmetry, 2-fold rotational symmetry, and central point symmetry. There are four infinite cyclic symmetry families, with n=2 or higher, there are three infinite dihedral symmetry families, with n as 2 or higher. There are three types of symmetry, tetrahedral symmetry, octahedral symmetry, and icosahedral symmetry, named after the triangle-faced regular polyhedra with these symmetries. Crystallographic point group Triangle group List of planar symmetry groups Point groups in two dimensions Peter R. Cromwell, Polyhedra, Appendix I Sands, Donald E, mineola, New York, Dover Publications, Inc. p.165. Coxeter, edited by F. Arthur Sherk, Peter McMullen, thompson, Asia Ivic Weiss, Wiley-Interscience Publication,1995, ISBN 978-0-471-01003-6 H. S. M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi Regular Polytopes I, H. S. M, Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes II, H. S. M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes III, N. W, johnson, Geometries and Transformations, Chapter 11, Finite symmetry groups Finite spherical symmetry groups Weisstein, Eric W. Schoenflies symbol. Weisstein, Eric W. Crystallographic point groups, simplest Canonical Polyhedra of Each Symmetry Type, by David I
5.
Symmetry group
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In abstract algebra, the symmetry group of an object is the group of all transformations under which the object is invariant with composition as the group operation. For a space with a metric, it is a subgroup of the group of the space concerned. If not stated otherwise, this article considers symmetry groups in Euclidean geometry, the objects may be geometric figures, images, and patterns, such as a wallpaper pattern. The definition can be more precise by specifying what is meant by image or pattern. For symmetry of objects, one may also want to take their physical composition into account. The group of isometries of space induces an action on objects in it. The symmetry group is also called full symmetry group in order to emphasize that it includes the orientation-reversing isometries under which the figure is invariant. The subgroup of orientation-preserving isometries that leave the figure invariant is called its symmetry group. The proper symmetry group of an object is equal to its symmetry group if. The proper symmetry group is then a subgroup of the orthogonal group SO. A discrete symmetry group is a group such that for every point of the space the set of images of the point under the isometries in the symmetry group is a discrete set. There are also continuous symmetry groups, which contain rotations of arbitrarily small angles or translations of arbitrarily small distances, the group of all symmetries of a sphere O is an example of this, and in general such continuous symmetry groups are studied as Lie groups. With a categorization of subgroups of the Euclidean group corresponds a categorization of symmetry groups, for example, two 3D figures have mirror symmetry, but with respect to different mirror planes. Two 3D figures have 3-fold rotational symmetry, but with respect to different axes, two 2D patterns have translational symmetry, each in one direction, the two translation vectors have the same length but a different direction. When considering isometry groups, one may restrict oneself to those where for all points the set of images under the isometries is topologically closed. This includes all discrete isometry groups and also involved in continuous symmetries. A figure with this group is non-drawable and up to arbitrarily fine detail homogeneous. The group generated by all translations, this group cannot be the group of a pattern, it would be homogeneous
6.
Rotation group
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Equivalently, it is the group of n×n orthogonal matrices, where the group operation is given by matrix multiplication, an orthogonal matrix is a real matrix whose inverse equals its transpose. An important subgroup of O is the orthogonal group, denoted SO. This group is called the rotation group, because, in dimensions 2 and 3. In low dimension, these groups have been studied, see SO, SO and SO. This is a subgroup of the linear group GL given by O = where QT is the transpose of Q and I is the identity matrix. This article mainly discusses the groups of quadratic forms that may be expressed over some bases as the dot product, over the reals. Over the reals, for any quadratic form, there is a basis. Thus the orthogonal group depends only on the numbers of 1 and of −1, and is denoted O, for details, see indefinite orthogonal group. The derived subgroup Ω of O is an often studied object because, the Cartan–Dieudonné theorem describes the structure of the orthogonal group for a non-singular form. The determinant of any orthogonal matrix is either 1 or −1, the orthogonal n-by-n matrices with determinant 1 form a normal subgroup of O known as the special orthogonal group SO, consisting of all proper rotations. By analogy with GL–SL, the group is sometimes called the general orthogonal group and denoted GO. The term rotation group can be used to either the special or general orthogonal group. When this distinction is to be emphasized, the groups may be denoted O and O, reserving n for the dimension of the space. The letters p or r are also used, indicating the rank of the corresponding Lie algebra, in odd dimension the corresponding Lie algebra is s o, while in even dimension the Lie algebra is s o. In two dimensions, O is the group of all rotations about the origin and all reflections along a line through the origin, SO is the group of all rotations about the origin. These groups are related, SO is a subgroup of O of index 2. More generally, in any number of dimensions an even number of reflections gives a rotation, therefore, the rotations define a subgroup of O, but the reflections do not define a subgroup. A reflection through the origin may be generated as a combination of one reflection along each of the axes, the reflection through the origin is not a reflection in the usual sense in even dimensions, but rather a rotation
7.
Dual polyhedron
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Such dual figures remain combinatorial or abstract polyhedra, but not all are also geometric polyhedra. Starting with any given polyhedron, the dual of its dual is the original polyhedron, duality preserves the symmetries of a polyhedron. Therefore, for classes of polyhedra defined by their symmetries. Thus, the regular polyhedra – the Platonic solids and Kepler-Poinsot polyhedra – form dual pairs, the dual of an isogonal polyhedron, having equivalent vertices, is one which is isohedral, having equivalent faces. The dual of a polyhedron is also isotoxal. Duality is closely related to reciprocity or polarity, a transformation that. There are many kinds of duality, the kinds most relevant to elementary polyhedra are polar reciprocity and topological or abstract duality. The duality of polyhedra is often defined in terms of polar reciprocation about a concentric sphere. In coordinates, for reciprocation about the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = r 2, the vertex is associated with the plane x 0 x + y 0 y + z 0 z = r 2. The vertices of the dual are the reciprocal to the face planes of the original. Also, any two adjacent vertices define an edge, and these will reciprocate to two adjacent faces which intersect to define an edge of the dual and this dual pair of edges are always orthogonal to each other. If r 0 is the radius of the sphere, and r 1 and r 2 respectively the distances from its centre to the pole and its polar, then, r 1. R2 = r 02 For the more symmetrical polyhedra having an obvious centroid, it is common to make the polyhedron and sphere concentric, the choice of center for the sphere is sufficient to define the dual up to similarity. If multiple symmetry axes are present, they will intersect at a single point. Failing that, a sphere, inscribed sphere, or midsphere is commonly used. If a polyhedron in Euclidean space has an element passing through the center of the sphere, since Euclidean space never reaches infinity, the projective equivalent, called extended Euclidean space, may be formed by adding the required plane at infinity. Some theorists prefer to stick to Euclidean space and say there is no dual. Meanwhile, Wenninger found a way to represent these infinite duals, the concept of duality here is closely related to the duality in projective geometry, where lines and edges are interchanged
8.
Geometry
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Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer, Geometry arose independently in a number of early cultures as a practical way for dealing with lengths, areas, and volumes. Geometry began to see elements of mathematical science emerging in the West as early as the 6th century BC. By the 3rd century BC, geometry was put into a form by Euclid, whose treatment, Euclids Elements. Geometry arose independently in India, with texts providing rules for geometric constructions appearing as early as the 3rd century BC, islamic scientists preserved Greek ideas and expanded on them during the Middle Ages. By the early 17th century, geometry had been put on a solid footing by mathematicians such as René Descartes. Since then, and into modern times, geometry has expanded into non-Euclidean geometry and manifolds, while geometry has evolved significantly throughout the years, there are some general concepts that are more or less fundamental to geometry. These include the concepts of points, lines, planes, surfaces, angles, contemporary geometry has many subfields, Euclidean geometry is geometry in its classical sense. The mandatory educational curriculum of the majority of nations includes the study of points, lines, planes, angles, triangles, congruence, similarity, solid figures, circles, Euclidean geometry also has applications in computer science, crystallography, and various branches of modern mathematics. Differential geometry uses techniques of calculus and linear algebra to problems in geometry. It has applications in physics, including in general relativity, topology is the field concerned with the properties of geometric objects that are unchanged by continuous mappings. In practice, this often means dealing with large-scale properties of spaces, convex geometry investigates convex shapes in the Euclidean space and its more abstract analogues, often using techniques of real analysis. It has close connections to convex analysis, optimization and functional analysis, algebraic geometry studies geometry through the use of multivariate polynomials and other algebraic techniques. It has applications in areas, including cryptography and string theory. Discrete geometry is concerned mainly with questions of relative position of simple objects, such as points. It shares many methods and principles with combinatorics, Geometry has applications to many fields, including art, architecture, physics, as well as to other branches of mathematics. The earliest recorded beginnings of geometry can be traced to ancient Mesopotamia, the earliest known texts on geometry are the Egyptian Rhind Papyrus and Moscow Papyrus, the Babylonian clay tablets such as Plimpton 322. For example, the Moscow Papyrus gives a formula for calculating the volume of a truncated pyramid, later clay tablets demonstrate that Babylonian astronomers implemented trapezoid procedures for computing Jupiters position and motion within time-velocity space
9.
Triangle
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A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices. It is one of the shapes in geometry. A triangle with vertices A, B, and C is denoted △ A B C, in Euclidean geometry any three points, when non-collinear, determine a unique triangle and a unique plane. This article is about triangles in Euclidean geometry except where otherwise noted, triangles can be classified according to the lengths of their sides, An equilateral triangle has all sides the same length. An equilateral triangle is also a polygon with all angles measuring 60°. An isosceles triangle has two sides of equal length, some mathematicians define an isosceles triangle to have exactly two equal sides, whereas others define an isosceles triangle as one with at least two equal sides. The latter definition would make all equilateral triangles isosceles triangles, the 45–45–90 right triangle, which appears in the tetrakis square tiling, is isosceles. A scalene triangle has all its sides of different lengths, equivalently, it has all angles of different measure. Hatch marks, also called tick marks, are used in diagrams of triangles, a side can be marked with a pattern of ticks, short line segments in the form of tally marks, two sides have equal lengths if they are both marked with the same pattern. In a triangle, the pattern is no more than 3 ticks. Similarly, patterns of 1,2, or 3 concentric arcs inside the angles are used to indicate equal angles, triangles can also be classified according to their internal angles, measured here in degrees. A right triangle has one of its interior angles measuring 90°, the side opposite to the right angle is the hypotenuse, the longest side of the triangle. The other two sides are called the legs or catheti of the triangle, special right triangles are right triangles with additional properties that make calculations involving them easier. One of the two most famous is the 3–4–5 right triangle, where 32 +42 =52, in this situation,3,4, and 5 are a Pythagorean triple. The other one is a triangle that has 2 angles that each measure 45 degrees. Triangles that do not have an angle measuring 90° are called oblique triangles, a triangle with all interior angles measuring less than 90° is an acute triangle or acute-angled triangle. If c is the length of the longest side, then a2 + b2 > c2, a triangle with one interior angle measuring more than 90° is an obtuse triangle or obtuse-angled triangle. If c is the length of the longest side, then a2 + b2 < c2, a triangle with an interior angle of 180° is degenerate
10.
Rectangle
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In Euclidean plane geometry, a rectangle is a quadrilateral with four right angles. It can also be defined as a quadrilateral, since equiangular means that all of its angles are equal. It can also be defined as a parallelogram containing a right angle, a rectangle with four sides of equal length is a square. The term oblong is occasionally used to refer to a non-square rectangle, a rectangle with vertices ABCD would be denoted as ABCD. The word rectangle comes from the Latin rectangulus, which is a combination of rectus and angulus, a crossed rectangle is a crossed quadrilateral which consists of two opposite sides of a rectangle along with the two diagonals. It is a case of an antiparallelogram, and its angles are not right angles. Other geometries, such as spherical, elliptic, and hyperbolic, have so-called rectangles with sides equal in length. Rectangles are involved in many tiling problems, such as tiling the plane by rectangles or tiling a rectangle by polygons, a convex quadrilateral with successive sides a, b, c, d whose area is 12. A rectangle is a case of a parallelogram in which each pair of adjacent sides is perpendicular. A parallelogram is a case of a trapezium in which both pairs of opposite sides are parallel and equal in length. A trapezium is a quadrilateral which has at least one pair of parallel opposite sides. A convex quadrilateral is Simple, The boundary does not cross itself, star-shaped, The whole interior is visible from a single point, without crossing any edge. De Villiers defines a more generally as any quadrilateral with axes of symmetry through each pair of opposite sides. This definition includes both right-angled rectangles and crossed rectangles, quadrilaterals with two axes of symmetry, each through a pair of opposite sides, belong to the larger class of quadrilaterals with at least one axis of symmetry through a pair of opposite sides. These quadrilaterals comprise isosceles trapezia and crossed isosceles trapezia, a rectangle is cyclic, all corners lie on a single circle. It is equiangular, all its corner angles are equal and it is isogonal or vertex-transitive, all corners lie within the same symmetry orbit. It has two lines of symmetry and rotational symmetry of order 2. The dual polygon of a rectangle is a rhombus, as shown in the table below, the figure formed by joining, in order, the midpoints of the sides of a rectangle is a rhombus and vice versa
11.
Equilateral triangle
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In geometry, an equilateral triangle is a triangle in which all three sides are equal. In the familiar Euclidean geometry, equilateral triangles are also equiangular and they are regular polygons, and can therefore also be referred to as regular triangles. Thus these are properties that are unique to equilateral triangles, the three medians have equal lengths. The three angle bisectors have equal lengths, every triangle center of an equilateral triangle coincides with its centroid, which implies that the equilateral triangle is the only triangle with no Euler line connecting some of the centers. For some pairs of triangle centers, the fact that they coincide is enough to ensure that the triangle is equilateral, in particular, A triangle is equilateral if any two of the circumcenter, incenter, centroid, or orthocenter coincide. It is also equilateral if its circumcenter coincides with the Nagel point, for any triangle, the three medians partition the triangle into six smaller triangles. A triangle is equilateral if and only if any three of the triangles have either the same perimeter or the same inradius. A triangle is equilateral if and only if the circumcenters of any three of the triangles have the same distance from the centroid. Morleys trisector theorem states that, in any triangle, the three points of intersection of the adjacent angle trisectors form an equilateral triangle, a version of the isoperimetric inequality for triangles states that the triangle of greatest area among all those with a given perimeter is equilateral. That is, PA, PB, and PC satisfy the inequality that any two of them sum to at least as great as the third. By Eulers inequality, the triangle has the smallest ratio R/r of the circumradius to the inradius of any triangle, specifically. The triangle of largest area of all those inscribed in a circle is equilateral. The ratio of the area of the incircle to the area of an equilateral triangle, the ratio of the area to the square of the perimeter of an equilateral triangle,1123, is larger than that for any other triangle. If a segment splits an equilateral triangle into two regions with equal perimeters and with areas A1 and A2, then 79 ≤ A1 A2 ≤97, in no other triangle is there a point for which this ratio is as small as 2. For any point P in the plane, with p, q, and t from the vertices A, B. For any point P on the circle of an equilateral triangle, with distances p, q. There are numerous triangle inequalities that hold with equality if and only if the triangle is equilateral, an equilateral triangle is the most symmetrical triangle, having 3 lines of reflection and rotational symmetry of order 3 about its center. Its symmetry group is the group of order 6 D3
12.
Regular polygons
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In Euclidean geometry, a regular polygon is a polygon that is equiangular and equilateral. Regular polygons may be convex or star, in the limit, a sequence of regular polygons with an increasing number of sides becomes a circle, if the perimeter is fixed, or a regular apeirogon, if the edge length is fixed. These properties apply to all regular polygons, whether convex or star, a regular n-sided polygon has rotational symmetry of order n. All vertices of a regular polygon lie on a common circle and that is, a regular polygon is a cyclic polygon. Together with the property of equal-length sides, this implies that every regular polygon also has a circle or incircle that is tangent to every side at the midpoint. Thus a regular polygon is a tangential polygon, a regular n-sided polygon can be constructed with compass and straightedge if and only if the odd prime factors of n are distinct Fermat primes. The symmetry group of a regular polygon is dihedral group Dn, D2, D3. It consists of the rotations in Cn, together with reflection symmetry in n axes that pass through the center, if n is even then half of these axes pass through two opposite vertices, and the other half through the midpoint of opposite sides. If n is odd then all pass through a vertex. All regular simple polygons are convex and those having the same number of sides are also similar. An n-sided convex regular polygon is denoted by its Schläfli symbol, for n <3 we have two degenerate cases, Monogon, degenerate in ordinary space. Digon, a line segment, degenerate in ordinary space. In certain contexts all the polygons considered will be regular, in such circumstances it is customary to drop the prefix regular. For instance, all the faces of uniform polyhedra must be regular, for n >2 the number of diagonals is n 2, i. e.0,2,5,9. for a triangle, square, pentagon, hexagon. The diagonals divide the polygon into 1,4,11,24, for a regular n-gon inscribed in a unit-radius circle, the product of the distances from a given vertex to all other vertices equals n. For a regular simple n-gon with circumradius R and distances di from a point in the plane to the vertices. For a regular n-gon, the sum of the distances from any interior point to the n sides is n times the apothem. This is a generalization of Vivianis theorem for the n=3 case, the sum of the perpendiculars from a regular n-gons vertices to any line tangent to the circumcircle equals n times the circumradius
13.
Triangular cupola
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In geometry, the triangular cupola is one of the Johnson solids. It can be seen as half a cuboctahedron, a Johnson solid is one of 92 strictly convex polyhedra that have regular faces but are not uniform. They were named by Norman Johnson, who first listed these polyhedra in 1966, the following formulae for the volume and surface area can be used if all faces are regular, with edge length a, V = a 3 ≈1.17851. A2 The dual of the cupola has 6 triangular and 3 kite faces, The triangular cupola can be augmented by 3 square pyramids. This isnt a Johnson solid because of its coplanar faces, merging those coplanar triangles into larger ones, topologically this is another triangular cupola with isosceles trapezoidal side faces. If all the triangles are retained and the hexagon is replaced by 6 triangles. The triangular cupola can form a tessellation of space with square pyramids and/or octahedra, the family of cupolae with regular polygons exists up to n=5, and higher if isosceles triangles are used in the cupolae. Eric W. Weisstein, Triangular cupola at MathWorld
14.
Square cupola
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In geometry, the square cupola, sometimes called lesser dome, is one of the Johnson solids. It can be obtained as a slice of the rhombicuboctahedron, as in all cupolae, the base polygon has twice as many edges and vertices as the top, in this case the base polygon is an octagon. A Johnson solid is one of 92 strictly convex polyhedra that have regular faces but are not uniform and they were named by Norman Johnson, who first listed these polyhedra in 1966. The following formulae for volume, surface area, and circumradius can be used if all faces are regular and it can be obtained as a slice of the nonconvex great rhombicuboctahedron or quasirhombicuboctahedron, analogously to how the square cupola may be obtained as a slice of the rhombicuboctahedron. As in all cupolae, the polygon has twice as many edges and vertices as the top. It may be seen as a cupola with a square base, so that the squares and triangles connect across the bases in the opposite way to the square cupola. Eric W. Weisstein, Square cupola at MathWorld
15.
Pentagonal cupola
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In geometry, the pentagonal cupola is one of the Johnson solids. It can be obtained as a slice of the rhombicosidodecahedron, the pentagonal cupola consists of 5 equilateral triangles,5 squares,1 pentagon, and 1 decagon. A Johnson solid is one of 92 strictly convex polyhedra that have regular faces but are not uniform and they were named by Norman Johnson, who first listed these polyhedra in 1966. The following formulae for volume, surface area and circumradius can be used if all faces are regular, a 3 A = a 2 = a 2 ≈16.5797. As in all cupolae, the polygon has twice as many edges and vertices as the top. Eric W. Weisstein, Pentagonal cupola at MathWorld
16.
Johnson solid
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In geometry, a Johnson solid is a strictly convex polyhedron, which is not uniform, and each face of which is a regular polygon. There is no requirement that each face must be the same polygon, an example of a Johnson solid is the square-based pyramid with equilateral sides, it has 1 square face and 4 triangular faces. As in any strictly convex solid, at least three faces meet at every vertex, and the total of their angles is less than 360 degrees, since a regular polygon has angles at least 60 degrees, it follows that at most five faces meet at any vertex. The pentagonal pyramid is an example that actually has a degree-5 vertex. Although there is no restriction that any given regular polygon cannot be a face of a Johnson solid, it turns out that the faces of Johnson solids always have 3,4,5,6,8. In 1966, Norman Johnson published a list which included all 92 solids and he did not prove that there were only 92, but he did conjecture that there were no others. Victor Zalgaller in 1969 proved that Johnsons list was complete, however, it is not vertex-transitive, as it has different isometry at different vertices, making it a Johnson solid rather than an Archimedean solid. The naming of Johnson Solids follows a flexible & precise descriptive formula, from there, a series of prefixes are attached to the word to indicate additions, rotations and transformations, Bi- indicates that two copies of the solid in question are joined base-to-base. For cupolae and rotundae, the solids can be joined so that like either faces or unlike faces meet, using this nomenclature, an octahedron can be described as a square bipyramid, a cuboctahedron as a triangular gyrobicupola, and an icosidodecahedron as a pentagonal gyrobirotunda. Elongated indicates a prism is joined to the base of the solid in question, a rhombicuboctahedron can thus be described as an elongated square orthobicupola. Gyroelongated indicates an antiprism is joined to the base of the solid in question or between the bases in the case of Bi- solids, an icosahedron can thus be described as a gyroelongated pentagonal bipyramid. Augmented indicates a pyramid or cupola is joined to one or more faces of the solid in question, diminished indicates a pyramid or cupola is removed from one or more faces of the solid in question. Gyrate indicates a cupola mounted on or featured in the solid in question is rotated such that different edges match up, the last three operations — augmentation, diminution, and gyration — can be performed multiple times certain large solids. Bi- & Tri- indicate a double and treble operation respectively, for example, a bigyrate solid has two rotated cupolae, and a tridiminished solid has three removed pyramids or cupolae. In in certain solids, a distinction is made between solids where altered faces are parallel and solids where altered faces are oblique. Para- indicates the former, that the solid in question has altered parallel faces, for example, a parabiaugmented solid has had two parallel faces augmented, and a metabigyrate solid has had 2 oblique faces gyrated. The last few Johnson solids have names based on certain polygon complexes from which they are assembled and these names are defined by Johnson with the following nomenclature, A lune is a complex of two triangles attached to opposite sides of a square. Spheno- indicates a complex formed by two adjacent lunes
17.
Cuboctahedron
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In geometry, a cuboctahedron is a polyhedron with 8 triangular faces and 6 square faces. A cuboctahedron has 12 identical vertices, with 2 triangles and 2 squares meeting at each, as such, it is a quasiregular polyhedron, i. e. an Archimedean solid that is not only vertex-transitive but also edge-transitive. Its dual polyhedron is the rhombic dodecahedron, the cuboctahedron was probably known to Plato, Herons Definitiones quotes Archimedes as saying that Plato knew of a solid made of 8 triangles and 6 squares. Heptaparallelohedron Fuller applied the name Dymaxion to this shape, used in a version of the Dymaxion map. He also called it the Vector Equilibrium and he called a cuboctahedron consisting of rigid struts connected by flexible vertices a jitterbug. With Oh symmetry, order 48, it is a cube or rectified octahedron With Td symmetry, order 24. With D3d symmetry, order 12, it is a triangular gyrobicupola. The area A and the volume V of the cuboctahedron of edge length a are, the cuboctahedron has four special orthogonal projections, centered on a vertex, an edge, and the two types of faces, triangular and square. The last two correspond to the B2 and A2 Coxeter planes, the skew projections show a square and hexagon passing through the center of the cuboctahedron. The cuboctahedron can also be represented as a tiling. This projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths, straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane. The cuboctahedrons 12 vertices can represent the vectors of the simple Lie group A3. With the addition of 6 vertices of the octahedron, these represent the 18 root vectors of the simple Lie group B3. The cuboctahedron can be dissected into two triangular cupolas by a common hexagon passing through the center of the cuboctahedron, if these two triangular cupolas are twisted so triangles and squares line up, Johnson solid J27, the triangular orthobicupola, is created. The cuboctahedron can also be dissected into 6 square pyramids and 8 tetrahedra meeting at a central point and this dissection is expressed in the alternated cubic honeycomb where pairs of square pyramids are combined into octahedra. A cuboctahedron can be obtained by taking a cross section of a four-dimensional 16-cell. Its first stellation is the compound of a cube and its dual octahedron, the cuboctahedron is a rectified cube and also a rectified octahedron. It is also a cantellated tetrahedron, with this construction it is given the Wythoff symbol,33 |2
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Rhombicuboctahedron
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In geometry, the rhombicuboctahedron, or small rhombicuboctahedron, is an Archimedean solid with eight triangular and eighteen square faces. There are 24 identical vertices, with one triangle and three meeting at each. The polyhedron has octahedral symmetry, like the cube and octahedron and its dual is called the deltoidal icositetrahedron or trapezoidal icositetrahedron, although its faces are not really true trapezoids. Johannes Kepler in Harmonices Mundi named this polyhedron a rhombicuboctahedron, being short for truncated cuboctahedral rhombus and this truncation creates new vertices mid-edge to the rhombic dodecahedron, creating rectangular faces inside the original rhombic faces, and new square and triangle faces at the original vertices. The semiregular form here requires the geometry be adjusted so the rectangles become squares and it can also be called an expanded cube or cantellated cube or a cantellated octahedron from truncation operations of the uniform polyhedron. There are distortions of the rhombicuboctahedron that, while some of the faces are not regular polygons, are still vertex-uniform. Some of these can be made by taking a cube or octahedron and cutting off the edges, then trimming the corners, so the resulting polyhedron has six square and twelve rectangular faces. The lines along which a Rubiks Cube can be turned are, projected onto a sphere, similar, topologically identical, in fact, variants using the Rubiks Cube mechanism have been produced which closely resemble the rhombicuboctahedron. The rhombicuboctahedron is used in three uniform space-filling tessellations, the cubic honeycomb, the runcitruncated cubic honeycomb, and the runcinated alternated cubic honeycomb. The rhombicuboctahedron can be dissected into two square cupolae and an octagonal prism. A rotation of one cupola by 45 degrees creates the pseudorhombicuboctahedron, both of these polyhedra have the same vertex figure,3.4.4.4. There are three pairs of parallel planes that each intersect the rhombicuboctahedron in a regular octagon and these pieces can be reassembled to give a new solid called the elongated square gyrobicupola or pseudorhombicuboctahedron, with the symmetry of a square antiprism. The rhombicuboctahedron has six special orthogonal projections, centered, on a vertex, the last two correspond to the B2 and A2 Coxeter planes. The rhombicuboctahedron can also be represented as a tiling. This projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths, straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane. A half symmetry form of the rhombicuboctahedron, exists with pyritohedral symmetry, as Coxeter diagram, Schläfli symbol s2 and this form can be visualized by alternatingly coloring the edges of the 6 squares. These squares can then be distorted into rectangles, while the 8 triangles remain equilateral, the 12 diagonal square faces will become isosceles trapezoids. Cartesian coordinates for the vertices of a rhombicuboctahedron centred at the origin, if the original rhombicuboctahedron has unit edge length, its dual strombic icositetrahedron has edge lengths 2710 −2 and 4 −22
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Rhombicosidodecahedron
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It has 20 regular triangular faces,30 square faces,12 regular pentagonal faces,60 vertices and 120 edges. The name rhombicosidodecahedron refers to the fact that the 30 square faces lie in the planes as the 30 faces of the rhombic triacontahedron which is dual to the icosidodecahedron. It can also be called an expanded or cantellated dodecahedron or icosahedron, therefore, it has the same number of triangles as an icosahedron and the same number of pentagons as a dodecahedron, with a square for each edge of either. The rhombicosidodecahedron shares the vertex arrangement with the stellated truncated dodecahedron. The Zometool kits for making geodesic domes and other polyhedra use slotted balls as connectors, the balls are expanded rhombicosidodecahedra, with the squares replaced by rectangles. The expansion is chosen so that the resulting rectangles are golden rectangles, eight more can be constructed by removing up to three cupolae, sometimes also rotating one or more of the other cupolae. Cartesian coordinates for the vertices of a rhombicosidodecahedron with edge length 2 centered at the origin are all permutations of. The rhombicosidodecahedron has five special orthogonal projections, centered, on a vertex, the last two correspond to the A2 and H2 Coxeter planes. The rhombicosidodecahedron can also be represented as a tiling. This projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths, straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane. This polyhedron is topologically related as a part of a sequence of cantellated polyhedra with vertex figure and these vertex-transitive figures have reflectional symmetry. It also shares its vertex arrangement with the compounds of six or twelve pentagrammic prisms. In the mathematical field of theory, a rhombicosidodecahedral graph is the graph of vertices and edges of the rhombicosidodecahedron. It has 60 vertices and 120 edges, and is a quartic graph Archimedean graph, the Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure, A Source Book of Design. Eric W. Weisstein, Small Rhombicosidodecahedron at MathWorld, 3D convex uniform polyhedra x3o5x - srid
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Prism (geometry)
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In geometry, a prism is a polyhedron comprising an n-sided polygonal base, a second base which is a translated copy of the first, and n other faces joining corresponding sides of the two bases. All cross-sections parallel to the bases are translations of the bases, prisms are named for their bases, so a prism with a pentagonal base is called a pentagonal prism. The prisms are a subclass of the prismatoids, a right prism is a prism in which the joining edges and faces are perpendicular to the base faces. This applies if the faces are rectangular. If the joining edges and faces are not perpendicular to the base faces, for example a parallelepiped is an oblique prism of which the base is a parallelogram, or equivalently a polyhedron with six faces which are all parallelograms. A truncated prism is a prism with nonparallel top and bottom faces, some texts may apply the term rectangular prism or square prism to both a right rectangular-sided prism and a right square-sided prism. A right p-gonal prism with rectangular sides has a Schläfli symbol ×, a right rectangular prism is also called a cuboid, or informally a rectangular box. A right square prism is simply a box, and may also be called a square cuboid. A right rectangular prism has Schläfli symbol ××, an n-prism, having regular polygon ends and rectangular sides, approaches a cylindrical solid as n approaches infinity. The term uniform prism or semiregular prism can be used for a prism with square sides. A uniform p-gonal prism has a Schläfli symbol t, right prisms with regular bases and equal edge lengths form one of the two infinite series of semiregular polyhedra, the other series being the antiprisms. The dual of a prism is a bipyramid. The volume of a prism is the product of the area of the base, the volume is therefore, V = B ⋅ h where B is the base area and h is the height. The volume of a prism whose base is a regular n-sided polygon with side s is therefore. The surface area of a prism is 2 · B + P · h, where B is the area of the base, h the height. The surface area of a prism whose base is a regular n-sided polygon with side length s and height h is therefore. The rotation group is Dn of order 2n, except in the case of a cube, which has the symmetry group O of order 24. The symmetry group Dnh contains inversion iff n is even, a prismatic polytope is a higher-dimensional generalization of a prism
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Regular polygon
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In Euclidean geometry, a regular polygon is a polygon that is equiangular and equilateral. Regular polygons may be convex or star, in the limit, a sequence of regular polygons with an increasing number of sides becomes a circle, if the perimeter is fixed, or a regular apeirogon, if the edge length is fixed. These properties apply to all regular polygons, whether convex or star, a regular n-sided polygon has rotational symmetry of order n. All vertices of a regular polygon lie on a common circle and that is, a regular polygon is a cyclic polygon. Together with the property of equal-length sides, this implies that every regular polygon also has a circle or incircle that is tangent to every side at the midpoint. Thus a regular polygon is a tangential polygon, a regular n-sided polygon can be constructed with compass and straightedge if and only if the odd prime factors of n are distinct Fermat primes. The symmetry group of a regular polygon is dihedral group Dn, D2, D3. It consists of the rotations in Cn, together with reflection symmetry in n axes that pass through the center, if n is even then half of these axes pass through two opposite vertices, and the other half through the midpoint of opposite sides. If n is odd then all pass through a vertex. All regular simple polygons are convex and those having the same number of sides are also similar. An n-sided convex regular polygon is denoted by its Schläfli symbol, for n <3 we have two degenerate cases, Monogon, degenerate in ordinary space. Digon, a line segment, degenerate in ordinary space. In certain contexts all the polygons considered will be regular, in such circumstances it is customary to drop the prefix regular. For instance, all the faces of uniform polyhedra must be regular, for n >2 the number of diagonals is n 2, i. e.0,2,5,9. for a triangle, square, pentagon, hexagon. The diagonals divide the polygon into 1,4,11,24, for a regular n-gon inscribed in a unit-radius circle, the product of the distances from a given vertex to all other vertices equals n. For a regular simple n-gon with circumradius R and distances di from a point in the plane to the vertices. For a regular n-gon, the sum of the distances from any interior point to the n sides is n times the apothem. This is a generalization of Vivianis theorem for the n=3 case, the sum of the perpendiculars from a regular n-gons vertices to any line tangent to the circumcircle equals n times the circumradius
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Truncation (geometry)
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In geometry, a truncation is an operation in any dimension that cuts polytope vertices, creating a new facet in place of each vertex. The term originates from Keplers names for the Archimedean solids, in general any polyhedron can also be truncated with a degree of freedom as to how deep the cut is, as shown in Conway polyhedron notation truncation operation. A special kind of truncation, usually implied, is a uniform truncation, there are no degrees of freedom, and it represents a fixed geometric, just like the regular polyhedra. In general all single ringed uniform polytopes have a uniform truncation, for example, the icosidodecahedron, represented as Schläfli symbols r or, and Coxeter-Dynkin diagram or has a uniform truncation, the truncated icosidodecahedron, represented as tr or t. In the Coxeter-Dynkin diagram, the effect of a truncation is to ring all the adjacent to the ringed node. A truncated n-sided polygon will have 2n sides, a regular polygon uniformly truncated will become another regular polygon, t is. A complete truncation, r, is another regular polygon in its dual position, a regular polygon can also be represented by its Coxeter-Dynkin diagram, and its uniform truncation, and its complete truncation. Star polygons can also be truncated, a truncated pentagram will look like a pentagon, but is actually a double-covered decagon with two sets of overlapping vertices and edges. A truncated great heptagram gives a tetradecagram and this sequence shows an example of the truncation of a cube, using four steps of a continuous truncating process between a full cube and a rectified cube. The final polyhedron is a cuboctahedron, the middle image is the uniform truncated cube. It is represented by a Schläfli symbol t, a bitruncation is a deeper truncation, removing all the original edges, but leaving an interior part of the original faces. The truncated octahedron is a cube, 2t is an example. A complete bitruncation is called a birectification that reduces original faces to points, for polyhedra, this becomes the dual polyhedron. An octahedron is a birectification of the cube, = 2r is an example, another type of truncation is called cantellation, cuts edge and vertices, removing original edges and replacing them with rectangles. Higher dimensional polytopes have higher truncations, runcination cuts faces, edges, in 5-dimensions sterication cuts cells, faces, and edges. Edge-truncation is a beveling or chamfer for polyhedra, similar to cantellation but retains original vertices, in 4-polytopes edge-truncation replaces edges with elongated bipyramid cells. Alternation or partial truncation only removes some of the original vertices, a partial truncation or alternation - Half of the vertices and connecting edges are completely removed. The operation only applies to polytopes with even-sided faces, faces are reduced to half as many sides, and square faces degenerate into edges
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Prismatoid
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In geometry, a prismatoid is a polyhedron whose vertices all lie in two parallel planes. Its lateral faces can be trapezoids or triangles, if both planes have the same number of vertices, and the lateral faces are either parallelograms or trapezoids, it is called a prismoid. For example, in four dimensions, two polyhedra can be placed in two parallel 3-spaces, and connected with polyhedral sides
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Triangular prism
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In geometry, a triangular prism is a three-sided prism, it is a polyhedron made of a triangular base, a translated copy, and 3 faces joining corresponding sides. A right triangular prism has rectangular sides, otherwise it is oblique, a uniform triangular prism is a right triangular prism with equilateral bases, and square sides. Equivalently, it is a polyhedron of which two faces are parallel, while the normals of the other three are in the same plane. All cross-sections parallel to the faces are the same triangle. A right triangular prism is semiregular or, more generally, a uniform if the base faces are equilateral triangles. It can be seen as a truncated trigonal hosohedron, represented by Schläfli symbol t, alternately it can be seen as the Cartesian product of a triangle and a line segment, and represented by the product x. The dual of a prism is a triangular bipyramid. The symmetry group of a right 3-sided prism with triangular base is D3h of order 12, the rotation group is D3 of order 6. The symmetry group does not contain inversion, the volume of any prism is the product of the area of the base and the distance between the two bases. A truncated right triangular prism has one triangular face truncated at an oblique angle, there are two full D2h symmetry facetings of a triangular prism, both with 6 isosceles triangle faces, one keeping the original top and bottom triangles, and one the original squares. Two lower C3v symmetry faceting have one triangle,3 lateral crossed square faces. This polyhedron is topologically related as a part of sequence of uniform truncated polyhedra with vertex configurations and this polyhedron is topologically related as a part of sequence of cantellated polyhedra with vertex figure, and continues as tilings of the hyperbolic plane. These vertex-transitive figures have reflectional symmetry and this polyhedron is topologically related as a part of sequence of cantellated polyhedra with vertex figure, and continues as tilings of the hyperbolic plane. These vertex-transitive figures have reflectional symmetry, there are 4 uniform compounds of triangular prisms, Compound of four triangular prisms, compound of eight triangular prisms, compound of ten triangular prisms, compound of twenty triangular prisms. Each progressive uniform polytope is constructed vertex figure of the previous polytope, thorold Gosset identified this series in 1900 as containing all regular polytope facets, containing all simplexes and orthoplexes. In Coxeters notation the triangular prism is given the symbol −121, the triangular prism exists as cells of a number of four-dimensional uniform 4-polytopes, including, Wedge Weisstein, Eric W. Triangular prism. Interactive Polyhedron, Triangular Prism surface area and volume of a triangular prism
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Rhombitrihexagonal tiling
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In geometry, the rhombitrihexagonal tiling is a semiregular tiling of the Euclidean plane. There are one triangle, two squares, and one hexagon on each vertex and it has Schläfli symbol of rr. John Conway calls it a rhombihexadeltille and it can be considered a cantellated by Norman Johnsons terminology or an expanded hexagonal tiling by Alicia Boole Stotts operational language. There are 3 regular and 8 semiregular tilings in the plane, there is only one uniform coloring in a rhombitrihexagonal tiling. With edge-colorings there is a half symmetry form orbifold notation, the hexagons can be considered as truncated triangles, t with two types of edges. It has Coxeter diagram, Schläfli symbol s2, the bicolored square can be distorted into isosceles trapezoids. In the limit, where the rectangles degenerate into edges, a triangular tiling results, there is one related 2-uniform tilings, having hexagons dissected into 6 triangles. Every circle is in contact with 4 other circles in the packing, the translational lattice domain contains 6 distinct circles. The gap inside each hexagon allows for one circle, related to a 2-uniform tiling with the hexagons divided into 6 triangles, there are eight uniform tilings that can be based from the regular hexagonal tiling. Drawing the tiles colored as red on the faces, yellow at the original vertices. This tiling is related as a part of sequence of cantellated polyhedra with vertex figure. These vertex-transitive figures have reflectional symmetry, the deltoidal trihexagonal tiling is a dual of the semiregular tiling known as the rhombitrihexagonal tiling. The edges of this tiling can be formed by the overlay of the regular triangular tiling. Each kite face of this tiling has angles 120°, 90°, 60° and 90° and it is one of only eight tilings of the plane in which every edge lies on a line of symmetry of the tiling. The deltoidal trihexagonal tiling is a dual of the semiregular tiling rhombitrihexagonal tiling and its faces are deltoids or kites. It is one of 7 dual uniform tilings in hexagonal symmetry and this tiling has face transitive variations, that can distort the kites into bilateral trapezoids or more general quadrillaterals. Ignoring the face colors below, the symmetry is p6m, and the lower symmetry is p31m with 3 mirrors meeting at a point. This tiling is related to the tiling by dividing the triangles and hexagons into central triangles
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Hexagon
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In geometry, a hexagon is a six sided polygon or 6-gon. The total of the angles of any hexagon is 720°. A regular hexagon has Schläfli symbol and can also be constructed as an equilateral triangle, t. A regular hexagon is defined as a hexagon that is both equilateral and equiangular and it is bicentric, meaning that it is both cyclic and tangential. The common length of the sides equals the radius of the circumscribed circle, all internal angles are 120 degrees. A regular hexagon has 6 rotational symmetries and 6 reflection symmetries, the longest diagonals of a regular hexagon, connecting diametrically opposite vertices, are twice the length of one side. Like squares and equilateral triangles, regular hexagons fit together without any gaps to tile the plane, the cells of a beehive honeycomb are hexagonal for this reason and because the shape makes efficient use of space and building materials. The Voronoi diagram of a triangular lattice is the honeycomb tessellation of hexagons. It is not usually considered a triambus, although it is equilateral, the maximal diameter, D is twice the maximal radius or circumradius, R, which equals the side length, t. The minimal diameter or the diameter of the circle, d, is twice the minimal radius or inradius. If a regular hexagon has successive vertices A, B, C, D, E, F, the regular hexagon has Dih6 symmetry, order 12. There are 3 dihedral subgroups, Dih3, Dih2, and Dih1, and 4 cyclic subgroups, Z6, Z3, Z2 and these symmetries express 9 distinct symmetries of a regular hexagon. John Conway labels these by a letter and group order, r12 is full symmetry, and a1 is no symmetry. These two forms are duals of each other and have half the order of the regular hexagon. The i4 forms are regular hexagons flattened or stretched along one symmetry direction and it can be seen as an elongated rhombus, while d2 and p2 can be seen as horizontally and vertically elongated kites. G2 hexagons, with sides parallel are also called hexagonal parallelogons. Each subgroup symmetry allows one or more degrees of freedom for irregular forms, only the g6 subgroup has no degrees of freedom but can seen as directed edges. Hexagons of symmetry g2, i4, and r12, as parallelogons can tessellate the Euclidean plane by translation, other hexagon shapes can tile the plane with different orientations
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Tetracontagon
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In geometry, a tetracontagon or tessaracontagon is a forty-sided polygon or 40-gon. The sum of any tetracontagons interior angles is 6840 degrees, a regular tetracontagon is represented by Schläfli symbol and can also be constructed as a truncated icosagon, t, which alternates two types of edges. Furthermore, it can also be constructed as a twice-truncated decagon, tt, or a thrice-truncated pentagon, one interior angle in a regular tetracontagon is 171°, meaning that one exterior angle would be 9°. The circumradius of a regular tetracontagon is R =12 t csc π40 As 40 =23 ×5, as a truncated icosagon, it can be constructed by an edge-bisection of a regular icosagon. Transfer this on the circumcircle, there arises the intersection C39, connect the point C39 with the central point M, there arises the angle C39MC1 with 72°. Halve the angle C39MC1, there arise the intersection C40 and the angle C40MC1 with 9°, connect the point C1 with the point C40, there arises the first side length a of the tetracontagon. Finally you transfer the segment C1C40 repeatedly counterclockwise on the circumcircle until arises a regular tetracontagon. The golden ratio H M ¯ B H ¯ = B M ¯ H M ¯ =1 +52 = φ ≈1.618 Draw a segment AB whose length is the side length a of the tetracontagon. Extend the segment AB by more than two times, Draw each a circular arc about the points A and B, there arise the intersections C and D. Draw a vertical line from point C through point D. Draw a parallel line too the segment CD from the point B to the circular arc, Draw a circle arc about the point E with the radius EF till to the extension of the side length, there arises the intersection G. Draw a circle arc about the point A with the radius AG till to the straight line, there arises the intersection H. Draw a circle arc about the point H with radius AH till to the straight line, there arises the intersection I. Draw a circle arc about the point I with radius AI till to the straight line, there arises the central point O of the circumcircle. Draw around the central point O with radius AO the circumcircle of the tetracontagon, finally transfer the segment AB repeatedly counterclockwise on the circumcircle until to arises a regular tetracontagon. The golden ratio A B ¯ B G ¯ = A G ¯ A B ¯ =1 +52 = φ ≈1.618 The regular tetracontagon has Dih40 dihedral symmetry, order 80, Dih40 has 7 dihedral subgroups, and. It also has eight more cyclic symmetries as subgroups, and, john Conway labels these lower symmetries with a letter and order of the symmetry follows the letter. He gives d with mirror lines through vertices, p with mirror lines through edges and these lower symmetries allows degrees of freedoms in defining irregular tetracontagons
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Octacontagon
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In geometry, an octacontagon is an eighty-sided polygon. The sum of any octacontagons interior angles is 14040 degrees, one interior angle in a regular octacontagon is 175 1⁄2°, meaning that one exterior angle would be 4 1⁄2°. As a truncated tetracontagon, it can be constructed by an edge-bisection of a regular tetracontagon, dih40 has 9 dihedral subgroups, and. It also has 10 more cyclic symmetries as subgroups, and, john Conway labels these lower symmetries with a letter and order of the symmetry follows the letter. R160 represents full symmetry and a1 labels no symmetry and he gives d with mirror lines through vertices, p with mirror lines through edges, i with mirror lines through both vertices and edges, and g for rotational symmetry. These lower symmetries allows degrees of freedoms in defining irregular octacontagons, only the g80 subgroup has no degrees of freedom but can seen as directed edges. An octacontagram is an 80-sided star polygon, there are 15 regular forms given by Schläfli symbols, and, as well as 24 regular star figures with the same vertex configuration
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Star-cupola
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In geometry, a cupola is a solid formed by joining two polygons, one with twice as many edges as the other, by an alternating band of isosceles triangles and rectangles. A cupola can be seen as a prism where one of the polygons has been collapsed in half by merging alternate vertices, a cupola can be given an extended Schläfli symbol || t, representing a regular polygon joined by a parallel of its truncation, t or. Cupolae are a subclass of the prismatoids, however, cupolae of higher-degree polygons may be constructed with irregular triangular and rectangular faces. The definition of the cupola does not require the base to be a regular polygon, but it is convenient to consider the case where the cupola has its maximal symmetry, Cnv. In that case, the top is a regular n-gon, while the base is either a regular 2n-gon or a 2n-gon which has two different side lengths alternating and the same angles as a regular 2n-gon. It is convenient to fix the system so that the base lies in the xy-plane. The z-axis is the axis, and the mirror planes pass through the z-axis. They also either bisect the sides or the angles of the top polygon, the vertices of the base can be designated V1 through V2n, while the vertices of the top polygon can be designated V2n+1 through V3n. With these conventions, the coordinates of the vertices can be written as, V2j−1, V2j, V2n+j, since the polygons V1V2V2n+2V2n+1, etc. are rectangles, this puts a constraint on the values of rb, rt, and α. The distance V1V2 is equal to rb 1⁄2 = rb 1⁄2 = rb 1⁄2 = rb 1⁄2 while the distance V2n+1V2n+2 is equal to rt 1⁄2 = rt 1⁄2 = rt 1⁄2. These are to be equal, and if this common edge is denoted by s, star cupolae exist for all bases where 6/5 < n/d <6 and d is odd. At the limits the cupolae collapse into plane figures, beyond the limits the triangles and squares can no longer span the distance between the two polygons. When d is even, the base becomes degenerate, we can form a cuploid or semicupola by withdrawing this degenerate face. In particular, the tetrahemihexahedron may be seen as a -cuploid, the cupolae are all orientable, while the cuploids are all nonorientable. When n/d >2 in a cuploid, the triangles and squares do not cover the base. Hence the and cuploids pictured above have membranes, while the, the height h of an -cupola or cuploid is given by the formula h =1 −14 sin 2 . In particular, h =0 at the limits of n/d =6 and n/d = 6/5, the cuploids have the base n/d-gon red, the squares yellow, and the triangles blue, as the other base has been withdrawn. The hypercupolae or polyhedral cupolae are a family of convex nonuniform polychora, each ones bases are a Platonic solid and its expansion
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Crossed square cupola
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In geometry, the crossed square cupola is one of the nonconvex Johnson solid isomorphs, being topologically identical to the convex square cupola. It can be obtained as a slice of the nonconvex great rhombicuboctahedron or quasirhombicuboctahedron, as in all cupolae, the base polygon has twice as many edges and vertices as the top, in this case the base polygon is an octagram. It may be seen as a cupola with a square base, so that the squares and triangles connect across the bases in the opposite way to the square cupola. The crossed square cupola may be seen as a part of uniform polyhedra. Rotating one of the cupolae in this results in the pseudo-great rhombicuboctahedron. To this may be added the great rhombihexahedron, as the exclusive or of all three of these octagrammic prisms which may be used to construct the nonconvex great rhombicuboctahedron. The pictures below show the excavation of the prism with crossed square cupolae taking place one step at a time. The crossed square cupolae are always red, while the sides of the octagrammic prism are in the other colours. All images are oriented approximately the same way for clarity and this also occurs for the dual uniform polyhedra known as the great pentakis dodecahedron and medial inverted pentagonal hexecontahedron. Jim McNeill, Cupola OR Semicupola Jim McNeill, Relation of Cupolas to Uniform Polyhedra Paper model of this polyhedron by Robert Webb
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Tetrahemihexahedron
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In geometry, the tetrahemihexahedron or hemicuboctahedron is a uniform star polyhedron, indexed as U4. It has six vertices,12 edges, and seven faces, four triangular and its vertex figure is a crossed quadrilateral. It is the only uniform polyhedron with an odd number of faces. Its Wythoff symbol is 3/23 |2, but that represents a double covering of the tetrahemihexahedron with eight triangles and six squares, paired, hemi faces are also oriented in the same direction as the regular polyhedrons faces. The three square faces of the tetrahemihexahedron are, like the three orientations of the cube, mutually perpendicular. The half-as-many characteristic also means that hemi faces must pass through the center of the polyhedron, visually, each square is divided into four right triangles, with two visible from each side. It is the three-dimensional demicross polytope and it has the same vertices and edges as the regular octahedron. It also shares 4 of the 8 triangular faces of the octahedron, the dual figure is the tetrahemihexacron. It is 2-covered by the cuboctahedron, which accordingly has the same vertex figure and twice the vertices, edges. It has the topology as the abstract polyhedron hemi-cuboctahedron. It may also be constructed as a crossed triangular cuploid, being a version of the -cupola by its -gonal base. The tetrahemihexacron is the dual of the tetrahemihexahedron, and is one of nine dual hemipolyhedra, since the hemipolyhedra have faces passing through the center, the dual figures have corresponding vertices at infinity, properly, on the real projective plane at infinity. In Magnus Wenningers Dual Models, they are represented with intersecting prisms, in practice the model prisms are cut off at a certain point that is convenient for the maker. Wenninger suggested these figures are members of a new class of stellation figures, however, he also suggested that strictly speaking they are not polyhedra because their construction does not conform to the usual definitions. Topologically it is considered to contain seven vertices, the three vertices considered at infinity correspond directionally to the three vertices of the hemi-octahedron, an abstract polyhedron. The other four vertices exist at alternate corners of a central cube, Eric W. Weisstein, Tetrahemihexahedron at MathWorld. Uniform polyhedra and duals Weisstein, Eric W. Tetrahemihexacron, paper model Great Stella, software used to create main image on this page
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Pentagrammic cuploid
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In geometry, the pentagrammic cupoloid or pentagrammmic semicupola is the simplest of the infinite family of cuploids. It can be obtained as a slice of the small complex rhombicosidodecahedron, as in all cupolae, the base polygon has twice as many edges and vertices as the top, but in this case the base polygon is a degenerate decagram, as the top is a pentagram. Hence, the base is withdrawn and the triangles are connected to the squares instead. As this pentagrammic cuploid thus shares all its edges with this polyhedron, as 5/2 >2, the triangles and squares do not fully cover the bottom of the pentagrammic cuploid, and hence the centre of the pentagrammic base is accessible from both sides and covers no space. It has been conjectured that a polyhedron with 10 faces or less cannot have a membrane, the pentagrammic cuploid has 11 faces
33.
Crossed pentagonal cuploid
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In geometry, the crossed pentagonal cupoloid or crossed pentagonal semicupola is one member of the infinite family of cuploids. It can be obtained as a slice of the great complex rhombicosidodecahedron, as in all cupolae, the base polygon has twice as many edges and vertices as the top, but in this case the base polygon is a degenerate decagram, as the top is a pentagon. Hence, the base is withdrawn and the triangles are connected to the squares instead. It may be seen as a cupola with a pentagonal base, so that the squares and triangles connect across the bases in the opposite way to the pentagonal cupola. As this crossed pentagonal cuploid thus shares all its edges with this polyhedron, as 5/4 <2, the crossed pentagonal cuploid does not have a membrane like the pentagrammic cuploid does
34.
Orientability
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In mathematics, orientability is a property of surfaces in Euclidean space that measures whether it is possible to make a consistent choice of surface normal vector at every point. A choice of surface normal allows one to use the rule to define a clockwise direction of loops in the surface. More generally, orientability of a surface, or manifold. Equivalently, a surface is orientable if a figure such as in the space cannot be moved around the space. The notion of orientability can be generalised to higher-dimensional manifolds as well, a manifold is orientable if it has a consistent choice of orientation, and a connected orientable manifold has exactly two different possible orientations. In this setting, various equivalent formulations of orientability can be given, depending on the desired application and level of generality. A surface S in the Euclidean space R3 is orientable if a two-dimensional figure cannot be moved around the surface, an abstract surface is orientable if a consistent concept of clockwise rotation can be defined on the surface in a continuous manner. That is to say that a loop going around one way on the surface can never be continuously deformed to a loop going around the opposite way and this turns out to be equivalent to the question of whether the surface contains no subset that is homeomorphic to the Möbius strip. Thus, for surfaces, the Möbius strip may be considered the source of all non-orientability, for an orientable surface, a consistent choice of clockwise is called an orientation, and the surface is called oriented. For surfaces embedded in Euclidean space, an orientation is specified by the choice of a continuously varying surface normal n at every point, If such a normal exists at all, then there are always two ways to select it, n or −n. More generally, an orientable surface admits exactly two orientations, and the distinction between a surface and an orientable surface is subtle and frequently blurred. Examples Most surfaces we encounter in the world are orientable. Spheres, planes, and tori are orientable, for example, but Möbius strips, real projective planes, and Klein bottles are non-orientable. They, as visualized in 3-dimensions, all have just one side, the real projective plane and Klein bottle cannot be embedded in R3, only immersed with nice intersections. Note that locally an embedded surface always has two sides, so a near-sighted ant crawling on a surface would think there is an other side. The essence of one-sidedness is that the ant can crawl from one side of the surface to the other going through the surface or flipping over an edge. In general, the property of being orientable is not equivalent to being two-sided, however, this holds when the ambient space is orientable. For example, a torus embedded in K2 × S1 can be one-sided, Orientation by triangulation Any surface has a triangulation, a decomposition into triangles such that each edge on a triangle is glued to at most one other edge
35.
Snub hexagonal tiling
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In geometry, the snub hexagonal tiling is a semiregular tiling of the Euclidean plane. There are four triangles and one hexagon on each vertex and it has Schläfli symbol of sr. The snub tetrahexagonal tiling is a hyperbolic tiling with Schläfli symbol sr. Conway calls it a snub hextille. There are 3 regular and 8 semiregular tilings in the plane and this is the only one which does not have a reflection as a symmetry. There is only one uniform coloring of a trihexagonal tiling. The snub trihexagonal tiling can be used as a packing, placing equal diameter circles at the center of every point. Every circle is in contact with 5 other circles in the packing, the lattice domain repeats 6 distinct circles. The hexagonal gaps can be filled by one circle, leading to the densest packing from the triangular tiling#circle packing. This semiregular tiling is a member of a sequence of snubbed polyhedra and tilings with vertex figure and these figures and their duals have rotational symmetry, being in the Euclidean plane for n=6, and hyperbolic plane for any higher n. The series can be considered to begin with n=2, with one set of faces degenerated into digons, in geometry, the floret pentagonal tiling or rosette pentagonal tiling is a dual semiregular tiling of the Euclidean plane. It is one of 15 known isohedral pentagon tilings and it is given its name because its six pentagonal tiles radiate out from a central point, like petals on a flower. Conway calls it a 6-fold pentille, each of its pentagonal faces has four 120° and one 60° angle. It is the dual of the tiling, snub trihexagonal tiling. The floret pentagonal tiling has geometric variations with unequal edge lengths and rotational symmetry, in one limit, an edge-length goes to zero and it becomes a deltoidal trihexagonal tiling. Tilings of regular polygons List of uniform tilings John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strass, The Symmetries of Things 2008, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 Grünbaum, Branko, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Williams, Robert. The Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure, A Source Book of Design, 2D Euclidean tilings s3s6s - snathat - O11
36.
Collinearity
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In geometry, collinearity of a set of points is the property of their lying on a single line. A set of points with this property is said to be collinear, in greater generality, the term has been used for aligned objects, that is, things being in a line or in a row. In any geometry, the set of points on a line are said to be collinear, in Euclidean geometry this relation is intuitively visualized by points lying in a row on a straight line. However, in most geometries a line is typically an object type. For instance, in geometry, where lines are represented in the standard model by great circles of a sphere. Such points do not lie on a line in the Euclidean sense. A mapping of a geometry to itself which sends lines to lines is called a collineation, the linear maps of vector spaces, viewed as geometric maps, map lines to lines, that is, they map collinear point sets to collinear point sets and so, are collineations. In projective geometry these linear mappings are called homographies and are just one type of collineation, the de Longchamps point also has other collinearities. Any vertex, the tangency of the side with an excircle. Any vertex, the tangency of the side with the incircle. From any point on the circumcircle of a triangle, the nearest points on each of the three extended sides of the triangle are collinear in the Simson line of the point on the circumcircle, the lines connecting the feet of the altitudes intersect the opposite sides at collinear points. A triangles incenter, the midpoint of an altitude, and the point of contact of the side with the excircle relative to that side are collinear. The incenter, the centroid, and the Spieker circles center are collinear, the circumcenter, the Brocard midpoint, and the Lemoine point of a triangle are collinear. Two perpendicular lines intersecting at the orthocenter of a triangle intersect each of the triangles extended sides. The midpoints on the three sides of these points of intersection are collinear in the Droz–Farny line. In a convex quadrilateral ABCD whose opposite sides intersect at E and F, the midpoints of AC, BD, and EF are collinear, if the quadrilateral is a tangential quadrilateral, then its incenter also lies on this line. In a convex quadrilateral, the quasiorthocenter H, the area centroid G, and the quasicircumcenter O are collinear in this order, other collinearities of a tangential quadrilateral are given in Tangential quadrilateral#Collinear points. In a cyclic quadrilateral, the circumcenter, the centroid
37.
Platonic solid
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In three-dimensional space, a Platonic solid is a regular, convex polyhedron. It is constructed by congruent regular polygonal faces with the number of faces meeting at each vertex. Five solids meet those criteria, Geometers have studied the mathematical beauty and they are named for the ancient Greek philosopher Plato who theorized in his dialogue, the Timaeus, that the classical elements were made of these regular solids. The Platonic solids have been known since antiquity, dice go back to the dawn of civilization with shapes that predated formal charting of Platonic solids. The ancient Greeks studied the Platonic solids extensively, some sources credit Pythagoras with their discovery. In any case, Theaetetus gave a description of all five. The Platonic solids are prominent in the philosophy of Plato, their namesake, Plato wrote about them in the dialogue Timaeus c.360 B. C. in which he associated each of the four classical elements with a regular solid. Earth was associated with the cube, air with the octahedron, water with the icosahedron, there was intuitive justification for these associations, the heat of fire feels sharp and stabbing. Air is made of the octahedron, its components are so smooth that one can barely feel it. Water, the icosahedron, flows out of hand when picked up. By contrast, a highly nonspherical solid, the hexahedron represents earth and these clumsy little solids cause dirt to crumble and break when picked up in stark difference to the smooth flow of water. Moreover, the cubes being the regular solid that tessellates Euclidean space was believed to cause the solidity of the Earth. Of the fifth Platonic solid, the dodecahedron, Plato obscurely remarks. the god used for arranging the constellations on the whole heaven. Aristotle added an element, aithēr and postulated that the heavens were made of this element. Euclid completely mathematically described the Platonic solids in the Elements, the last book of which is devoted to their properties, propositions 13–17 in Book XIII describe the construction of the tetrahedron, octahedron, cube, icosahedron, and dodecahedron in that order. For each solid Euclid finds the ratio of the diameter of the sphere to the edge length. In Proposition 18 he argues there are no further convex regular polyhedra. Andreas Speiser has advocated the view that the construction of the 5 regular solids is the goal of the deductive system canonized in the Elements
38.
Expansion (geometry)
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In geometry, expansion is a polytope operation where facets are separated and moved radially apart, and new facets are formed at separated elements. Equivalently this operation can be imagined by keeping facets in the same position, the expansion of a regular polytope creates a uniform polytope, but the operation can be applied to any convex polytope, as demonstrated for polyhedra in Conway polyhedron notation. For polyhedra, a polyhedron has all the faces of the original polyhedron, all the faces of the dual polyhedron. According to Coxeter, this term was defined by Alicia Boole Stott for creating new polytopes. The expansion operation is symmetric with respect to a regular polytope, the resulting figure contains the facets of both the regular and its dual, along with various prismatic facets filling the gaps created between intermediate dimensional elements. It has somewhat different meanings by dimension, in a Wythoff construction, an expansion is generated by reflections from the first and last mirrors. In higher dimensions, lower dimensional expansions can be written with a subscript, by dimension, A regular polygon expands into a regular 2n-gon. The operation is identical to truncation for polygons, e = e1 = t0,1 = t and has Coxeter-Dynkin diagram, a regular polyhedron expands into a polyhedron with vertex figure p.4. q.4. This operation for polyhedra is also called cantellation, e = e2 = t0,2 = rr, for example, a rhombicuboctahedron can be called an expanded cube, expanded octahedron, as well as a cantellated cube or cantellated octahedron. This operation for 4-polytopes is also called runcination, e = e3 = t0,3, similarly a regular 5-polytope expands into a new 5-polytope with facets, × prisms, × prisms, and × duoprisms. This operation is called sterication, e = e4 = t0,4 = 2r2r and has Coxeter diagram, the general operator for expansion of a regular n-polytope is t0, n-1. New regular facets are added at each vertex, and new prismatic polytopes are added at each divided edge, ridge, etc. Conway polyhedron notation Weisstein, Eric W. Expansion. Coxeter, H. S. M. Regular Polytopes, norman Johnson Uniform Polytopes, Manuscript N. W. Johnson, The Theory of Uniform Polytopes and Honeycombs, Ph. D
39.
Circumradius
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In geometry, the circumscribed circle or circumcircle of a polygon is a circle which passes through all the vertices of the polygon. The center of circle is called the circumcenter and its radius is called the circumradius. A polygon which has a circle is called a cyclic polygon. All regular simple polygons, all isosceles trapezoids, all triangles, a related notion is the one of a minimum bounding circle, which is the smallest circle that completely contains the polygon within it. All triangles are cyclic, i. e. every triangle has a circumscribed circle and this can be proven on the grounds that the general equation for a circle with center and radius r in the Cartesian coordinate system is 2 +2 = r 2. Since this equation has three parameters only three points coordinate pairs are required to determine the equation of a circle, since a triangle is defined by its three vertices, and exactly three points are required to determine a circle, every triangle can be circumscribed. The circumcenter of a triangle can be constructed by drawing any two of the three perpendicular bisectors, the center is the point where the perpendicular bisectors intersect, and the radius is the length to any of the three vertices. This is because the circumcenter is equidistant from any pair of the triangles vertices, in coastal navigation, a triangles circumcircle is sometimes used as a way of obtaining a position line using a sextant when no compass is available. The horizontal angle between two landmarks defines the circumcircle upon which the observer lies, in the Euclidean plane, it is possible to give explicitly an equation of the circumcircle in terms of the Cartesian coordinates of the vertices of the inscribed triangle. Suppose that A = B = C = are the coordinates of points A, B, using the polarization identity, these equations reduce to the condition that the matrix has a nonzero kernel. Thus the circumcircle may alternatively be described as the locus of zeros of the determinant of this matrix, a similar approach allows one to deduce the equation of the circumsphere of a tetrahedron. A unit vector perpendicular to the containing the circle is given by n ^ = × | × |. An equation for the circumcircle in trilinear coordinates x, y, z is a/x + b/y + c/z =0, an equation for the circumcircle in barycentric coordinates x, y, z is a2/x + b2/y + c2/z =0. The isogonal conjugate of the circumcircle is the line at infinity, given in coordinates by ax + by + cz =0. Additionally, the circumcircle of a triangle embedded in d dimensions can be using a generalized method. Let A, B, and C be d-dimensional points, which form the vertices of a triangle and we start by transposing the system to place C at the origin, a = A − C, b = B − C. The circumcenter, p0, is given by p 0 = ×2 ∥ a × b ∥2 + C, the Cartesian coordinates of the circumcenter are U x =1 D U y =1 D with D =2. Without loss of generality this can be expressed in a form after translation of the vertex A to the origin of the Cartesian coordinate systems
40.
Square
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In geometry, a square is a regular quadrilateral, which means that it has four equal sides and four equal angles. It can also be defined as a rectangle in which two adjacent sides have equal length, a square with vertices ABCD would be denoted ◻ ABCD. e. A rhombus with equal diagonals a convex quadrilateral with sides a, b, c, d whose area is A =12 =12. Opposite sides of a square are both parallel and equal in length, all four angles of a square are equal. All four sides of a square are equal, the diagonals of a square are equal. The square is the n=2 case of the families of n-hypercubes and n-orthoplexes, a truncated square, t, is an octagon. An alternated square, h, is a digon, the perimeter of a square whose four sides have length ℓ is P =4 ℓ and the area A is A = ℓ2. In classical times, the power was described in terms of the area of a square. This led to the use of the square to mean raising to the second power. The area can also be calculated using the diagonal d according to A = d 22. In terms of the circumradius R, the area of a square is A =2 R2, since the area of the circle is π R2, in terms of the inradius r, the area of the square is A =4 r 2. Because it is a polygon, a square is the quadrilateral of least perimeter enclosing a given area. Dually, a square is the quadrilateral containing the largest area within a given perimeter. Indeed, if A and P are the area and perimeter enclosed by a quadrilateral, then the isoperimetric inequality holds,16 A ≤ P2 with equality if. The diagonals of a square are 2 times the length of a side of the square and this value, known as the square root of 2 or Pythagoras constant, was the first number proven to be irrational. A square can also be defined as a parallelogram with equal diagonals that bisect the angles, if a figure is both a rectangle and a rhombus, then it is a square. If a circle is circumscribed around a square, the area of the circle is π /2 times the area of the square, if a circle is inscribed in the square, the area of the circle is π /4 times the area of the square. A square has an area than any other quadrilateral with the same perimeter
41.
Tetrahedron
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In geometry, a tetrahedron, also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners. The tetrahedron is the simplest of all the ordinary convex polyhedra, the tetrahedron is the three-dimensional case of the more general concept of a Euclidean simplex. The tetrahedron is one kind of pyramid, which is a polyhedron with a polygon base. In the case of a tetrahedron the base is a triangle, like all convex polyhedra, a tetrahedron can be folded from a single sheet of paper. For any tetrahedron there exists a sphere on which all four vertices lie, a regular tetrahedron is one in which all four faces are equilateral triangles. It is one of the five regular Platonic solids, which have known since antiquity. In a regular tetrahedron, not only are all its faces the same size and shape, regular tetrahedra alone do not tessellate, but if alternated with regular octahedra they form the alternated cubic honeycomb, which is a tessellation. The regular tetrahedron is self-dual, which means that its dual is another regular tetrahedron, the compound figure comprising two such dual tetrahedra form a stellated octahedron or stella octangula. This form has Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbol h, the tetrahedron in this case has edge length 2√2. Inverting these coordinates generates the dual tetrahedron, and the together form the stellated octahedron. In other words, if C is the centroid of the base and this follows from the fact that the medians of a triangle intersect at its centroid, and this point divides each of them in two segments, one of which is twice as long as the other. The vertices of a cube can be grouped into two groups of four, each forming a regular tetrahedron, the symmetries of a regular tetrahedron correspond to half of those of a cube, those that map the tetrahedra to themselves, and not to each other. The tetrahedron is the only Platonic solid that is not mapped to itself by point inversion, the regular tetrahedron has 24 isometries, forming the symmetry group Td, isomorphic to the symmetric group, S4. The first corresponds to the A2 Coxeter plane, the two skew perpendicular opposite edges of a regular tetrahedron define a set of parallel planes. When one of these intersects the tetrahedron the resulting cross section is a rectangle. When the intersecting plane is one of the edges the rectangle is long. When halfway between the two edges the intersection is a square, the aspect ratio of the rectangle reverses as you pass this halfway point. For the midpoint square intersection the resulting boundary line traverses every face of the tetrahedron similarly, if the tetrahedron is bisected on this plane, both halves become wedges
42.
Triangular pyramid
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In geometry, a pyramid is a polyhedron formed by connecting a polygonal base and a point, called the apex. Each base edge and apex form a triangle, called a lateral face and it is a conic solid with polygonal base. A pyramid with a base has n +1 vertices, n +1 faces. A right pyramid has its apex directly above the centroid of its base, nonright pyramids are called oblique pyramids. A regular pyramid has a polygon base and is usually implied to be a right pyramid. When unspecified, a pyramid is usually assumed to be a square pyramid. A triangle-based pyramid is often called a tetrahedron. Among oblique pyramids, like acute and obtuse triangles, a pyramid can be called if its apex is above the interior of the base and obtuse if its apex is above the exterior of the base. A right-angled pyramid has its apex above an edge or vertex of the base, in a tetrahedron these qualifiers change based on which face is considered the base. Pyramids are a subclass of the prismatoids, pyramids can be doubled into bipyramids by adding a second offset point on the other side of the base plane. A right pyramid with a base has isosceles triangle sides, with symmetry is Cnv or. It can be given an extended Schläfli symbol ∨, representing a point, a join operation creates a new edge between all pairs of vertices of the two joined figures. The trigonal or triangular pyramid with all equilateral triangles faces becomes the regular tetrahedron, a lower symmetry case of the triangular pyramid is C3v, which has an equilateral triangle base, and 3 identical isosceles triangle sides. The square and pentagonal pyramids can also be composed of convex polygons. Right pyramids with regular star polygon bases are called star pyramids, for example, the pentagrammic pyramid has a pentagram base and 5 intersecting triangle sides. A right pyramid can be named as ∨P, where is the point, ∨ is a join operator. It has C1v symmetry from two different base-apex orientations, and C2v in its full symmetry, a rectangular right pyramid, written as ∨, and a rhombic pyramid, as ∨, both have symmetry C2v. The volume of a pyramid is V =13 b h and this works for any polygon, regular or non-regular, and any location of the apex, provided that h is measured as the perpendicular distance from the plane containing the base
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Cube
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Beryllium copper, also known as copper beryllium, beryllium bronze and spring copper, is a copper alloy with 0. 5—3% beryllium and sometimes other elements. Beryllium copper combines high strength with non-magnetic and non-sparking qualities and it has excellent metalworking, forming and machining properties. It has many specialized applications in tools for hazardous environments, musical instruments, precision measurement devices, bullets, beryllium alloys present a toxic inhalation hazard during manufacture. Beryllium copper is a ductile, weldable, and machinable alloy and it is resistant to non-oxidizing acids, to plastic decomposition products, to abrasive wear, and to galling. It can be heat-treated for increased strength, durability, and electrical conductivity, beryllium copper attains the greatest strength of any copper-based alloy. In solid form and as finished objects, beryllium copper presents no known health hazard, however, inhalation of dust, mist, or fume containing beryllium can cause the serious lung condition, chronic beryllium disease. That disease affects primarily the lungs, restricting the exchange of oxygen between the lungs and the bloodstream, the International Agency for Research on Cancer lists beryllium as a Group 1 Human Carcinogen. The National Toxicology Program also lists beryllium as a carcinogen, beryllium copper is a non-ferrous alloy used in springs, spring wire, load cells, and other parts that must retain their shape under repeated stress and strain. It has high electrical conductivity, and is used in low-current contacts for batteries, beryllium copper is non-sparking but physically tough and nonmagnetic, fulfilling the requirements of ATEX directive for Zones 0,1, and 2. Beryllium copper screwdrivers, pliers, wrenches, cold chisels, knives, and hammers are available for environments with explosive hazards, such oil rigs, coal mines, an alternative metal sometimes used for non-sparking tools is aluminium bronze. Compared to steel tools, beryllium copper tools are more expensive, not as strong, and less durable, beryllium copper is frequently used for percussion instruments for its consistent tone and resonance, especially tambourines and triangles. Beryllium copper has been used for armour piercing bullets, though usage is unusual because bullets made from steel alloys are much less expensive and have similar properties. Beryllium copper is used for measurement-while-drilling tools in the drilling industry. A non-magnetic alloy is required, as magnetometers are used for field-strength data received from the tool, beryllium copper gaskets are used to create an RF-tight, electronic seal on doors used with EMC testing and anechoic chambers. For a time, beryllium copper was used in the manufacture of clubs, particularly wedges. Though some golfers prefer the feel of BeCu club heads, regulatory issues, kiefer Plating of Elkhart, Indiana built some beryllium-copper trumpet bells for the Schilke Music Co. of Chicago. These light-weight bells produce a sound preferred by some musicians, beryllium copper wire is produced in many forms, round, square, flat and shaped, in coils, on spools and in straight lengths. Beryllium copper valve seats and guides are used in high performance engines with coated titanium valves
44.
Octahedron
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In geometry, an octahedron is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices. A regular octahedron is a Platonic solid composed of eight equilateral triangles, a regular octahedron is the dual polyhedron of a cube. It is a square bipyramid in any of three orthogonal orientations and it is also a triangular antiprism in any of four orientations. An octahedron is the case of the more general concept of a cross polytope. A regular octahedron is a 3-ball in the Manhattan metric, the second and third correspond to the B2 and A2 Coxeter planes. The octahedron can also be represented as a tiling. This projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths, straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane. An octahedron with edge length √2 can be placed with its center at the origin and its vertices on the coordinate axes, the Cartesian coordinates of the vertices are then. In an x–y–z Cartesian coordinate system, the octahedron with center coordinates, additionally the inertia tensor of the stretched octahedron is I =. These reduce to the equations for the regular octahedron when x m = y m = z m = a 22, the interior of the compound of two dual tetrahedra is an octahedron, and this compound, called the stella octangula, is its first and only stellation. Correspondingly, an octahedron is the result of cutting off from a regular tetrahedron. One can also divide the edges of an octahedron in the ratio of the mean to define the vertices of an icosahedron. There are five octahedra that define any given icosahedron in this fashion, octahedra and tetrahedra can be alternated to form a vertex, edge, and face-uniform tessellation of space, called the octet truss by Buckminster Fuller. This is the only such tiling save the regular tessellation of cubes, another is a tessellation of octahedra and cuboctahedra. The octahedron is unique among the Platonic solids in having a number of faces meeting at each vertex. Consequently, it is the member of that group to possess mirror planes that do not pass through any of the faces. Using the standard nomenclature for Johnson solids, an octahedron would be called a square bipyramid, truncation of two opposite vertices results in a square bifrustum. The octahedron is 4-connected, meaning that it takes the removal of four vertices to disconnect the remaining vertices and it is one of only four 4-connected simplicial well-covered polyhedra, meaning that all of the maximal independent sets of its vertices have the same size
45.
Square pyramid
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In geometry, a square pyramid is a pyramid having a square base. If the apex is perpendicularly above the center of the square, if the sides are all equilateral triangles, the pyramid is one of the Johnson solids. The 92 Johnson solids were named and described by Norman Johnson in 1966, a Johnson solid is one of 92 strictly convex polyhedra that have regular faces but are not uniform. They were named by Norman Johnson, who first listed these polyhedra in 1966, the Johnson square pyramid can be characterized by a single edge-length parameter a. The height H, the surface area A, and the volume V of such a pyramid are, other square pyramids have isosceles triangle sides. For square pyramids in general, with length l and height h. Square pyramids fill space with tetrahedra, truncated cubes or cuboctahedra, the square pyramid is topologically a self-dual polyhedron. The dual edge lengths are different due to the polar reciprocation, like all pyramids, the square pyramid is self-dual, having the same number of vertices as faces. A square pyramid can be represented by the Wheel graph W5, eric W. Weisstein, Square pyramid at MathWorld. Square Pyramid -- Interactive Polyhedron Model Virtual Reality Polyhedra www. georgehart. com, The Encyclopedia of Polyhedra
46.
Dodecahedron
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In geometry, a dodecahedron is any polyhedron with twelve flat faces. The most familiar dodecahedron is the dodecahedron, which is a Platonic solid. There are also three regular star dodecahedra, which are constructed as stellations of the convex form, all of these have icosahedral symmetry, order 120. The pyritohedron is a pentagonal dodecahedron, having the same topology as the regular one. The rhombic dodecahedron, seen as a case of the pyritohedron has octahedral symmetry. The elongated dodecahedron and trapezo-rhombic dodecahedron variations, along with the rhombic dodecahedra are space-filling, there are a large number of other dodecahedra. The convex regular dodecahedron is one of the five regular Platonic solids, the dual polyhedron is the regular icosahedron, having five equilateral triangles around each vertex. Like the regular dodecahedron, it has twelve pentagonal faces. However, the pentagons are not constrained to be regular, and its 30 edges are divided into two sets – containing 24 and 6 edges of the same length. The only axes of symmetry are three mutually perpendicular twofold axes and four threefold axes. Note that the regular dodecahedron can occur as a shape for quasicrystals with icosahedral symmetry. Its name comes from one of the two common crystal habits shown by pyrite, the one being the cube. The coordinates of the eight vertices of the cube are, The coordinates of the 12 vertices of the cross-edges are. When h =1, the six cross-edges degenerate to points, when h =0, the cross-edges are absorbed in the facets of the cube, and the pyritohedron reduces to a cube. When h = √5 − 1/2, the inverse of the golden ratio, a reflected pyritohedron is made by swapping the nonzero coordinates above. The two pyritohedra can be superimposed to give the compound of two dodecahedra as seen in the image here, the regular dodecahedron represents a special intermediate case where all edges and angles are equal. A tetartoid is a dodecahedron with chiral tetrahedral symmetry, like the regular dodecahedron, it has twelve identical pentagonal faces, with three meeting in each of the 20 vertices. However, the pentagons are not regular and the figure has no fivefold symmetry axes, although regular dodecahedra do not exist in crystals, the tetartoid form does
47.
Pentagonal prism
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In geometry, the pentagonal prism a prism with a pentagonal base. It is a type of heptahedron with 7 faces,15 edges and it can be seen as a truncated pentagonal hosohedron, represented by Schläfli symbol t. Alternately it can be seen as the Cartesian product of a pentagon and a line segment. The dual of a prism is a pentagonal bipyramid. The symmetry group of a pentagonal prism is D5h of order 20. The rotation group is D5 of order 10, the volume, as for all prisms, is the product of the area of the pentagonal base times the height or distance along any edge perpendicular to the base. It exists as cells of four nonprismatic uniform 4-polytopes in 4 dimensions, Weisstein, Pentagonal Prism Polyhedron Model -- works in your web browser
48.
Runcinated 5-cell
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In four-dimensional geometry, a runcinated 5-cell is a convex uniform 4-polytope, being a runcination of the regular 5-cell. There are 3 unique degrees of runcinations of the 5-cell, including permutations, truncations. The runcinated 5-cell or small prismatodecachoron is constructed by expanding the cells of a 5-cell radially and filling in the gaps with triangular prisms and it consists of 10 tetrahedra and 20 triangular prisms. The 10 tetrahedra correspond with the cells of a 5-cell and its dual, E. L. Elte identified it in 1912 as a semiregular polytope. Runcinated 5-cell Runcinated pentachoron Runcinated 4-simplex Expanded 5-cell/4-simplex/pentachoron Small prismatodecachoron Two of the ten tetrahedral cells meet at each vertex, the triangular prisms lie between them, joined to them by their triangular faces and to each other by their square faces. Each triangular prism is joined to its neighbouring triangular prisms in anti orientation, thus each pair of adjacent prisms, if rotated into the same hyperplane, the runcinated 5-cell can be dissected by a central cuboctahedron into two tetrahedral cupola. This dissection is analogous to the 3D cuboctahedron being dissected by a hexagon into two triangular cupola. A second construction in 5-space, from the center of a rectified 5-orthoplex is given by coordinate permutations of and it is also the vertex figure for the 5-cell honeycomb in 4-space. The maximal cross-section of the runcinated 5-cell with a 3-dimensional hyperplane is a cuboctahedron and this cross-section divides the runcinated 5-cell into two tetrahedral hypercupolae consisting of 5 tetrahedra and 10 triangular prisms each. The tetrahedron-first orthographic projection of the runcinated 5-cell into 3-dimensional space has a cuboctahedral envelope and these are the images of 5 of the tetrahedral cells. The 6 square faces of the cuboctahedron are joined to the edges of the central tetrahedron via distorted triangular prisms and these are the images of 6 of the triangular prism cells. The other 4 triangular faces are joined to the central tetrahedron via 4 triangular prisms and these are the images of another 4 of the triangular prism cells. This accounts for half of the runcinated 5-cell, which may be thought of as the northern hemisphere. The other half, the hemisphere, corresponds to an isomorphic division of the cuboctahedron in dual orientation. The triangular faces of the join the triangular prisms in one hemisphere to the flattened tetrahedra in the other hemisphere. Thus, the southern hemisphere contains another 5 tetrahedra and another 10 triangular prisms, the regular skew polyhedron, exists in 4-space with 6 squares around each vertex, in a zig-zagging nonplanar vertex figure. These square faces can be seen on the runcinated 5-cell, using all 60 edges and 20 vertices, the 40 triangular faces of the runcinated 5-cell can be seen as removed. The dual regular skew polyhedron, is related to the hexagonal faces of the bitruncated 5-cell
49.
Runcinated tesseract
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In four-dimensional geometry, a runcinated tesseract is a convex uniform 4-polytope, being a runcination of the regular tesseract. There are 4 variations of runcinations of the tesseract including with permutations truncations and cantellations, the runcinated tesseract or disprismatotesseractihexadecachoron has 16 tetrahedra,32 cubes, and 32 triangular prisms. Each vertex is shared by 4 cubes,3 triangular prisms, the runcinated tesseract may be constructed by expanding the cells of a tesseract radially, and filling in the gaps with tetrahedra, cubes, and triangular prisms. The same process applied to a 16-cell also yields the same figure, the other 24 cubical cells are connected to the former 8 cells via only two opposite square faces, the remaining 4 faces are connected to the triangular prisms. The triangular prisms are connected to the tetrahedra via their triangular faces, the runcinated tesseract can be dissected into 2 cubic cupolae and a rhombicuboctahedral prism between them. This dissection can be analogous to the 3D rhombicuboctahedron being dissected into two square cupola and a central octagonal prism. The cube-first orthographic projection of the runcinated tesseract into 3-dimensional space has a rhombicuboctahedral envelope, the images of its cells are laid out within this envelope as follows, The nearest and farthest cube from the 4d viewpoint projects to a cubical volume in the center of the envelope. Six cuboidal volumes connect this central cube to the 6 axial square faces of the rhombicuboctahedron and these are the images of 12 of the cubical cells. The 18 square faces of the envelope are the images of the cubical cells. The 12 wedge-shaped volumes connecting the edges of the cube to the non-axial square faces of the envelope are the images of 24 of the triangular prisms. The 8 triangular faces of the envelope are the images of the remaining 8 triangular prisms, finally, the 8 tetrahedral volumes connecting the vertices of the central cube to the triangular faces of the envelope are the images of the 16 tetrahedra. This layout of cells in projection is analogous to the layout of the faces of the rhombicuboctahedron under projection to 2 dimensions, the rhombicuboctahedron is also constructed from the cube or the octahedron in an analogous way to the runcinated tesseract. Hence, the runcinated tesseract may be thought of as the 4-dimensional analogue of the rhombicuboctahedron, the runcitruncated tesseract, runcicantellated 16-cell, or prismatorhombated hexadecachoron is bounded by 80 cells,8 truncated cubes,16 cuboctahedra,24 octagonal prisms, and 32 triangular prisms. The runcitruncated tesseract may be constructed from the tesseract by expanding the truncated cube cells outward radially. In the process, the tetrahedra expand into cuboctahedra, and triangular prisms fill in the remaining gaps, two of the truncated cube cells project to a truncated cube in the center of the projection envelope. Six octagonal prisms connect this central truncated cube to the faces of the envelope. These are the images of 12 of the octahedral prism cells, the remaining 12 octahedral prisms are projected to the rectangular faces of the envelope. The 6 square faces of the envelope are the images of the remaining 6 truncated cube cells, twelve right-angle triangular prisms connect the inner octagonal prisms
50.
Runcinated 24-cell
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In four-dimensional geometry, a runcinated 24-cell is a convex uniform 4-polytope, being a runcination of the regular 24-cell. There are 3 unique degrees of runcinations of the 24-cell including with permutations truncations and cantellations, in geometry, the runcinated 24-cell or small prismatotetracontoctachoron is a uniform 4-polytope bounded by 48 octahedra and 192 triangular prisms. The octahedral cells correspond with the cells of a 24-cell and its dual, E. L. Elte identified it in 1912 as a semiregular polytope. The regular skew polyhedron, exists in 4-space with 8 square around each vertex and these square faces can be seen on the runcinated 24-cell, using all 576 edges and 288 vertices. The 384 triangular faces of the runcinated 24-cell can be seen as removed, the dual regular skew polyhedron, is similarly related to the octagonal faces of the bitruncated 24-cell. The runcitruncated 24-cell or prismatorhombated icositetrachoron is a uniform 4-polytope derived from the 24-cell, like the snub 24-cell, it has symmetry, order 576. The runcitruncated 24-cell has 192 identical hexagonal faces, while the runcicantic snub 24-cell has 2 constructive sets of 96 hexagons, the difference can be seen in the vertex figures, A related 4-polytope is the runcic snub 24-cell or prismatorhombisnub icositetrachoron, s3. It is not uniform, but it is vertex-transitive and has all regular polygon faces. It is constructed with 24 icosahedra,24 truncated tetrahedra,96 triangular prisms, and 96 triangular cupolae in the gaps, for a total of 240 cells,960 faces,1008 edges, like the snub 24-cell, it has symmetry, order 576. The vertex figure contains one icosahedron, two triangular prisms, one truncated tetrahedron, and 3 triangular cupolae, the omnitruncated 24-cell or great prismatotetracontoctachoron is a uniform 4-polytope derived from the 24-cell. It is composed of 1152 vertices,2304 edges, and 1392 faces and it has 240 cells,48 truncated cuboctahedra,192 hexagonal prisms. Each vertex contains four cells in a tetrahedral vertex figure. The 48 great rhombicuboctahedral cells are joined to each other via their octagonal faces and they can be grouped into two groups of 24 each, corresponding with the cells of a 24-cell and its dual. Its vertex figure contains 4 tetrahedra,2 octahedra, and 2 snub cubes and it has 816 cells,2832 faces,2592 edges, and 576 vertices. Coxeter, edited by F. Arthur Sherk, Peter McMullen, thompson, Asia Ivic Weiss, Wiley-Interscience Publication,1995, ISBN 978-0-471-01003-6 H. S. M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes I, H. S. M, coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes II, H. S. M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes III, J. H. Conway, guy, Four-Dimensional Archimedean Polytopes, Proceedings of the Colloquium on Convexity at Copenhagen, page 38 und 39,1965 N. W. Johnson, The Theory of Uniform Polytopes and Honeycombs, Ph. D, dissertation, University of Toronto,1966 Four-dimensional Archimedean Polytopes, Marco Möller,2004 PhD dissertation m58 m59 m533
51.
Runcinated 120-cell
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In four-dimensional geometry, a runcinated 120-cell is a convex uniform 4-polytope, being a runcination of the regular 120-cell. There are 4 degrees of runcinations of the 120-cell including with permutations truncations and cantellations, the runcinated 120-cell can be seen as an expansion applied to a regular 4-polytope, the 120-cell or 600-cell. The runcinated 120-cell or small disprismatohexacosihecatonicosachoron is a uniform 4-polytope and it has 2640 cells,120 dodecahedra,720 pentagonal prisms,1200 triangular prisms, and 600 tetrahedra. Its vertex figure is a triangular antiprism, its bases represent a dodecahedron and a tetrahedron. It contains 2640 cells,120 truncated dodecahedra,720 decagonal prisms,1200 triangular prisms and its vertex figure is an irregular rectangular pyramid, with one truncated dodecahedron, two decagonal prisms, one triangular prism, and one cuboctahedron. Runcicantellated 600-cell Prismatorhombated hexacosichoron The runcitruncated 600-cell or prismatorhombated hecatonicosachoron is a uniform 4-polytope and it is composed of 2640 cells,120 rhombicosidodecahedron,600 truncated tetrahedra,720 pentagonal prisms, and 1200 hexagonal prisms. It has 7200 vertices,18000 edges, and 13440 faces and it has 14400 vertices,28800 edges, and 17040 faces. It is the largest nonprismatic convex uniform 4-polytope, the vertices and edges form the Cayley graph of the Coxeter group H4. It has 9840 cells,35040 faces,32400 edges, and 7200 vertices and these polytopes are a part of a set of 15 uniform 4-polytopes with H4 symmetry, Kaleidoscopes, Selected Writings of H. S. M. Coxeter, edited by F. Arthur Sherk, Peter McMullen, thompson, Asia Ivic Weiss, Wiley-Interscience Publication,1995, ISBN 978-0-471-01003-6 H. S. M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes I, H. S. M, Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes II, H. S. M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes III, J. H. Conway, guy, Four-Dimensional Archimedean Polytopes, Proceedings of the Colloquium on Convexity at Copenhagen, page 38 und 39,1965 N. W. Johnson, The Theory of Uniform Polytopes and Honeycombs, Ph. D, x3o3o5x - sidpixhi, x3o3x5x - prix, x3x3o5x - prahi, x3x3x5x - gidpixhi H4 uniform polytopes with coordinates, t03 t013 t013 t0123
52.
Runcinated hexagonal tiling honeycomb
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In the field of hyperbolic geometry, the hexagonal tiling honeycomb arises one of 11 regular paracompact honeycombs in 3-dimensional hyperbolic space. It is called paracompact because it has infinite cells, each cell consists of a hexagonal tiling whose vertices lie on a horosphere, a flat plane in hyperbolic space that approaches a single ideal point at infinity. The Schläfli symbol of the hexagonal tiling honeycomb is, since that of the hexagonal tiling of the plane is, this honeycomb has three such hexagonal tilings meeting at each edge. Since the Schläfli symbol of the tetrahedron is, the figure of this honeycomb is an tetrahedron. Thus, six hexagonal tilings meet at each vertex of this honeycomb, viewed in perspective outside of a Poincaré disk model, this shows one hexagonal tiling cell within the honeycomb, and its mid-radius horosphere. In this projection, the hexagons grow infinitely small towards the infinite boundary asymptoting towards an ideal point. It can be seen as similar to the order-3 apeirogonal tiling, of H2, in Coxeter notation subgroup markups, they are related as, or, all of these are isomorphic to. The ringed Coxeter diagrams are, and, representing different types of hexagonal tilings in the Wythoff construction and it is one of 15 regular hyperbolic honeycombs in 3-space,11 of which like this one are paracompact, with infinite cells or vertex figures. It is one of 15 uniform paracompact honeycombs in the Coxeter group, along with its dual and it is in a sequence with regular polychora, 5-cell, tesseract, 120-cell of Euclidean 4-space, with tetrahedral vertex figures. The half-symmetry construction alternate two types of tetrahedra, the truncated hexagonal tiling honeycomb, t0,1, has tetrahedral and truncated hexagonal tiling facets, with a tetrahedral vertex figure. The cantellated hexagonal tiling honeycomb, t0,2, has octahedral and rhombitrihexagonal tiling cells, the cantitruncated hexagonal tiling honeycomb, t0,1,2, has truncated tetrahedron and truncated trihexagonal tiling cells, with a tetrahedron vertex figure. The runcinated hexagonal tiling honeycomb, t0,3, has tetrahedron, rhombitrihexagonal tiling hexagonal prism, triangular prism cells, with a octahedron vertex figure. The runcitruncated hexagonal tiling honeycomb, t0,1,3, has cuboctahedron, Triangular prism, Dodecagonal prism, convex uniform honeycombs in hyperbolic space List of regular polytopes Coxeter, Regular Polytopes, 3rd. John Baez, Visual Insight, Honeycomb John Baez, Visual Insight, Honeycomb in Upper Half Space John Baez, Visual Insight, Truncated Honeycomb
53.
Orthobicupola
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In geometry, a bicupola is a solid formed by connecting two cupolae on their bases. There are two classes of bicupola because each cupola half is bordered by alternating triangles and squares, if similar faces are attached together the result is an orthobicupola, if squares are attached to triangles it is a gyrobicupola. Cupolae and bicupolae categorically exist as infinite sets of polyhedra, just like the pyramids, bipyramids, prisms, six bicupolae have regular polygon faces, triangular, square and pentagonal ortho- and gyrobicupolae. The triangular gyrobicupola is an Archimedean solid, the cuboctahedron, the five are Johnson solids. Bicupolae of higher order can be constructed if the faces are allowed to stretch into rectangles and isosceles triangles. Bicupolae are special in having four faces on every vertex and this means that their dual polyhedra will have all quadrilateral faces. The best known example is the rhombic dodecahedron composed of 12 rhombic faces, norman W. Johnson, Convex Solids with Regular Faces, Canadian Journal of Mathematics,18,1966, pages 169–200. Contains the original enumeration of the 92 solids and the conjecture that there are no others, the first proof that there are only 92 Johnson solids
54.
Gyrobicupola
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In geometry, a bicupola is a solid formed by connecting two cupolae on their bases. There are two classes of bicupola because each cupola half is bordered by alternating triangles and squares, if similar faces are attached together the result is an orthobicupola, if squares are attached to triangles it is a gyrobicupola. Cupolae and bicupolae categorically exist as infinite sets of polyhedra, just like the pyramids, bipyramids, prisms, six bicupolae have regular polygon faces, triangular, square and pentagonal ortho- and gyrobicupolae. The triangular gyrobicupola is an Archimedean solid, the cuboctahedron, the five are Johnson solids. Bicupolae of higher order can be constructed if the faces are allowed to stretch into rectangles and isosceles triangles. Bicupolae are special in having four faces on every vertex and this means that their dual polyhedra will have all quadrilateral faces. The best known example is the rhombic dodecahedron composed of 12 rhombic faces, norman W. Johnson, Convex Solids with Regular Faces, Canadian Journal of Mathematics,18,1966, pages 169–200. Contains the original enumeration of the 92 solids and the conjecture that there are no others, the first proof that there are only 92 Johnson solids
55.
Norman Johnson (mathematician)
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Norman Woodason Johnson is a mathematician, previously at Wheaton College, Norton, Massachusetts. He earned his Ph. D. from the University of Toronto in 1966 with a title of The Theory of Uniform Polytopes. In 1966 he enumerated 92 convex non-uniform polyhedra with regular faces, victor Zalgaller later proved that Johnsons list was complete, and the set is now known as the Johnson solids. The theory of polytopes and honeycombs, Ph. D. Dissertation,1966 Hyperbolic Coxeter Groups, paper, convex polyhedra with regular faces, paper containing the original enumeration of the 92 Johnson solids and the conjecture that there are no others. Norman W. Johnson at the Mathematics Genealogy Project Norman W. Johnson Endowed Fund in Mathematics and Computer Science at Wheaton College
56.
Polyhedron
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In geometry, a polyhedron is a solid in three dimensions with flat polygonal faces, straight edges and sharp corners or vertices. The word polyhedron comes from the Classical Greek πολύεδρον, as poly- + -hedron, a convex polyhedron is the convex hull of finitely many points, not all on the same plane. Cubes and pyramids are examples of convex polyhedra, a polyhedron is a 3-dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions. Convex polyhedra are well-defined, with several equivalent standard definitions, however, the formal mathematical definition of polyhedra that are not required to be convex has been problematic. Many definitions of polyhedron have been given within particular contexts, some more rigorous than others, some of these definitions exclude shapes that have often been counted as polyhedra or include shapes that are often not considered as valid polyhedra. As Branko Grünbaum observed, The Original Sin in the theory of polyhedra goes back to Euclid, the writers failed to define what are the polyhedra. Nevertheless, there is agreement that a polyhedron is a solid or surface that can be described by its vertices, edges, faces. Natural refinements of this definition require the solid to be bounded, to have a connected interior, and possibly also to have a connected boundary. However, the polyhedra defined in this way do not include the self-crossing star polyhedra, their faces may not form simple polygons, definitions based on the idea of a bounding surface rather than a solid are also common. If a planar part of such a surface is not itself a convex polygon, ORourke requires it to be subdivided into smaller convex polygons, cromwell gives a similar definition but without the restriction of three edges per vertex. Again, this type of definition does not encompass the self-crossing polyhedra, however, there exist topological polyhedra that cannot be realized as acoptic polyhedra. One modern approach is based on the theory of abstract polyhedra and these can be defined as partially ordered sets whose elements are the vertices, edges, and faces of a polyhedron. A vertex or edge element is less than an edge or face element when the vertex or edge is part of the edge or face, additionally, one may include a special bottom element of this partial order and a top element representing the whole polyhedron. However, these requirements are relaxed, to instead require only that the sections between elements two levels apart from line segments. Geometric polyhedra, defined in other ways, can be described abstractly in this way, a realization of an abstract polyhedron is generally taken to be a mapping from the vertices of the abstract polyhedron to geometric points, such that the points of each face are coplanar. A geometric polyhedron can then be defined as a realization of an abstract polyhedron, realizations that forgo the requirement of planarity, that impose additional requirements of symmetry, or that map the vertices to higher dimensional spaces have also been considered. Unlike the solid-based and surface-based definitions, this perfectly well for star polyhedra. However, without restrictions, this definition allows degenerate or unfaithful polyhedra
57.
Regular polyhedron
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A regular polyhedron is a polyhedron whose symmetry group acts transitively on its flags. A regular polyhedron is highly symmetrical, being all of edge-transitive, vertex-transitive and face-transitive, in classical contexts, many different equivalent definitions are used, a common one is that faces are congruent regular polygons which are assembled in the same way around each vertex. A regular polyhedron is identified by its Schläfli symbol of the form, there are 5 finite convex regular polyhedra, known as the Platonic solids. These are the, tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron, there are also four regular star polyhedra, making nine regular polyhedra in all. All the dihedral angles of the polyhedron are equal All the vertex figures of the polyhedron are regular polygons, All the solid angles of the polyhedron are congruent. A regular polyhedron has all of three related spheres which share its centre, An insphere, tangent to all faces, an intersphere or midsphere, tangent to all edges. A circumsphere, tangent to all vertices, the regular polyhedra are the most symmetrical of all the polyhedra. They lie in just three symmetry groups, which are named after them, Tetrahedral Octahedral Icosahedral Any shapes with icosahedral or octahedral symmetry will also contain tetrahedral symmetry, the five Platonic solids have an Euler characteristic of 2. Some of the stars have a different value. The sum of the distances from any point in the interior of a polyhedron to the sides is independent of the location of the point. However, the converse does not hold, not even for tetrahedra, in a dual pair of polyhedra, the vertices of one polyhedron correspond to the faces of the other, and vice versa. The regular polyhedra show this duality as follows, The tetrahedron is self-dual, the cube and octahedron are dual to each other. The icosahedron and dodecahedron are dual to each other, the small stellated dodecahedron and great dodecahedron are dual to each other. The great stellated dodecahedron and great icosahedron are dual to each other, the Schläfli symbol of the dual is just the original written backwards, for example the dual of is. See also Regular polytope, History of discovery, stones carved in shapes resembling clusters of spheres or knobs have been found in Scotland and may be as much as 4,000 years old. Some of these stones show not only the symmetries of the five Platonic solids, examples of these stones are on display in the John Evans room of the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford University. Why these objects were made, or how their creators gained the inspiration for them, is a mystery, the earliest known written records of the regular convex solids originated from Classical Greece. When these solids were all discovered and by whom is not known, euclids reference to Plato led to their common description as the Platonic solids
58.
Regular tetrahedron
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In geometry, a tetrahedron, also known as a triangular pyramid, is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, six straight edges, and four vertex corners. The tetrahedron is the simplest of all the ordinary convex polyhedra, the tetrahedron is the three-dimensional case of the more general concept of a Euclidean simplex. The tetrahedron is one kind of pyramid, which is a polyhedron with a polygon base. In the case of a tetrahedron the base is a triangle, like all convex polyhedra, a tetrahedron can be folded from a single sheet of paper. For any tetrahedron there exists a sphere on which all four vertices lie, a regular tetrahedron is one in which all four faces are equilateral triangles. It is one of the five regular Platonic solids, which have known since antiquity. In a regular tetrahedron, not only are all its faces the same size and shape, regular tetrahedra alone do not tessellate, but if alternated with regular octahedra they form the alternated cubic honeycomb, which is a tessellation. The regular tetrahedron is self-dual, which means that its dual is another regular tetrahedron, the compound figure comprising two such dual tetrahedra form a stellated octahedron or stella octangula. This form has Coxeter diagram and Schläfli symbol h, the tetrahedron in this case has edge length 2√2. Inverting these coordinates generates the dual tetrahedron, and the together form the stellated octahedron. In other words, if C is the centroid of the base and this follows from the fact that the medians of a triangle intersect at its centroid, and this point divides each of them in two segments, one of which is twice as long as the other. The vertices of a cube can be grouped into two groups of four, each forming a regular tetrahedron, the symmetries of a regular tetrahedron correspond to half of those of a cube, those that map the tetrahedra to themselves, and not to each other. The tetrahedron is the only Platonic solid that is not mapped to itself by point inversion, the regular tetrahedron has 24 isometries, forming the symmetry group Td, isomorphic to the symmetric group, S4. The first corresponds to the A2 Coxeter plane, the two skew perpendicular opposite edges of a regular tetrahedron define a set of parallel planes. When one of these intersects the tetrahedron the resulting cross section is a rectangle. When the intersecting plane is one of the edges the rectangle is long. When halfway between the two edges the intersection is a square, the aspect ratio of the rectangle reverses as you pass this halfway point. For the midpoint square intersection the resulting boundary line traverses every face of the tetrahedron similarly, if the tetrahedron is bisected on this plane, both halves become wedges
59.
Regular octahedron
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In geometry, an octahedron is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices. A regular octahedron is a Platonic solid composed of eight equilateral triangles, a regular octahedron is the dual polyhedron of a cube. It is a square bipyramid in any of three orthogonal orientations and it is also a triangular antiprism in any of four orientations. An octahedron is the case of the more general concept of a cross polytope. A regular octahedron is a 3-ball in the Manhattan metric, the second and third correspond to the B2 and A2 Coxeter planes. The octahedron can also be represented as a tiling. This projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths, straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane. An octahedron with edge length √2 can be placed with its center at the origin and its vertices on the coordinate axes, the Cartesian coordinates of the vertices are then. In an x–y–z Cartesian coordinate system, the octahedron with center coordinates, additionally the inertia tensor of the stretched octahedron is I =. These reduce to the equations for the regular octahedron when x m = y m = z m = a 22, the interior of the compound of two dual tetrahedra is an octahedron, and this compound, called the stella octangula, is its first and only stellation. Correspondingly, an octahedron is the result of cutting off from a regular tetrahedron. One can also divide the edges of an octahedron in the ratio of the mean to define the vertices of an icosahedron. There are five octahedra that define any given icosahedron in this fashion, octahedra and tetrahedra can be alternated to form a vertex, edge, and face-uniform tessellation of space, called the octet truss by Buckminster Fuller. This is the only such tiling save the regular tessellation of cubes, another is a tessellation of octahedra and cuboctahedra. The octahedron is unique among the Platonic solids in having a number of faces meeting at each vertex. Consequently, it is the member of that group to possess mirror planes that do not pass through any of the faces. Using the standard nomenclature for Johnson solids, an octahedron would be called a square bipyramid, truncation of two opposite vertices results in a square bifrustum. The octahedron is 4-connected, meaning that it takes the removal of four vertices to disconnect the remaining vertices and it is one of only four 4-connected simplicial well-covered polyhedra, meaning that all of the maximal independent sets of its vertices have the same size
60.
Regular dodecahedron
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It is one of the five Platonic solids. It has 12 faces,20 vertices,30 edges, and 160 diagonals. Note that, given a regular dodecahedron of edge length one, ru is the radius of a sphere about a cube of edge length ϕ. In perspective projection, viewed above a face, the regular dodecahedron can be seen as a linear-edged schlegel diagram. These projections are used in showing the four-dimensional 120-cell, a regular 4-dimensional polytope, constructed from 120 dodecahedra. The regular dodecahedron can also be represented as a spherical tiling, the following Cartesian coordinates define the 20 vertices of a regular dodecahedron centered at the origin and suitably scaled and oriented, where ϕ =1 + √5/2 is the golden ratio ≈1.618. The edge length is 2/ϕ = √5 −1, the containing sphere has a radius of √3. 5650512°. A137218 If the original regular dodecahedron has edge length 1, its dual icosahedron has edge length ϕ, If the five Platonic solids are built with same volume, the regular dodecahedron has the shortest edges. The map-coloring number of a regular dodecahedrons faces is 4, the distance between the vertices on the same face not connected by an edge is ϕ times the edge length. If two edges share a vertex, then the midpoints of those edges form an equilateral triangle with the body center. The regular dodecahedron is the third in a set of truncated trapezohedra which can be constructed by truncating the two axial vertices of a pentagonal trapezohedron. The stellations of the regular dodecahedron make up three of the four Kepler–Poinsot polyhedra, a rectified regular dodecahedron forms an icosidodecahedron. The regular dodecahedron has icosahedral symmetry Ih, Coxeter group, order 120, when a regular dodecahedron is inscribed in a sphere, it occupies more of the spheres volume than an icosahedron inscribed in the same sphere. A regular dodecahedron has 12 faces and 20 vertices, whereas a regular icosahedron has 20 faces and 12 vertices, a cube can be embedded within a regular dodecahedron, affixed to eight of its equidistant vertices, in five different positions. In fact, five cubes may overlap and interlock inside the regular dodecahedron to result in the compound of five cubes, the ratio of the edge of a regular dodecahedron to the edge of a cube embedded inside such a regular dodecahedron is 1, ϕ, or,1. The ratio of a regular dodecahedrons volume to the volume of a cube embedded inside such a regular dodecahedron is 1, 2/2 + ϕ, or 1 + ϕ/2,1, or,4. For example, a cube with a volume of 64. Thus, the difference in volume between the regular dodecahedron and the enclosed cube is always one half the volume of the cube times ϕ
61.
Regular icosahedron
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In geometry, a regular icosahedron is a convex polyhedron with 20 faces,30 edges and 12 vertices. It is one of the five Platonic solids, and also the one with the most sides and it has five equilateral triangular faces meeting at each vertex. It is represented by its Schläfli symbol, or sometimes by its vertex figure as 3.3.3.3.3 or 35 and it is the dual of the dodecahedron, which is represented by, having three pentagonal faces around each vertex. A regular icosahedron is a pentagonal bipyramid and a biaugmented pentagonal antiprism in any of six orientations. The name comes from Greek εἴκοσι, meaning twenty, and ἕδρα, the plural can be either icosahedrons or icosahedra. The surface area A and the volume V of a regular icosahedron of edge length a are, note that these vertices form five sets of three concentric, mutually orthogonal golden rectangles, whose edges form Borromean rings. If the original icosahedron has edge length 1, its dual dodecahedron has edge length √5 − 1/2 = 1/ϕ = ϕ −1, the 12 edges of a regular octahedron can be subdivided in the golden ratio so that the resulting vertices define a regular icosahedron. The locations of the vertices of a regular icosahedron can be described using spherical coordinates, if two vertices are taken to be at the north and south poles, then the other ten vertices are at latitude ±arctan ≈ ±26. 57°. These ten vertices are at evenly spaced longitudes, alternating between north and south latitudes and this projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths. Straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane, an icosahedron has 43,380 distinct nets. To color the icosahedron, such that no two adjacent faces have the color, requires at least 3 colors. A problem dating back to the ancient Greeks is to determine which of two shapes has larger volume, an icosahedron inscribed in a sphere, or a dodecahedron inscribed in the same sphere, the problem was solved by Hero, Pappus, and Fibonacci, among others. Apollonius of Perga discovered the result that the ratio of volumes of these two shapes is the same as the ratio of their surface areas. Both volumes have formulas involving the golden ratio, but taken to different powers, as it turns out, the icosahedron occupies less of the spheres volume than the dodecahedron. The following construction of the icosahedron avoids tedious computations in the number field ℚ necessary in more elementary approaches, the existence of the icosahedron amounts to the existence of six equiangular lines in ℝ3. Indeed, intersecting such a system of lines with a Euclidean sphere centered at their common intersection yields the twelve vertices of a regular icosahedron as can easily be checked. Conversely, supposing the existence of an icosahedron, lines defined by its six pairs of opposite vertices form an equiangular system. In order to such an equiangular system, we start with this 6 ×6 square matrix
62.
Archimedean solid
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In geometry, an Archimedean solid is one of the 13 solids first enumerated by Archimedes. They are the semi-regular convex polyhedrons composed of regular meeting in identical vertices, excluding the 5 Platonic solids. They differ from the Johnson solids, whose regular polygonal faces do not meet in identical vertices, identical vertices means that for any two vertices, there is a global isometry of the entire solid that takes one vertex to the other. Excluding these two families, there are 13 Archimedean solids. All the Archimedan solids can be made via Wythoff constructions from the Platonic solids with tetrahedral, octahedral and icosahedral symmetry, the Archimedean solids take their name from Archimedes, who discussed them in a now-lost work. Pappus refers to it, stating that Archimedes listed 13 polyhedra, kepler may have also found the elongated square gyrobicupola, at least, he once stated that there were 14 Archimedean solids. However, his published enumeration only includes the 13 uniform polyhedra, here the vertex configuration refers to the type of regular polygons that meet at any given vertex. For example, a configuration of means that a square, hexagon. Some definitions of semiregular polyhedron include one more figure, the square gyrobicupola or pseudo-rhombicuboctahedron. The number of vertices is 720° divided by the angle defect. The cuboctahedron and icosidodecahedron are edge-uniform and are called quasi-regular, the duals of the Archimedean solids are called the Catalan solids. Together with the bipyramids and trapezohedra, these are the face-uniform solids with regular vertices, the snub cube and snub dodecahedron are known as chiral, as they come in a left-handed form and right-handed form. When something comes in forms which are each others three-dimensional mirror image. The different Archimedean and Platonic solids can be related to each other using a handful of general constructions, starting with a Platonic solid, truncation involves cutting away of corners. To preserve symmetry, the cut is in a perpendicular to the line joining a corner to the center of the polyhedron and is the same for all corners. Depending on how much is truncated, different Platonic and Archimedean solids can be created, expansion or cantellation involves moving each face away from the center and taking the convex hull. Expansion with twisting also involves rotating the faces, thus breaking the rectangles corresponding to edges into triangles, the last construction we use here is truncation of both corners and edges. Ignoring scaling, expansion can also be viewed as truncation of corners and edges, note the duality between the cube and the octahedron, and between the dodecahedron and the icosahedron
63.
Semiregular polyhedron
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The term semiregular polyhedron is used variously by different authors. In its original definition, it is a polyhedron with faces and a symmetry group which is transitive on its vertices. These polyhedra include, The thirteen Archimedean solids, an infinite series of convex prisms. An infinite series of convex antiprisms and these semiregular solids can be fully specified by a vertex configuration, a listing of the faces by number of sides in order as they occur around a vertex. For example,3.5.3.5, represents the icosidodecahedron which alternates two triangles and two pentagons around each vertex,3.3.3.5 in contrast is a pentagonal antiprism. These polyhedra are sometimes described as vertex-transitive, since Gosset, other authors have used the term semiregular in different ways in relation to higher dimensional polytopes. E. L. Elte provided a definition which Coxeter found too artificial, Coxeter himself dubbed Gossets figures uniform, with only a quite restricted subset classified as semiregular. Yet others have taken the path, categorising more polyhedra as semiregular. These include, Three sets of polyhedra which meet Gossets definition. The duals of the above semiregular solids, arguing that since the polyhedra share the same symmetries as the originals. These duals include the Catalan solids, the convex dipyramids and antidipyramids or trapezohedra, a further source of confusion lies in the way that the Archimedean solids are defined, again with different interpretations appearing. Gossets definition of semiregular includes figures of higher symmetry, the regular and quasiregular polyhedra and this naming system works well, and reconciles many of the confusions. Assuming that ones stated definition applies only to convex polyhedra is probably the most common failing, Coxeter, Cromwell and Cundy & Rollett are all guilty of such slips. In many works semiregular polyhedron is used as a synonym for Archimedean solid and we can distinguish between the facially-regular and vertex-transitive figures based on Gosset, and their vertically-regular and facially-transitive duals. Later, Coxeter would quote Gossets definition without comment, thus accepting it by implication, peter Cromwell writes in a footnote to Page 149 that, in current terminology, semiregular polyhedra refers to the Archimedean and Catalan solids. On Page 80 he describes the thirteen Archimedeans as semiregular, while on Pages 367 ff. he discusses the Catalans, by implication this treats the Catalans as not semiregular, thus effectively contradicting the definition he provided in the earlier footnote. Semiregular polytope Regular polyhedron Weisstein, Eric W. Semiregular polyhedron
64.
Uniform polyhedron
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A uniform polyhedron is a polyhedron which has regular polygons as faces and is vertex-transitive. It follows that all vertices are congruent, Uniform polyhedra may be regular, quasi-regular or semi-regular. The faces and vertices need not be convex, so many of the uniform polyhedra are also star polyhedra, there are two infinite classes of uniform polyhedra together with 75 others. Dual polyhedra to uniform polyhedra are face-transitive and have regular vertex figures, the dual of a regular polyhedron is regular, while the dual of an Archimedean solid is a Catalan solid. The concept of uniform polyhedron is a case of the concept of uniform polytope. Coxeter, Longuet-Higgins & Miller define uniform polyhedra to be vertex-transitive polyhedra with regular faces, by a polygon they implicitly mean a polygon in 3-dimensional Euclidean space, these are allowed to be non-convex and to intersect each other. There are some generalizations of the concept of a uniform polyhedron, if the connectedness assumption is dropped, then we get uniform compounds, which can be split as a union of polyhedra, such as the compound of 5 cubes. If we drop the condition that the realization of the polyhedron is non-degenerate and these require a more general definition of polyhedra. Some of the ways they can be degenerate are as follows, some polyhedra have faces that are hidden, in the sense that no points of their interior can be seen from the outside. These are usually not counted as uniform polyhedra, some polyhedra have multiple edges and their faces are the faces of two or more polyhedra, though these are not compounds in the previous sense since the polyhedra share edges. There are some non-orientable polyhedra that have double covers satisfying the definition of a uniform polyhedron, there double covers have doubled faces, edges and vertices. They are usually not counted as uniform polyhedra, there are several polyhedra with doubled faces produced by Wythoffs construction. Most authors do not allow doubled faces and remove them as part of the construction, skillings figure has the property that it has double edges but its faces cannot be written as a union of two uniform polyhedra. Regular convex polyhedra, The Platonic solids date back to the classical Greeks and were studied by the Pythagoreans, Plato, Theaetetus, Timaeus of Locri, the Etruscans discovered the regular dodecahedron before 500 BC. Nonregular uniform convex polyhedra, The cuboctahedron was known by Plato, Archimedes discovered all of the 13 Archimedean solids. His original book on the subject was lost, but Pappus of Alexandria mentioned Archimedes listed 13 polyhedra, piero della Francesca rediscovered the five truncation of the Platonic solids, truncated tetrahedron, truncated octahedron, truncated cube, truncated dodecahedron, and truncated icosahedron. Luca Pacioli republished Francescas work in De divina proportione in 1509, adding the rhombicuboctahedron, calling it a icosihexahedron for its 26 faces, which was drawn by Leonardo da Vinci. Johannes Kepler was the first to publish the complete list of Archimedean solids, in 1619, regular star polyhedra, Kepler discovered two of the regular Kepler–Poinsot polyhedra and Louis Poinsot discovered the other two
65.
Truncated tetrahedron
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In geometry, the truncated tetrahedron is an Archimedean solid. It has 4 regular hexagonal faces,4 equilateral triangle faces,12 vertices and 18 edges and it can be constructed by truncating all 4 vertices of a regular tetrahedron at one third of the original edge length. A deeper truncation, removing a tetrahedron of half the edge length from each vertex, is called rectification. The rectification of a tetrahedron produces an octahedron, a truncated tetrahedron is the Goldberg polyhedron GIII, containing triangular and hexagonal faces. A truncated tetrahedron can be called a cube, with Coxeter diagram. There are two positions of this construction, and combining them creates the uniform compound of two truncated tetrahedra. The area A and the volume V of a tetrahedron of edge length a are. The densest packing of the Archimedean truncated tetrahedron is believed to be Φ = 207/208, in fact, if the truncation of the corners is slightly smaller than that of an Archimedean truncated tetrahedron, this new shape can be used to completely fill space. This projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths, straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane. A lower symmetry version of the tetrahedron is called a Friauf polyhedron in crystals such as complex metallic alloys. This form fits 5 Friauf polyhedra around an axis, giving a 72-degree dihedral angle on a subset of 6-6 edges, Friauf and his 1927 paper The crystal structure of the intermetallic compound MgCu2. Giant truncated tetrahedra were used for the Man the Explorer and Man the Producer theme pavilions in Expo 67 and they were made of massive girders of steel bolted together in a geometric lattice. The truncated tetrahedra were interconnected with lattice steel platforms, all of these buildings were demolished after the end of Expo 67, as they had not been built to withstand the severity of the Montreal weather over the years. Their only remnants are in the Montreal city archives, the Public Archives Of Canada, the Tetraminx puzzle has a truncated tetrahedral shape. This puzzle shows a dissection of a tetrahedron into 4 octahedra and 6 tetrahedra. It contains 4 central planes of rotations, in the mathematical field of graph theory, a truncated tetrahedral graph is a Archimedean graph, the graph of vertices and edges of the truncated tetrahedron, one of the Archimedean solids. It has 12 vertices and 18 edges and it is a connected cubic graph, and connected cubic transitive graph. It is also a part of a sequence of cantic polyhedra, in this wythoff construction the edges between the hexagons represent degenerate digons
66.
Truncated cube
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In geometry, the truncated cube, or truncated hexahedron, is an Archimedean solid. It has 14 regular faces,36 edges, and 24 vertices, if the truncated cube has unit edge length, its dual triakis octahedron has edges of lengths 2 and 2 + √2. The area A and the volume V of a cube of edge length a are. The truncated cube has five special orthogonal projections, centered, on a vertex, the last two correspond to the B2 and A2 Coxeter planes. The truncated cube can also be represented as a spherical tiling and this projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths. Straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane, the following Cartesian coordinates define the vertices of a truncated hexahedron centered at the origin with edge length 2ξ, where ξ = √2 −1. The parameter ξ can be varied between ±1, a value of 1 produces a cube,0 produces a cuboctahedron, and negative values produces self-intersecting octagrammic faces. The truncated cube can be dissected into a cube, with six square cupola around each of the cubes faces. This dissection can also be seen within the cubic honeycomb, with cube, tetrahedron. This dissection can be used to create a Stewart toroid with all regular faces by removing two square cupola and the central cube and this excavated cube has 16 triangles,12 squares, and 4 octagons. It shares the vertex arrangement with three nonconvex uniform polyhedra, The truncated cube is related to polyhedra and tlings in symmetry. The truncated cube is one of a family of uniform polyhedra related to the cube and this polyhedron is topologically related as a part of sequence of uniform truncated polyhedra with vertex configurations, and Coxeter group symmetry, and a series of polyhedra and tilings n.8.8. A cube can be alternately truncated producing tetrahedral symmetry, with six hexagonal faces and it is one of a sequence of alternate truncations of polyhedra and tiling. It has 24 vertices and 36 edges, and is a cubic Archimedean graph, spinning truncated cube Cube-connected cycles, a family of graphs that includes the skeleton of the truncated cube Williams, Robert. The Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure, A Source Book of Design, cromwell, P. Polyhedra, CUP hbk, pbk. Ch.2 p. 79-86 Archimedean solids Eric W. Weisstein, Weisstein, Eric W. Truncated cubical graph. 3D convex uniform polyhedra o3x4x - tic
67.
Truncated octahedron
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In geometry, the truncated octahedron is an Archimedean solid. It has 14 faces,36 edges, and 24 vertices, since each of its faces has point symmetry the truncated octahedron is a zonohedron. It is also the Goldberg polyhedron GIV, containing square and hexagonal faces, like the cube, it can tessellate 3-dimensional space, as a permutohedron. Its dual polyhedron is the tetrakis hexahedron, if the original truncated octahedron has unit edge length, its dual tetrakis cube has edge lengths 9/8√2 and 3/2√2. A truncated octahedron is constructed from an octahedron with side length 3a by the removal of six right square pyramids. These pyramids have both base side length and lateral side length of a, to form equilateral triangles, the base area is then a2. Note that this shape is similar to half an octahedron or Johnson solid J1. The truncated octahedron has five special orthogonal projections, centered, on a vertex, the last two correspond to the B2 and A2 Coxeter planes. The truncated octahedron can also be represented as a spherical tiling and this projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths. Straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane, all permutations of are Cartesian coordinates of the vertices of a truncated octahedron of edge length a = √2 centered at the origin. The vertices are also the corners of 12 rectangles whose long edges are parallel to the coordinate axes. The edge vectors have Cartesian coordinates and permutations of these, the face normals of the 6 square faces are, and. The face normals of the 8 hexagonal faces are, the dot product between pairs of two face normals is the cosine of the dihedral angle between adjacent faces, either −1/3 or −1/√3. The dihedral angle is approximately 1.910633 radians at edges shared by two hexagons or 2.186276 radians at edges shared by a hexagon and a square. The truncated octahedron can be dissected into an octahedron, surrounded by 8 triangular cupola on each face. Therefore, the octahedron is the permutohedron of order 4, each vertex corresponds to a permutation of. The area A and the volume V of an octahedron of edge length a are. There are two uniform colorings, with symmetry and octahedral symmetry, and two 2-uniform coloring with dihedral symmetry as a truncated triangular antiprism
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Truncated cuboctahedron
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In geometry, the truncated cuboctahedron is an Archimedean solid, named by Kepler as a truncation of a cuboctahedron. It has 12 square faces,8 regular hexagonal faces,6 regular octagonal faces,48 vertices and 72 edges, since each of its faces has point symmetry, the truncated cuboctahedron is a zonohedron. If you truncate a cuboctahedron by cutting the corners off, you do not get this uniform figure, however, the resulting figure is topologically equivalent to a truncated cuboctahedron and can always be deformed until the faces are regular. The alternative name great rhombicuboctahedron refers to the fact that the 12 square faces lie in the planes as the 12 faces of the rhombic dodecahedron which is dual to the cuboctahedron. One unfortunate point of confusion, There is a uniform polyhedron by the same name. See nonconvex great rhombicuboctahedron.7551724 a 2 V = a 3 ≈41.7989899 a 3, many other lower symmetry toroids can also be constructed by removing a subset of these dissected components. For example, removing half of the triangular cupolas creates a genus 3 torus, There is only one uniform coloring of the faces of this polyhedron, one color for each face type. A 2-uniform coloring, with symmetry, exists with alternately colored hexagons. The truncated cuboctahedron can also be represented as a spherical tiling and this projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths. Straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane, the truncated cuboctahedron is one of a family of uniform polyhedra related to the cube and regular octahedron. This polyhedron can be considered a member of a sequence of patterns with vertex configuration. For p <6, the members of the sequence are omnitruncated polyhedra, for p <6, they are tilings of the hyperbolic plane, starting with the truncated triheptagonal tiling. In the mathematical field of theory, a truncated cuboctahedral graph is the graph of vertices and edges of the truncated cuboctahedron. It has 48 vertices and 72 edges, and is a zero-symmetric and cubic Archimedean graph, cube Cuboctahedron Octahedron Truncated icosidodecahedron Truncated octahedron – truncated tetratetrahedron Cromwell, P. Polyhedra. Eric W. Weisstein, Great rhombicuboctahedron at MathWorld, 3D convex uniform polyhedra x3x4x - girco
69.
Snub cube
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In geometry, the snub cube, or snub cuboctahedron, is an Archimedean solid with 38 faces,6 squares and 32 equilateral triangles. It has 60 edges and 24 vertices and it is a chiral polyhedron, that is, it has two distinct forms, which are mirror images of each other. The union of both forms is a compound of two cubes, and the convex hull of both sets of vertices is a truncated cuboctahedron. Kepler first named it in Latin as cubus simus in 1619 in his Harmonices Mundi. If the original cube has edge length 1, its dual pentagonal icositetrahedron has side lengths 1 t +1 ≈0.593465. Taking the even permutations with an odd number of signs, and the odd permutations with an even number of plus signs, gives a different snub cube. Taking all of them yields the compound of two snub cubes. The snub cube has two orthogonal projections, centered, on two types of faces, triangles, and squares, correspond to the A2 and B2 Coxeter planes. The snub cube can also be represented as a spherical tiling and this projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths. Great circle arcs on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane and it can also be constructed as an alternation of a nonuniform omnitruncated cube, deleting every other vertex and creating new triangles at the deleted vertices. A properly proportioned great rhombicuboctahedron will create equilateral triangles at the deleted vertices, depending on which set of vertices are alternated, the resulting snub cube can have a clockwise or counterclockwise twist. An improved snub cube, with a smaller square face. The snub cube is one of a family of uniform polyhedra related to the cube and this semiregular polyhedron is a member of a sequence of snubbed polyhedra and tilings with vertex figure and Coxeter–Dynkin diagram. These figures and their duals have rotational symmetry, being in the Euclidean plane for n =6, the series can be considered to begin with n=2, with one set of faces degenerated into digons. The snub cube is second in a series of snub polyhedra, in the mathematical field of graph theory, a snub cubical graph is the graph of vertices and edges of the snub cube, one of the Archimedean solids. It has 24 vertices and 60 edges, and is an Archimedean graph, truncated cube Compound of two snub cubes Snub square tiling Jayatilake, Udaya. Calculations on face and vertex regular polyhedra, the Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure, A Source Book of Design. Eric W. Weisstein, Snub cube at MathWorld, Weisstein, Eric W. Snub cubic graph
70.
Icosidodecahedron
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In geometry, an icosidodecahedron is a polyhedron with twenty triangular faces and twelve pentagonal faces. An icosidodecahedron has 30 identical vertices, with two triangles and two meeting at each, and 60 identical edges, each separating a triangle from a pentagon. As such it is one of the Archimedean solids and more particularly and its dual polyhedron is the rhombic triacontahedron. An icosidodecahedron can be split along any of six planes to form a pair of pentagonal rotundae, the icosidodecahedron can be considered a pentagonal gyrobirotunda, as a combination of two rotundae. In this form its symmetry is D5d, order 20, the wire-frame figure of the icosidodecahedron consists of six flat regular decagons, meeting in pairs at each of the 30 vertices. Convenient Cartesian coordinates for the vertices of an icosidodecahedron with unit edges are given by the permutations of. The icosidodecahedron has four special orthogonal projections, centered on a vertex, an edge, a face. The last two correspond to the A2 and H2 Coxeter planes, the icosidodecahedron can also be represented as a spherical tiling, and projected onto the plane via a stereographic projection. This projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths, straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane. The icosidodecahedron is a dodecahedron and also a rectified icosahedron. With orbifold notation symmetry of all of these tilings are wythoff construction within a fundamental domain of symmetry. The icosidodecahedron is related to the Johnson solid called a pentagonal orthobirotunda created by two pentagonal rotunda connected as mirror images, the icosidodecahedron can therefore be called a pentagonal gyrobirotunda with the gyration between top and bottom halves. Eight uniform star polyhedra share the same vertex arrangement, of these, two also share the same edge arrangement, the small icosihemidodecahedron, and the small dodecahemidodecahedron. The vertex arrangement is shared with the compounds of five octahedra. In four-dimensional geometry the icosidodecahedron appears in the regular 600-cell as the slice that belongs to the vertex-first passage of the 600-cell through 3D space. In other words, the 30 vertices of the 600-cell which lie at arc distances of 90 degrees on its circumscribed hypersphere from a pair of vertices, are the vertices of an icosidodecahedron. The wire frame figure of the 600-cell consists of 72 flat regular decagons, six of these are the equatorial decagons to a pair of opposite vertices. They are precisely the six decagons which form the wire frame figure of the icosidodecahedron, in the mathematical field of graph theory, a icosidodecahedral graph is the graph of vertices and edges of the icosidodecahedron, one of the Archimedean solids
71.
Truncated dodecahedron
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In geometry, the truncated dodecahedron is an Archimedean solid. It has 12 regular decagonal faces,20 regular triangular faces,60 vertices and 90 edges and this polyhedron can be formed from a dodecahedron by truncating the corners so the pentagon faces become decagons and the corners become triangles. It is used in the cell-transitive hyperbolic space-filling tessellation, the bitruncated icosahedral honeycomb, the truncated dodecahedron has five special orthogonal projections, centered, on a vertex, on two types of edges, and two types of faces, hexagonal and pentagonal. The last two correspond to the A2 and H2 Coxeter planes, the truncated dodecahedron can also be represented as a spherical tiling, and projected onto the plane via a stereographic projection. This projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths, straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane. Schlegel diagrams are similar, with a projection and straight edges. In the mathematical field of theory, a truncated dodecahedral graph is the graph of vertices and edges of the truncated dodecahedron. It has 60 vertices and 90 edges, and is a cubic Archimedean graph, spinning truncated cube Cube-connected cycles, a family of graphs that includes the skeleton of the truncated cube Williams, Robert. The Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure, A Source Book of Design, Eric W. Weisstein, Truncated dodecahedron at MathWorld. Weisstein, Eric W. Truncated dodecahedral graph, 3D convex uniform polyhedra o3x5x - tid. Editable printable net of a dodecahedron with interactive 3D view The Uniform Polyhedra Virtual Reality Polyhedra The Encyclopedia of Polyhedra
72.
Truncated icosahedron
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In geometry, the truncated icosahedron is an Archimedean solid, one of 13 convex isogonal nonprismatic solids whose faces are two or more types of regular polygons. It has 12 regular pentagonal faces,20 regular hexagonal faces,60 vertices and 90 edges and it is the Goldberg polyhedron GPV or 1,1, containing pentagonal and hexagonal faces. This geometry is associated with footballs typically patterned with white hexagons, geodesic domes such as those whose architecture Buckminster Fuller pioneered are often based on this structure. It also corresponds to the geometry of the fullerene C60 molecule and it is used in the cell-transitive hyperbolic space-filling tessellation, the bitruncated order-5 dodecahedral honeycomb. This polyhedron can be constructed from an icosahedron with the 12 vertices truncated such that one third of each edge is cut off at each of both ends and this creates 12 new pentagon faces, and leaves the original 20 triangle faces as regular hexagons. Thus the length of the edges is one third of that of the original edges, cartesian coordinates for the vertices of a truncated icosahedron centered at the origin are all even permutations of, where φ =1 + √5/2 is the golden mean. Using φ2 = φ +1 one verifies that all vertices are on a sphere, centered at the origin, with the radius equal to √9φ +10. Permutations, X axis Y axis Z axis The truncated icosahedron has five special orthogonal projections, centered, on a vertex, the last two correspond to the A2 and H2 Coxeter planes. The truncated icosahedron can also be represented as a spherical tiling and this projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths. Straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane and this result is easy to get by using one of the three orthogonal golden rectangles drawn into the original icosahedron as the starting point for our considerations. The angle between the segments joining the center and the vertices connected by shared edge is approximately 23. 281446°. The area A and the volume V of the truncated icosahedron of edge length a are, with unit edges, the surface area is 21 for the pentagons and 52 for the hexagons, together 73. The truncated icosahedron easily demonstrates the Euler characteristic,32 +60 −90 =2, the balls used in association football and team handball are perhaps the best-known example of a spherical polyhedron analog to the truncated icosahedron, found in everyday life. The ball comprises the same pattern of regular pentagons and regular hexagons, but it is more due to the pressure of the air inside. This ball type was introduced to the World Cup in 1970, geodesic domes are typically based on triangular facetings of this geometry with example structures found across the world, popularized by Buckminster Fuller. A variation of the icosahedron was used as the basis of the wheels used by the Pontiac Motor Division between 1971 and 1976 on its Trans Am and Grand Prix. This shape was also the configuration of the used for focusing the explosive shock waves of the detonators in both the gadget and Fat Man atomic bombs. The truncated icosahedron can also be described as a model of the Buckminsterfullerene, or buckyball, molecule, an allotrope of elemental carbon, discovered in 1985
73.
Truncated icosidodecahedron
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In geometry, the truncated icosidodecahedron is an Archimedean solid, one of thirteen convex isogonal nonprismatic solids constructed by two or more types of regular polygon faces. It has 30 square faces,20 regular hexagonal faces,12 regular decagonal faces,120 vertices and 180 edges – more than any other convex nonprismatic uniform polyhedron, since each of its faces has point symmetry, the truncated icosidodecahedron is a zonohedron. If one truncates an icosidodecahedron by cutting the corners off, one does not get this uniform figure, however, the resulting figure is topologically equivalent to this and can always be deformed until the faces are regular. One unfortunate point of confusion is there is a nonconvex uniform polyhedron of the same name. The surface area A and the volume V of the truncated icosidodecahedron of edge length a are, V = a 3 ≈206.803399 a 3. If a set of all 13 Archimedean solids were constructed with all edge lengths equal, the truncated icosidodecahedron would be the largest. Cartesian coordinates for the vertices of a truncated icosidodecahedron with edge length 2φ −2, centered at the origin, are all the permutations of, and. The truncated icosidodecahedron has seven special orthogonal projections, centered on a vertex, the last two correspond to the A2 and H2 Coxeter planes. The truncated icosidodecahedron can also be represented as a spherical tiling and this projection is conformal, preserving angles but not areas or lengths. Straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane, schlegel diagrams are similar, with a perspective projection and straight edges. Within Icosahedral symmetry there are unlimited geometric variations of the truncated icosidodecahedron with isogonal faces, the truncated dodecahedron, rhombicosidodecahedron, and truncated icosahedron as degenerate limiting cases. In the mathematical field of theory, a truncated icosidodecahedral graph is the graph of vertices and edges of the truncated icosidodecahedron. It has 120 vertices and 180 edges, and is a zero-symmetric and cubic Archimedean graph and this polyhedron can be considered a member of a sequence of uniform patterns with vertex figure and Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. For p <6, the members of the sequence are omnitruncated polyhedra, for p >6, they are tilings of the hyperbolic plane, starting with the truncated triheptagonal tiling. Wenninger, Magnus, Polyhedron Models, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-09859-5, MR0467493 Cromwell, the Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure, A Source Book of Design. Cromwell, P. Polyhedra, CUP hbk, pbk, eric W. Weisstein, GreatRhombicosidodecahedron at MathWorld. 3D convex uniform polyhedra x3x5x - grid, editable printable net of a truncated icosidodecahedron with interactive 3D view The Uniform Polyhedra Virtual Reality Polyhedra The Encyclopedia of Polyhedra
74.
Snub dodecahedron
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In geometry, the snub dodecahedron, or snub icosidodecahedron, is an Archimedean solid, one of thirteen convex isogonal nonprismatic solids constructed by two or more types of regular polygon faces. The snub dodecahedron has 92 faces,12 are pentagons and the other 80 are equilateral triangles and it also has 150 edges, and 60 vertices. It has two forms, which are mirror images of each other. The union of both forms is a compound of two snub dodecahedra, and the hull of both forms is a truncated icosidodecahedron. Kepler first named it in Latin as dodecahedron simum in 1619 in his Harmonices Mundi and this snub dodecahedron has an edge length of approximately 6.0437380841. Taking the odd permutations of the coordinates with an even number of plus signs gives another form. Similarly, the image has either an odd permutation with an even number of plus signs or an even permutation with an odd number of plus signs. The snub dodecahedron has the highest sphericity of all Archimedean solids, the snub dodecahedron has two special orthogonal projections, centered on two types of faces, triangles and pentagons, corresponding to the A2 and H2 Coxeter planes. The snub dodecahedron can be generated by taking the twelve pentagonal faces of the dodecahedron, at a proper distance this can create the rhombicosidodecahedron by filling in square faces between the divided edges and triangle faces between the divided vertices. But for the form, only add the triangle faces. Then apply a rotation to the centers of the pentagons and triangles. The snub dodecahedron can also be derived from the truncated icosidodecahedron by the process of alternation, sixty of the vertices of the truncated icosidodecahedron form a polyhedron topologically equivalent to one snub dodecahedron, the remaining sixty form its mirror-image. The resulting polyhedron is vertex-transitive but not uniform, because its edges are of unequal lengths and this semiregular polyhedron is a member of a sequence of snubbed polyhedra and tilings with vertex figure and Coxeter–Dynkin diagram. These figures and their duals have rotational symmetry, being in the Euclidean plane for n =6, the series can be considered to begin with n =2, with one set of faces degenerated into digons. In the mathematical field of theory, a snub dodecahedral graph is the graph of vertices and edges of the snub dodecahedron. It has 60 vertices and 150 edges, and is an Archimedean graph, planar polygon to polyhedron transformation animation ccw and cw spinning snub dodecahedron Jayatilake, Udaya. Calculations on face and vertex regular polyhedra, the Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure, A Source Book of Design. Eric W. Weisstein, Snub dodecahedron at MathWorld, Weisstein, Eric W. Snub dodecahedral graph
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Catalan solid
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In mathematics, a Catalan solid, or Archimedean dual, is a dual polyhedron to an Archimedean solid. The Catalan solids are named for the Belgian mathematician, Eugène Catalan, the Catalan solids are all convex. They are face-transitive but not vertex-transitive and this is because the dual Archimedean solids are vertex-transitive and not face-transitive. Note that unlike Platonic solids and Archimedean solids, the faces of Catalan solids are not regular polygons, however, the vertex figures of Catalan solids are regular, and they have constant dihedral angles. Being face-transitive, Catalan solids are isohedra, additionally, two of the Catalan solids are edge-transitive, the rhombic dodecahedron and the rhombic triacontahedron. These are the duals of the two quasi-regular Archimedean solids, just as prisms and antiprisms are generally not considered Archimedean solids, so bipyramids and trapezohedra are generally not considered Catalan solids, despite being face-transitive. Two of the Catalan solids are chiral, the pentagonal icositetrahedron and these each come in two enantiomorphs. Not counting the enantiomorphs, bipyramids, and trapezohedra, there are a total of 13 Catalan solids, the Catalan solids, along with their dual Archimedean solids, can be grouped by their symmetry, tetrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral. There are 6 forms per symmetry, while the self-symmetric tetrahedral group only has three forms and two of those are duplicated with octahedral symmetry. J. lÉcole Polytechnique 41, 1-71,1865, alan Holden Shapes, Space, and Symmetry. Wenninger, Magnus, Dual Models, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-54325-5, MR730208 Williams, the Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure, A Source Book of Design. California, University of California Press Berkeley, chapter 4, Duals of the Archimedean polyhedra, prisma and antiprisms Weisstein, Eric W. Catalan Solids. Archived from the original on 4 February 2007, Archimedean duals – at Virtual Reality Polyhedra Interactive Catalan Solid in Java
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Triakis tetrahedron
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In geometry, a triakis tetrahedron is an Archimedean dual solid, or a Catalan solid. Its dual is the truncated tetrahedron and it can be seen as a tetrahedron with triangular pyramids added to each face, that is, it is the Kleetope of the tetrahedron. This interpretation is expressed in the name, the length of the shorter edges is 3/5 that of the longer edges. If the triakis tetrahedron has shorter edge length 1, it has area 5/3√11, a triakis tetrahedron with equilateral triangle faces represents a net of the four-dimensional regular polytope known as the 5-cell. If the triangles are right-angled isosceles, the faces will be coplanar and this can be seen by adding the 6 edges of tetrahedron inside of a cube. This chiral figure is one of thirteen stellations allowed by Millers rules, the triakis tetrahedron is a part of a sequence of polyhedra and tilings, extending into the hyperbolic plane. These face-transitive figures have reflectional symmetry, the Geometrical Foundation of Natural Structure, A Source Book of Design
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Rhombic dodecahedron
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In geometry, the rhombic dodecahedron is a convex polyhedron with 12 congruent rhombic faces. It has 24 edges, and 14 vertices of two types and it is a Catalan solid, and the dual polyhedron of the cuboctahedron. The rhombic dodecahedron is a zonohedron and its polyhedral dual is the cuboctahedron. The long diagonal of each face is exactly √2 times the length of the diagonal, so that the acute angles on each face measure arccos. Being the dual of an Archimedean polyhedron, the rhombic dodecahedron is face-transitive, meaning the symmetry group of the solid acts transitively on the set of faces. In elementary terms, this means that for any two faces A and B there is a rotation or reflection of the solid that leaves it occupying the region of space while moving face A to face B. The rhombic dodecahedron is one of the nine edge-transitive convex polyhedra, the others being the five Platonic solids, the cuboctahedron, the icosidodecahedron, the rhombic dodecahedron can be used to tessellate three-dimensional space. It can be stacked to fill a space much like hexagons fill a plane and this polyhedron in a space-filling tessellation can be seen as the Voronoi tessellation of the face-centered cubic lattice. It is the Brillouin zone of body centered cubic crystals, some minerals such as garnet form a rhombic dodecahedral crystal habit. Honey bees use the geometry of rhombic dodecahedra to form honeycombs from a tessellation of cells each of which is a hexagonal prism capped with half a rhombic dodecahedron, the rhombic dodecahedron also appears in the unit cells of diamond and diamondoids. In these cases, four vertices are absent, but the chemical bonds lie on the remaining edges, the graph of the rhombic dodecahedron is nonhamiltonian. The last two correspond to the B2 and A2 Coxeter planes, the rhombic dodecahedron is a parallelohedron, a space-filling polyhedron. Other symmetry constructions of the dodecahedron are also space-filling. For example, with 4 square faces, and 60-degree rhombic faces and it be seen as a cuboctahedron with square pyramids augmented on the top and bottom. In 1960 Stanko Bilinski discovered a second rhombic dodecahedron with 12 congruent rhombus faces and it has the same topology but different geometry. The rhombic faces in this form have the golden ratio, another topologically equivalent variation, sometimes called a trapezoidal dodecahedron, is isohedral with tetrahedral symmetry order 24, distorting rhombic faces into kites. It has 8 vertices adjusted in or out in sets of 4. Variations can be parametrized by, where b is determined from a for planar faces and this polyhedron is a part of a sequence of rhombic polyhedra and tilings with Coxeter group symmetry