George Timothy Clooney is an American actor and businessman. He is the recipient of three Golden Globe Awards and two Academy Awards, one for acting in Syriana and the other for co-producing Argo. In 2018, he was the recipient of the AFI Lifetime Achievement Award, at the age of 57. Clooney made his acting debut on television in 1978, gained wide recognition in his role as Dr. Doug Ross on the long-running medical drama ER, from 1994 to 1999, for which he received two Primetime Emmy Award nominations. While working on ER, he began attracting a variety of leading roles in films, with his breakthrough role in From Dusk till Dawn, the crime comedy Out of Sight, in which he first worked with director Steven Soderbergh, who would become a long-time collaborator. In 1999, he took the lead role in a well-received war satire, set during the Gulf War. In 2001, Clooney's fame widened with the release of his biggest commercial success, the heist comedy remake Ocean's Eleven, the first of what became a trilogy, starring Clooney.
He made his directorial debut a year with the biographical spy comedy Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, has since directed the historical drama Good Night, Good Luck, the sports comedy Leatherheads, the political drama The Ides of March, the war film The Monuments Men. Clooney won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for the Middle East thriller Syriana, subsequently earned Best Actor nominations for the legal thriller Michael Clayton and the comedy-dramas Up in the Air and The Descendants. In 2013, he received the Academy Award for Best Picture for producing the political thriller Argo, he has been nominated for Academy Awards in six different categories, a record he shares with Walt Disney. In 2009, Clooney was included in Time's annual Time 100 as one of the "Most Influential People in the World", he is noted for his political and economic activism, has served as one of the United Nations Messengers of Peace since January 31, 2008. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, he is married to human rights lawyer Amal Clooney.
Clooney was born on May 1961, in Lexington, Kentucky. His mother, Nina Bruce, was a beauty city councilwoman, his father, Nick Clooney, is a former anchorman and television host, including five years on the AMC network. Clooney is of Irish and English ancestry, his maternal great-great-great-great-grandmother, Mary Ann Sparrow, was the half-sister of Nancy Lincoln, mother of President Abraham Lincoln. Clooney has an older sister named Adelia. Cabaret singer and actress Rosemary Clooney was an aunt. Through Rosemary, his cousins include actors Miguel Ferrer, Rafael Ferrer, Gabriel Ferrer, married to singer Debby Boone. Clooney was raised a strict Roman Catholic but said in 2006 that he did not know if he believed "in Heaven, or God." He has said, "Yes, we were Catholic, big-time, whole family, whole group." He began his education at the Blessed Sacrament School in Kentucky. He attended St. Michael's School in Ohio; the Clooneys moved back to Kentucky. In middle school, Clooney developed Bell's palsy, a medical condition that paralyzes the face.
The malady went away within a year. In an interview with Larry King, he stated, it takes about nine months to go away. It was the first year of high school, a bad time for having half your face paralyzed." He described one positive outcome of the condition: "It's a great thing that it happened to me because it forced me to engage in a series of making fun of myself. And I think; the practical jokes have to be aimed at you."After his parents moved to Augusta, Clooney attended Augusta High School. He has stated that he earned all As and a B in school, played baseball and basketball, he tried out to play professional baseball with the Cincinnati Reds in 1977, but he did not pass the first round of player cuts and was not offered a contract. He attended Northern Kentucky University from 1979 to 1981, majoring in broadcast journalism, briefly attended the University of Cincinnati, but did not graduate from either, he earned money selling women's shoes, insurance door-to-door, stocking shelves, working in construction, cutting tobacco.
Clooney's first role was as an extra in the television mini-series Centennial in 1978, based on the novel of the same name by James A. Michener and was filmed in Clooney's hometown of Augusta, Kentucky. Clooney's first major role came in 1984 in the short-lived sitcom E/R, he played a handyman on the series The Facts of Life and appeared as Bobby Hopkins, a detective, on an episode of The Golden Girls. His first prominent role was a semi-regular supporting role in the sitcom Roseanne, playing Roseanne Barr's supervisor Booker Brooks, followed by the role of a construction worker on Baby Talk, a co-starring role on the CBS drama Bodies of Evidence as Detective Ryan Walker, a year-long turn as Det. James Falconer on Sisters. In 1988, Clooney played a role in the comedy-horror film Return of the Killer Tomatoes. In 1990, he starred in the short-lived ABC police drama Sunset Beat. During this period, Clooney was a student at the Beverly Hills Playhouse acting school for five years. Clooney rose to fame when he played Dr. Doug Ross, alongside Anthony Edwards, Ju
A serial killer is a person who murders three or more people in service of abnormal psychological gratification, with the murders taking place over more than a month and including a significant period of time between them. Different authorities apply different criteria. While most set a threshold of three murders, others lessen it to two; the Federal Bureau of Investigation defines serial killing as "a series of two or more murders, committed as separate events but not always, by one offender acting alone". Although psychological gratification is the usual motive for serial killing, most serial killings involve sexual contact with the victim, the FBI states that the motives of serial killers can include anger, thrill-seeking, financial gain, attention seeking; the murders may be completed in a similar fashion. The victims may have something in common, for example, demographic profile, gender or race. A serial killer is neither a mass murderer, nor a spree killer, although there may be conceptual overlaps between serial killers and spree killers.
The English term and concept of serial killer are attributed to former FBI Special agent Robert Ressler who used the term serial homicide in 1974 in a lecture at Bramshill Police Academy in Britain. Author Ann Rule postulates in her book, Kiss Me, Kill Me, that the English-language credit for coining the term goes to LAPD detective Pierce Brooks, who created the Violent Criminal Apprehension Program system in 1985. There is ample evidence the term was used in the United States earlier; the German term and concept were coined by criminologist Ernst Gennat, who described Peter Kürten as a Serienmörder in his article "Die Düsseldorfer Sexualverbrechen". The earliest usage attested of the specific term serial killer listed in the Oxford English Dictionary was from a 1960s German film article written by Siegfried Kracauer, about the German expressionist film M, portraying a pedophilic Serienmörder. In his book, Serial Killers: The Method and Madness of Monsters, criminal justice historian Peter Vronsky notes that while Ressler might have coined the English term "serial homicide" within law in 1974, the terms serial murder and serial murderer appear in John Brophy's book The Meaning of Murder.
The Washington DC newspaper Evening Star, in a 1967 review of the book: There is the mass murderer, or what he calls the "serial" killer, who may be actuated by greed, such as insurance, or retention or growth of power, like the Medicis of Renaissance Italy, or Landru, the "bluebeard" of the World War I period, who murdered numerous wives after taking their money. This use of "serial" killer to paraphrase Brophy's serial murderer does not appear to have been influential at the time. In his more recent study, Vronsky states that the term serial killing first entered into broader American popular usage when published in The New York Times in the spring of 1981, to describe Atlanta serial killer Wayne Williams. Subsequently, throughout the 1980s, the term was used again in the pages of The New York Times, one of the major national news publication of the United States, on 233 occasions. By the end of the 1990s, the use of the term had escalated to 2,514 instances in the paper; when defining serial killers, researchers use "three or more murders" as the baseline, considering it sufficient to provide a pattern without being overly restrictive.
Independent of the number of murders, they need to have been committed at different times, are committed in different places. The lack of a cooling-off period marks the difference between a serial killer; the category has, been found to be of no real value to law enforcement, because of definitional problems relating to the concept of a "cooling-off period". Cases of extended bouts of sequential killings over periods of weeks or months with no apparent "cooling off period" or "return to normality" have caused some experts to suggest a hybrid category of "spree-serial killer". In 2005, the FBI hosted a multi-disciplinary symposium in San Antonio, which brought together 135 experts on serial murder from a variety of fields and specialties with the goal of identifying the commonalities of knowledge regarding serial murder; the group settled on a definition of serial murder which FBI investigators accept as their standard: "The unlawful killing of two or more victims by the same offender in separate events."
The definition does not consider motivation for define a cooling-off period. Historical criminologists have suggested that there may have been serial murders throughout history, but specific cases were not adequately recorded; some sources suggest that legends such as werewolves and vampires were inspired by medieval serial killers. In Africa, there have been periodic outbreaks of murder by Leopard men. Liu Pengli of China, nephew of the Han Emperor Jing, was made Prince of Jidong in the sixth year of the middle period of Jing's reign. According to the Chinese historian Sima Qian, he would "go out on marauding expeditions with 20 or 30 slaves or with young men who were in hiding from the law, murdering people and seizing their belongings for sheer sport". Although many of his subjects knew about these murders, it was not until the 29th year of his reign that the son of one of his victims sent a report to the Emperor, it was discovered that he had murdered at least 100 people. The officials of the court requested.
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Leonard Barrie "Barry" Corbin is an American actor. His most well-known role came in the television series Northern Exposure, for which he was consecutively nominated for two Primetime Emmy Awards. Corbin was born in the seat of Dawson County, south of Lubbock in West Texas, he is the son of the former Alma LaMerle Scott, a teacher, Kilmer Blaine Corbin, Sr. a school principal and Democratic member of the Texas State Senate for two terms, from 1949–1957. Corbin was named for author J. M. Barrie by his mother, he played football in eighth grade, but soon moved to the arts, including acting and ballet classes. He graduated from Monterey High School. Corbin studied theatre arts at Texas Tech University in Lubbock. At 21, he joined the United States Marine Corps, served two years, returned to Tech. Corbin began his career as a Shakespearean actor in the 1960s, but today he is more to be seen in the role of the local sheriff, military leader, or some other authority figure, though on occasion, he has portrayed murderous villains, as well.
To moviegoers, he is well remembered as General Beringer in WarGames, John Travolta's uncle Bob Davis in Urban Cowboy, co-starring with Clint Eastwood in Any Which Way You Can, or Roscoe Brown, July Johnson's bumbling deputy in the acclaimed Western Lonesome Dove. From 1979 until 1984, he appeared in several episodes of Dallas as Sheriff Fenton Washburn. In 1983, Corbin co-starred in the famed television miniseries The Thorn Birds. Corbin played Mary Carson's stockman Pete, who teaches the Clearys' sons how to shear sheep on their aunt's gigantic sheep station Drogheda, in Australia. In 1983–1984, Corbin played Merit Sawyer in the NBC television series Boone. Corbin's role was that of a stern father to the young actor Tom Byrd, who played Boone Sawyer, an aspiring singer; the program was set in rural Tennessee during the 1950s and was created by Earl Hamner, who had great success earlier with CBS's The Waltons. From 1990 to 1995, Corbin portrayed former astronaut and local business leader Maurice Minnifield on CBS's Northern Exposure, for which he received an Emmy Award nomination.
In 1994, Corbin narrated the acclaimed TBS documentary MoonShot, telling the story of the 1960s space race from the first-person viewpoint of Mercury Seven astronaut Deke Slayton. In 2007, he played the character Clay Johnson, father of Deputy Chief Brenda Leigh Johnson on The Closer series. In 2000, he played the role of General Carville in Command & Conquer: Red Alert, Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2 and Command & Conquer: Yuri's Revenge. In 2003, Corbin co-starred with Northern Exposure castmate John Cullum in Blackwater Elegy, an award-winning short film written by Matthew Porter and co-directed by Porter and Joe O'Brien. From 2003–2008, Corbin played Whitey Durham, the basketball coach for the Tree Hill Ravens on The WB/CW teenager drama series One Tree Hill, he had a role in 2008's Oscar-winning film No Country for Old Men. Corbin lost most of his hair in the 1990s due to alopecia areata. Since he has played various roles with a shaved head, wearing a cowboy hat, or wearing a full toupee.
Corbin is the signature voice of radio station KPLX in Fort Worth and has voiced trailers and promotions for CMT and various other country radio stations. In 2014, he became the spokesman for the Texas Veterans Land Board. In 2014, Corbin worked with Tracey Birdsall on Dawn of the Crescent Moon, followed by working alongside her for the up-coming science fiction films At the Edge of Time and The Time War. Before breaking into film, Corbin won many cutting-horse competitions. Much of his spare time is spent riding horses and tending to cattle on his small Texas ranch near Fort Worth, he has volunteered his time to charity for many years, including rodeos and being spokesman for the National Alopecia Areata Foundation. In 2006, he participated in the Lubbock centennial. Corbin lives on the ranch with Shannon Ross and grandchildren. Shannon had been adopted as an infant. Corbin found Shannon in June 1991, when she was 26. Corbin has three sons: Bernard Weiss, Jim Corbin, Christopher Corbin. Christopher has followed in his father's footsteps as an actor.
Bernard was adopted by the Weiss family and in life got in touch with Corbin. His second wife, Susan Berger, he divorced in 1992. In 2009, Corbin was inducted into the Texas Cowboy Hall of Fame in Fort Worth. A recent painting of Corbin has been placed at the museum exhibit. Corbin has appeared at gatherings of the American Cowboy Culture Association, which holds the annual National Cowboy Symposium and Celebration each September in Lubbock. In September 2011, Corbin was given a lifetime achievement award by the Estes Park Film Festival in Estes Park, Colorado; the Texas Film Hall of Fame inducted Corbin into its membership on March 8, 2012. Man Against the Mob Celebrity Poker Showdown Dallas – Sheriff Fenton Washburn, Sheriff of Braddock County M*A*S*H – Sgt. Joe Vickers in episode "Your Retention, Please" This House Possessed – Lieutenant Fletcher Hart to Hart – Hart and Sinker, Sheriff Bud Williams Travis McGee – TV Movie – Sheriff Hack Ames The A-Team – Kinkaid Lonesome Dove – Roscoe Brown The Thorn Birds miniseries Matlock The Court Martial – Army Col. Steven McRea LBJ: The Early Years – TV Movie – Judge Alvin J. Wirtz Man Against the Mob – TV Movie – Big Mac McCleary Northern Exposure – 110 episodes – Maurice J. Minnifield / Mace Mobrey The Chase – TV Movie
Daisy Fuentes is a Cuban-American television host and model. Fuentes broke barriers as MTV's first Latina VJ, as Revlon's first Latina spokesperson to be signed to a worldwide contract. Fuentes was born in Cuba, to a Cuban father and Spanish mother; when Fuentes was three years old, her family fled the island to escape Fidel Castro's regime and moved to Madrid, Spain. Fuentes learned to speak English while watching I Love Lucy episodes. Soon thereafter, she moved with her family to Harrison, New Jersey, where she attended Harrison High School, was voted homecoming queen and "best looking", graduated in 1984. Fuentes started modeling during her senior year in high school. An aspiring hairstylist, she enrolled in cosmetology school with dreams of opening her own salon, she enrolled at Bergen Community College where she majored in Communications. While still a college student, Fuentes was hired to present the weather at the 6p and 11p newscasts at WNJU-TV 47, the local affiliate of Spanish-language TV network, Telemundo.
Shortly after, Fuentes jumped to the competition working for New York's Univision affiliate WXTV-TV 41 where in addition to being the weather anchor, she reported for the evening news. In 1988, in addition to her weather duties, Fuentes hosted MTV Internacional, a one-hour Spanish language music show that aired in Latin America and the U. S. on Telemundo Network which made her well-known in the Spanish-language TV market in the U. S. and Latin America. Fuentes joined MTV in 1993, becoming the first Latina VJ in the U. S. while hosting shows for MTV Latin America. While at MTV Fuentes was a host of the fashion and modeling series, House of Style, among other correspondent gigs. With MTV she achieved name recognition as one of that network's more popular hosts and soon was courted by companies to be a spokesmodel, she landed a role on the ABC soap opera Loving. Fuentes appeared on shows such as Dream On, The Larry Sanders Show, Cybill. From 1994 to 1995 she hosted her own talk show, Daisy, on CNBC.
She was the co-host of America's Funniest Home Videos, along with John Fugelsang, from 1998 to 1999. She hosted the ALMA Award, Dick Clark's New Year's Rockin' Eve, the 1998 World Music Awards, the 1999 Billboard Latin Awards, the Miss Teen USA, Miss USA, Miss Universe pageants, she guest-starred in the TV series Queen of Swords episode "Running Wild" in 2000. In 2000, she starred opposite Steve Borden in the made-for-TV movie Shutterspeed. Daisy Fuentes has appeared on many magazine covers and has starred in nationally televised ads for Revlon, American Express, M&M's and others, she was the first Mind, Spirit Superstar, created to generate awareness of top women's health causes and work to promote change. In 2005, Fuentes appeared on the three page cover of People en Español's "50 most beautiful" women. Fuentes has hosted numerous TV specials. In 2004 Fuentes launched the first clothing line bearing her name, she made her debut in the haircare category with an all-natural hair care line called Daisy Fuentes Style Pro in March 2009 to mass retailers.
Her workout game for the Wii, Daisy Fuentes Pilates, was released in August 2009. Fuentes sells about $300 million worth of goods, including hair care, clothing and accessories at Kohl's department stores each year. Fuentes signed a prescription-eye wear licensing deal with Zyloware. Zyloware is an eyewear manufacturer that has licensing deals with the American Idol judge, Randy Jackson, Sophia Loren, for a women's Latina-driven collection of prescription glasses. Fuentes is co-presenter of La Voz Kids on Telemundo, the Spanish-language TV version of the show The Voice with kids and judges Paulina Rubio, Prince Royce, Roberto Tapia. Fuentes offers relationship advice on the "Matty's Dating Advice Corner" segment of Fantasy Focus podcast with Matthew Berry. In addition to her work as an actress and model, Fuentes has become involved in charity, helping raise money for breast cancer research and St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. Daisy Fuentes speaks in support of charities including the March of Dimes and Starlight Children's Foundation.
Fuentes has been the celebrity chairman for the annual St. Jude Angeles & Stars gala in Miami since its debut in Miami more than 7 years ago, raising millions of dollars for this organization. In 2007, Fuentes worked for Girls On the Run, a non-profit prevention program that encouraged preteen girls to develop self-respect and healthy lifestyles through running. Fuentes has worked with many breast cancer awareness causes such as the Revlon / UCLA Women's Breast Cancer Research program, she received an award at The Wellness Community West Los Angeles Tribute to the Human Spirit Awards dinner for her commitment to spreading breast cancer awareness in the Latino community. Fuentes considers Secaucus, New Jersey, to be her home though her parents left New Jersey for Miami, she has Rosana Fuentes Brijbag, who lives in Miami with her family. Fuentes was married to actor and model Timothy Adams from 1991 to 1995, she met Luis Miguel. The pair dated for three years before breaking up in 1998, she went on to date singer/songwriter Matt Goss.
He moved into her Hollywood Hills home, they were engaged in 2003 but did not marry. On December 23, 2015 Daisy married singer/songwriter/producer Richard Marx. Daisy Fuentes at the Music Television Daisy Fuentes on IMDb "World Poker Tour profile". Archived from the original on 2006-11-10. Retrieved 2006-02-08. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown
Quentin Jerome Tarantino is an American filmmaker and actor. His films are characterized by nonlinear storylines, satirical subject matter, an aestheticization of violence, extended scenes of dialogue, ensemble casts consisting of established and lesser-known performers, references to popular culture and a wide variety of other films, soundtracks containing songs and score pieces from the 1960s to the 1980s, features of neo-noir film, his career began in the late 1980s when he wrote and directed My Best Friend's Birthday, the screenplay of which formed the basis for True Romance. In the early 1990s, he began his career as an independent filmmaker with the release of Reservoir Dogs in 1992, funded by money from the sale of his script Natural Born Killers to Oliver Stone. Empire deemed Reservoir Dogs the "Greatest Independent Film of All Time", its popularity was boosted by his second film, Pulp Fiction, a black comedy crime film, a major success both among critics and audiences. For his next effort, Tarantino paid homage to the blaxploitation films of the 1970s with Jackie Brown, an adaptation of Elmore Leonard's novel Rum Punch.
Kill Bill, a stylized "revenge flick" in the cinematic traditions of Kung fu films, Japanese martial arts, Spaghetti Westerns and Italian horror, followed six years and was released as two films: Volume 1 in 2003 and Volume 2 in 2004. Tarantino next directed Death Proof in 2007, as part of a double feature with Robert Rodriguez, under the collective title Grindhouse, his long-postponed Inglourious Basterds, which tells an alternate history of Nazi Germany, was released in 2009 to positive reviews. After that came critically acclaimed Django Unchained, a Western film set in the Antebellum South, his eighth film, The Hateful Eight, was released in its roadshow version in 70 mm film format, with opening "overture" and halfway-point intermission. His ninth film, Once Upon a Time in Hollywood, is scheduled to be released in 2019; the film, set in Los Angeles in 1969, is his first based on true events. Tarantino's films have garnered both commercial success, he has received many industry awards, including two Academy Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, two BAFTA Awards and the Palme d'Or, has been nominated for an Emmy and a Grammy.
In 2005, he was included on the annual Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world. Filmmaker and historian Peter Bogdanovich has called him "the single most influential director of his generation". In December 2015, Tarantino received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contributions to the film industry. Tarantino was born on March 27, 1963, in Knoxville, the only child of Connie McHugh and Tony Tarantino, an actor and producer, his father is of Italian descent, his mother has Irish and Cherokee ancestry. Quentin was named for Burt Reynolds' character in the CBS series Gunsmoke. Tarantino's mother met his father during a trip to Los Angeles, where Tony was a law student and would-be entertainer, she married him soon after, to gain independence from her parents. After the divorce, Connie Tarantino left Los Angeles and moved to Knoxville, where her parents lived. In 1966, Tarantino and his mother moved back to Los Angeles. Tarantino's mother married musician Curtis Zastoupil soon after arriving in Los Angeles, the family moved to Torrance, a city in Los Angeles County's South Bay area.
Zastoupil encouraged Tarantino's love of movies, accompanied him to numerous film screenings. Tarantino's mother allowed him to see movies with adult content, such as Carnal Knowledge and Deliverance. After his mother divorced Zastoupil in 1973, received a misdiagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma, Tarantino was sent to live with his grandparents in Tennessee, he remained there less than a year before returning to California. At 14 years old, Tarantino wrote one of his earliest works, a screenplay called Captain Peachfuzz and the Anchovy Bandit, based on Hal Needham's 1977 film Smokey and the Bandit starring Burt Reynolds; the summer after his 15th birthday, Tarantino was grounded by his mother for shoplifting Elmore Leonard's novel The Switch from Kmart. He was allowed to leave only to attend the Torrance Community Theater, where he participated in such plays as Two Plus Two Makes Sex and Romeo and Juliet. At about 15, Tarantino dropped out of Narbonne High School in Los Angeles, he worked as an usher at a porn theater in Torrance, called the Pussycat Theatre.
Tarantino attended acting classes at the James Best Theatre Company, where he met several of his eventual collaborators. While at James Best, Tarantino met Craig Hamann, with whom he collaborated to produce My Best Friend's Birthday. Throughout the 1980s, Tarantino worked a number of jobs, he spent time as a recruiter in the aerospace industry, for five years, he worked at Video Archives, a video store in Manhattan Beach, California. Former Buffy the Vampire Slayer actor Danny Strong described Tarantino as "such a movie buff, he had so much knowledge of films that he would try to get people to watch cool movies."After Tarantino met Lawrence Bender at a Hollywood party, Bender encouraged him to write a screenplay. His first attempted script, which he described as a "straight 70s exploitation action movie" was never published and was abandoned soon after. Tarantino co-wrote and directed his first movie, My Best Friend's Birthday, in 1987; the final reel of the film was completely destroyed in a lab fire that occurred during editing, but its screenplay formed the basis for True Romance.
In 1986, Tarantino got his first Hollywood job, working with Roger Avary as production assistants on Dolph Lundgren's exercise video, Maximum Potentia
Black comedy known as dark comedy or gallows humor, is a comic style that makes light of subject matter, considered taboo subjects that are considered serious or painful to discuss. Comedians use it as a tool for exploring vulgar issues, thus provoking discomfort and serious thought as well as amusement in their audience. Popular themes of the genre include death and violence, disease, sexuality and barbarism. Black comedy differs from blue comedy which focuses more on crude topics such as nudity and bodily fluids. Although the two are interrelated, black comedy is different from straightforward obscenity in that it is more subtle and does not have the explicit intention of offending people. In obscene humor, much of the humorous element comes from shock and revulsion, while black comedy might include an element of irony, or fatalism. For example, an archetypal example of black comedy in the form of self-mutilation appears in the English novel Tristram Shandy. Tristram, five years old at the time, starts to urinate out of an open window for lack of a chamber pot.
The sash circumcises him. Literary critics have associated black comedy and black humor with authors as early as the ancient Greeks with Aristophanes. Whereas the term black comedy is a broad term covering humor relating to many serious subjects, gallows humor tends to be used more in relation to death, or situations that are reminiscent of dying. Black humor can be related to the grotesque genre; the term black humor was coined by the Surrealist theorist André Breton in 1935 while interpreting the writings of Jonathan Swift. Breton's preference was to identify some of Swift's writings as a subgenre of comedy and satire in which laughter arises from cynicism and skepticism relying on topics such as death. Breton coined the term for his book Anthology of Black Humor, in which he credited Jonathan Swift as the originator of black humor and gallows humor. In his book, Breton included excerpts from 45 other writers, including both examples in which the wit arises from a victim with which the audience empathizes, as is more typical in the tradition of gallows humor, examples in which the comedy is used to mock the victim.
In the last cases, the victim's suffering is trivialized, which leads to sympathizing with the victimizer, as analogously found in the social commentary and social criticism of the writings of Sade. Among the first American writers who employed black comedy in their works were Nathanael West and Vladimir Nabokov, although at the time the genre was not known in the US; the concept of black humor first came to nationwide attention after the publication of a 1965 mass-market paperback titled Black Humor, of which the editor was Bruce Jay Friedman. The paperback was one of the first American anthologies devoted to the concept of black humor as a literary genre. With the paperback, Friedman labeled as "black humorists" a variety of authors, such as J. P. Donleavy, Edward Albee, Joseph Heller, Thomas Pynchon, John Barth, Vladimir Nabokov, Bruce Jay Friedman himself, Louis-Ferdinand Celine. Among the writers labeled as black humorists by journalists and literary critics are today Roald Dahl, Kurt Vonnegut, Warren Zevon, Christopher Durang, Philip Roth.
The motive for applying the label black humorist to all the writers cited above is that they have written novels, stories and songs in which profound or horrific events were portrayed in a comic manner. Comedians, like Lenny Bruce, that since the late 1950s have been labeled for using "sick comedy" by mainstream journalists, have been labeled with "black comedy". Sigmund Freud in his 1927 essay Humour puts forth the following theory of black comedy: "The ego refuses to be distressed by the provocations of reality, to let itself be compelled to suffer, it insists. Some other sociologists elaborated this concept further. At the same time, Paul Lewis warns that this "relieving" aspect of gallows jokes depends on the context of the joke: whether the joke is being told by the threatened person themselves or by someone else. Black comedy has the social effect of strengthening the morale of the oppressed and undermines the morale of the oppressors. According to Wylie Sypher, "to be able to laugh at evil and error means we have surmounted them."Black comedy is a natural human instinct and examples of it can be found in stories from antiquity.
Its use was widespread from where it was imported to the United States. It is rendered with the German expression Galgenhumor; the concept of gallows humor is comparable to the French expression rire jaune, which has a Germanic equivalent in the Belgian Dutch expression groen lachen. Italian comedian Daniele Luttazzi discussed gallows humour focusing on the particular type of laughter that it arouses, said that grotesque satire, as opposed to ironic satire, is the one that most
Miami the City of Miami, is the cultural and financial center of South Florida. Miami is the seat of the most populous county in Florida; the city covers an area of about 56.6 square miles, between the Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay on the east. The Miami metropolitan area is home to 6.1 million people and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Miami's metro area is the second-most populous metropolis in the southeastern United States and fourth-largest urban area in the U. S. Miami has the third tallest skyline in the United States with over 300 high-rises, 80 of which stand taller than 400 feet. Miami is a major center, a leader in finance, culture, entertainment, the arts, international trade; the Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. In 2012, Miami was classified as an Alpha − level world city in the World Cities Study Group's inventory. In 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States and 33rd among global cities in terms of business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, political engagement.
In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami "America's Cleanest City", for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets, citywide recycling programs. According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, the world's seventh-richest city in terms of purchasing power. Miami is nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America" and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality. Greater Downtown Miami has one of the largest concentrations of international banks in the United States, is home to many large national and international companies; the Civic Center is a major center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers, biotechnology industries. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the "Cruise Capital of the World", has been the number one cruise passenger port in the world, it accommodates some of the world's largest cruise ships and operations, is the busiest port in both passenger traffic and cruise lines.
Metropolitan Miami is a major tourism hub in the southeastern U. S. for international visitors, ranking number two in the country after New York City. The Miami area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous Native American tribes; the Tequestas occupied the area for a thousand years before encountering Europeans. An Indian village of hundreds of people dating to 500–600 B. C. was located at the mouth of the Miami River. In 1566 admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Florida's first governor, claimed the area for Spain. A Spanish mission was constructed one year in 1567. Spain and Great Britain successively ruled Florida. Spain ceded it to the United States in 1821. In 1836, the US built Fort Dallas as part of its development of the Florida Territory and attempt to suppress and remove the Seminole; the Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War. Miami is noted as "the only major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle", a local citrus grower and a wealthy Cleveland native.
The Miami area was better known as "Biscayne Bay Country" in the early years of its growth. In the late 19th century, reports described the area as a promising wilderness; the area was characterized as "one of the finest building sites in Florida." The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the only ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler, a railroad tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railway to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami." Miami was incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896, with a population of just over 300. It was derived from Mayaimi, the historic name of Lake Okeechobee. Black labor played a crucial role in Miami's early development. During the beginning of the 20th century, migrants from the Bahamas and African-Americans constituted 40 percent of the city's population. Whatever their role in the city's growth, their community's growth was limited to a small space.
When landlords began to rent homes to African-Americans in neighborhoods close to Avenue J, a gang of white men with torches visited the renting families and warned them to move or be bombed. During the early 20th century, northerners were attracted to the city, Miami prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and infrastructure; the legacy of Jim Crow was embedded in these developments. Miami's chief of police, H. Leslie Quigg, did not hide the fact that he, like many other white Miami police officers, was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Unsurprisingly, these officers enforced social codes far beyond the written law. Quigg, for example, "personally and publicly beat a colored bellboy to death for speaking directly to a white woman."The collapse of the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the 1926 Miami Hurricane, the Great Depression in the 1930s slowed development. When World War II began, well-situated on the southern coast of Florida, became a base for US defense against German submarines.
The war brought an increase in Miami's population. After Fidel Castro rose to power in Cuba in 1959, many wealthy Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the population; the city developed cultural amenities as part of the New South. In the 1980s and 1990s