A cure is a substance or procedure that ends a medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle or a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings. The medical condition could be a disease, mental illness, disability, or a condition a person considers undesirable, such as baldness or lack of breast tissue. A disease is said to be incurable if there is always a chance of the patient relapsing, no matter how long the patient has been in remission. An incurable disease may not be a terminal illness; the proportion of people with a disease that are cured by a given treatment, called the cure fraction or cure rate, is determined by comparing disease-free survival of treated people against a matched control group that never had the disease. Another way of determining the cure fraction and/or "cure time" is by measuring when the hazard rate in a diseased group of individuals returns to the hazard rate measured in the general population. Inherent in the idea of a cure is the permanent end to the specific instance of the disease.
When a person has the common cold, recovers from it, the person is said to be cured though the person might someday catch another cold. Conversely, a person that has managed a disease, such as diabetes mellitus, so that it produces no undesirable symptoms for the moment, but without permanently ending it, is not cured. Related concepts, whose meaning can differ, include response and recovery. In complex diseases, such as cancer, researchers rely on statistical comparisons of disease-free survival of patients against matched, healthy control groups; this logically rigorous approach equates indefinite remission with cure. The comparison is made through the Kaplan-Meier estimator approach; the simplest cure rate model was published by Berkson and Gage in 1952. In this model, the survival at any given time is equal to those that are cured plus those that are not cured, but who have not yet died or, in the case of diseases that feature asymptomatic remissions, have not yet re-developed signs and symptoms of the disease.
When all of the non-cured people have died or re-developed the disease, only the permanently cured members of the population will remain, the DFS curve will be flat. The earliest point in time that the curve goes flat is the point at which all remaining disease-free survivors are declared to be permanently cured. If the curve never goes flat the disease is formally considered incurable; the Berkson and Gage equation is S = p + where S is the proportion of people surviving at any given point in time, p is the proportion that are permanently cured, S ∗ is an exponential curve that represents the survival of the non-cured people. Cure rate curves can be determined through an analysis of the data; the analysis allows the statistician to determine the proportion of people that are permanently cured by a given treatment, how long after treatment it is necessary to wait before declaring an asymptomatic individual to be cured. Several cure rate models exist, such as the expectation-maximization algorithm and Markov chain Monte Carlo model.
It is possible to use cure rate models to compare the efficacy of different treatments. The survival curves are adjusted for the effects of normal aging on mortality when diseases of older people are being studied. From the perspective of the patient one that has received a new treatment, the statistical model may be frustrating, it may take many years to accumulate sufficient information to determine the point at which the DFS curve flattens. Some diseases may be discovered to be technically incurable, but to require treatment so infrequently as to be not materially different from a cure. Other diseases may prove to have multiple plateaus, so that what was once hailed as a "cure" results unexpectedly in late relapses. Patients and psychologists developed the notion of psychological cure, or the moment at which the patient decides that the treatment was sufficiently to be a cure as to be called a cure. For example, a patient may declare himself to be "cured", to determine to live his life as if the cure were confirmed after treatment.
Response is a partial reduction in symptoms after treatment. Recovery is a restoration of functioning. A person, cured may not be recovered, a person who has recovered may not be cured, as in the case of a person in a temporary remission or, an asymptomatic carrier for an infectious disease. Prevention is a way to avoid an injury, disability, or disease in the first place, it will not help someone, ill. For instance, many babies and young children are vaccinated against polio and other infectious diseases, which prevents them from contracting polio, but the vaccination does not work on patients who have polio. A treatment or cure is applied after a medical problem has started. Therapy treats a problem, may or may not lead to its cure. In incurable conditions, a treatment a
Clare Teal is an English singer and broadcaster who has become famous not only for her singing, but for having signed the biggest recording contract by a British jazz singer. Teal was brought up in the Kildwick area of Yorkshire, she developed an interest in jazz from an early age, through her father's collection of 78rpm records, becoming "obsessed" with big band singers like Ella Fitzgerald and big bands like Joe Loss. She took music lessons, first on the electronic organ more formally on clarinet, before studying music at Wolverhampton University. While at university, Teal found herself without a clarinet for an unexpected examination. Deciding to sing instead, she not only got her "best grades ever", but discovered that she loved singing in public. After graduation, she started a career in advertising, singing in her spare time with amateur and semi-professional bands. Teal's break came when she was asked to stand in for Stacey Kent at a weekend festival in Llandrindod Wells; this led to a three-album contract with the jazz label Candid Records.
Her popularity soared, with appearances on radio and television bringing her to the attention of a wider public, in 2004 she released her first album for Sony Jazz in what was the biggest recording deal by any British jazz singer. Don't Talk topped the jazz charts and entered the UK Top 20 UK Albums Chart. While the majority of her recordings are cover versions of standards, her albums feature original songs and contemporary cover versions, notably a cover of "California Dreaming" by The Mamas & the Papas; this song attracted the attention of BBC Radio presenter Michael Parkinson, garnering significant publicity during her period with Candid Records. Teal has toured throughout the UK and the world, with her pianist, mini big band, or Hollywood Orchestra, she has worked with the Hallé Orchestra, BBC Concert Orchestra, RTÉ Concert Orchestra, the John Wilson Orchestra as well as other top big bands. In August 2017, she presented her third concert for The Proms. Swing No End featured two big bands and many special guests.
It was broadcast on BBC Radio 2, BBC Radio 3, televised on BBC Four. From 2006-2013 Teal presented the BBC Radio 2 show, Big Band Special. In 2009 she started presenting her own show on BBC Radio 2, she has appeared. Since 2 August 2009, she took over from Malcolm Laycock, she writes a weekly blog for The Yorkshire Post. Teal collaborated with Van Morrison on the single "Carrying a Torch" from his album Duets: Reworking the Catalogue, she was the opening act for Liza Minnelli at the Royal Festival Hall. She performed at the Marlborough Jazz Festival. Teal lives in Glastonbury with her girlfriend. In 2007, she said that, although she had lived in Bath for more than a decade, she still feels like a Northerner, saying she is "never not from Yorkshire". British Jazz Vocalist of the Year, 2005, 2007,2015 and 2017 BBC Jazz Vocalist of the Year, 2006 Arts & Entertainment Personality of the Year, 2004, 2011 Gold Badge, British Academy of Songwriters and Authors, 2011 Nice Work That's the Way It Is Orsino's Songs The Road Less Travelled Don't Talk Paradisi Carousel Get Happy Live at Ebenezer Chapel Hey Ho And So It Goes with Grant Windsor In Good Company with Grant Windsor, Pee Wee Ellis At Your Request A Tribute to Ella Fitzgerald The Swing & Big Band Show with Clare Teal
This is a timeline of events during the Iraqi Civil War in 2017. 2 January – January 2017 Baghdad bombings: A series of car bombings in Sadr City and other parts of Baghdad killed at least 56 people and injured more than 120 others. Gunmen wearing suicide vests attacked two police stations in the central Iraqi city of Samarra, killing at least 7 officers. 5 January – A car bombing at a food market in the al-Obeidi area in Baghdad killed 9 people and left 15 others wounded. After nightfall a suicide car bomber killed 11 and injured 22 near a security checkpoint in Bab al-Muadam. Several smaller attacks around the city injured 20 others. 6 January – A police checkpoint near Tikrit was attacked by suicide bombers and a car bomb. Four police officers and two attackers were killed. 8 January – Islamic State claimed responsibility for a pair of suicide car bombings in Baghdad. At least 20 were killed and more than 50 others were injured. 11 January – A car bomb detonated in the al-Bayaa district of Baghdad, killing one person and wounding five others.
14 January – Islamic State militants burned a family of five people in Kirkuk. 16 January – One person was killed and five others were wounded when two explosive devices exploded in Baghdad. 18 January – A car bomb blast hit the Shi'ite neighborhood of Abu Dsheer in Baghdad. 20 January – An Iraqi elder and his grandson were killed in western Mosul in an explosion caused by a bomb dropped from an Islamic State guided drone. 24 January – the Eastern half of Mosul city had been liberated from ISIL control, the Iraqi Army began advancing into Western Mosul soon after. 25 January – Two explosions caused by car bombs killed two civilians and wounded nine others in the Iraqi capital. 26 January – A bombing at a market in south Baghdad killed one person and wounded five others. Earlier in the day, an attack on a militia-held checkpoint injured three. An Islamic State drone dropped explosives on a house in central Mosul wounding three members of the same family 28 January – A bomb kills one and another four were injured in Baghdad.
A suicide bombing in Fallujah kills at least two police officers and another two were injured. 30 January – An explosion killed one person and wounded four near a market in southern Baghdad. An explosion in Mosul left at least three children dead. 1 February – The Islamic State executed five civilians in Hawija. 2 February – An explosion killed one person and wounded three near a market in southern Baghdad. Another bombing earlier wounded two civilians. 7 February – The Islamic State executed fifteen civilians in a village north of Mosul. 8 February – The Islamic State executed twenty civilians in Mosul by burning them for alleged collaboration with Iraqi security forces. Seven Islamic State fighters were executed for desertion. One person was killed and nineteen were wounded by Islamic State drone strikes. A roadside bomb blast killed two Iraqi troops in western Iraq on Wednesday, according to a military officer; the explosion struck as a military vehicle was passing on a highway in western Ramadi, the provincial capital of Anbar province.
9 February – Nine persons were killed in two rocket attacks in east Mosul. 10 February – At least ten people were killed and 33 others wounded in a car bomb explosion in the Iraqi capital of Baghdad. 12 February – Islamic State militants burned to death 15 civilians in Kirkuk, including children, for attempted to escape territory they control. 13 February – The Islamic State shelled a school north of Mosul killing three students and a teacher, wounding 24 others. 15 February – Several bombings killed eighteen people and wounded at least 30 including a car bomb near a market in baghdad that killed five and wounded 20. Three people were killed and four were wounded by an Islamic State drone strike in eastern Mosul; the Islamic State executed 13 civilians by drowning them in metal cages in Mosul. The Islamic State executed 8 civilians in Hawija. 16 February – At least 59 people were killed and more than 60 others were wounded in a car bomb explosion at a car dealership in Baghdad. 17 February – Islamic State militants attacked a Popular Mobilization Forces battalion headquarters southeast of Tikrit, killing eight militia members and injuring an unknown number.
19 February – Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi, announced the start of the operation to capture western Mosul. Two persons were killed by an Islamic State suicide bomber in eastern Mosul. 20 February – Islamic State drones and rocket shelling killed 11 civilians in areas recaptured by security forces in eastern Mosul. An IED bombing at a market killed wounded four in western Baghdad. 21 February – A car bombing in the southwestern Baghdad neighborhood of Amiriya killed 7 civilians and injured at least 30 others. A police officer was executed by Islamic State militants. 24 February – Islamic State militants attacked an Iraqi border crossing outside of Rutba with a suicide car bomb and gunmen. 15 soldiers were killed including 2 officers. No reports on injuries. 25 February – Four bombs blew up near a pipeline in Kirkuk. One member of the Peshmerga was killed and two others were wounded. 26 February – Prominent Rudaw Media Network journalist Shifa Gardi was killed along with a Popular Mobilization Forces commander and four militia fighters while she was conducting a report on a suspected mass grave south of Mosul.
At least 8 others were injured in the roadside bombing, including Gardi's cameraman. 1 March – Seven civilians were wounded due to Islamic State chemical attack on western Mosul. 4 March – An improvised explosive device exploded, at noon, near a popular market in al-Shaab area, north of Baghdad, wounding two civilians. 6 March – 4 civilians were killed and 25 others were injured due to Islamic State