Northeast Region, Brazil
The Northeast Region of Brazil is one of the five official and political regions of the country according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. For the socio-geographic area see Nordeste. Of Brazil's twenty-six states, it comprises nine: Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Alagoas and Bahia, along with the Fernando de Noronha archipelago. Chiefly known as Nordeste in Brazil, this region was the first to be discovered and colonized by the Portuguese and other European peoples, playing a crucial role in the country's history. Nordeste's dialects and rich culture, including its folklore, cuisines and literature, became the most distinguishable across the country. To this day, Nordeste is recognized for its history and culture, as well as for its beautiful natural sights and its hot weather. Nordeste stretches from the Atlantic seaboard in the northeast and southeast and west to the Amazon Basin and south through the Espinhaço highlands in southern Bahia, it encloses the São Francisco River and drainage basin, which were instrumental in the exploration and economic development of the region.
The region lies within the earth's tropical zone and encompasses Caatinga, Atlantic Forest and part of the Cerrado ecoregions. The climate is hot and semi-arid, varying from xeric in Caatinga, to mesic in Cerrado and hydric in the Atlantic Forest; the Northeast Region represents 18% of Brazilian territory, has a population of 53.6 million people, 28% of the total population of the country, contributes 13.4% of Brazil's GDP. Nearly three quarters of the population live in urban areas clustered along the Atlantic coast and about 15 million people live in the hinterland, it is an impoverished region: 58% of the population lives in poverty, defined as less than $2/day. Each of the states' capitals are its largest cities, they include Recife, Fortaleza and São Luís, all lying on the Atlantic coast, each with a population above a million inhabitants. Nordeste has nine international airports, the region has the second largest number of passengers in Brazil; the Zona da Mata comprises the rainforest zones of Nordeste in the humid eastern coast, where the region's largest capital cities are located.
The forest area was much larger before suffering from centuries of exploration. For many years, sugar cane cultivation in this region was the mainstay of Brazil's economy, being superseded only when coffee production developed in the late 19th century; the sugar cane is cultivated on large estates and the owners of these had and maintain tremendous political influence. Since the escarpment does not generate any further rainfall on its slopes from the lifting of the trade winds, annual rainfall decreases inland. After a short distance, there is no longer enough rainfall to support tropical rainforest since the rainfall is erratic from year to year; this transitional zone is known as the agreste and because it is located on the steep escarpment, was not used whilst flatter land was abundant. Today, with irrigation water available, the agreste, as its name suggest, is a major farming region. Despite containing no major city, it contains well developed medium large cities such as Caruaru, Campina Grande and Arapiraca.
In Portuguese, the word sertão first referred to the vast hinterlands of Asia and South America that Lusitanian explorers encountered. In Brazil, the geographical term referred to backlands away from the Atlantic coastal regions where the Portuguese first settled in South America in the early sixteenth century. Geographically, the Sertão consists of low uplands that form part of the Brazilian Highlands. Most parts of the sertão are between 200 and 500 meters above sea level, with higher elevations found on the eastern edge in the Planalto da Borborema, where it merges into a sub-humid region known as agreste, in the Serra da Ibiapaba in western Ceará and in the Serro do Periquito of central Pernambuco. In the north, the Sertão extends to the northern coastal plains of Rio Grande do Norte state, whilst in the south it fades out in the northern fringe of Minas Gerais; because the Sertão lies close to the equator, temperatures remain nearly uniform throughout the year and are tropical extremely hot in the west.
However, the sertão is distinctive in its low rainfall compared to other areas of Brazil. Because of the cool temperatures in the South Atlantic Ocean, the intertropical convergence zone remains north of the region for most of the year, so that most of the year is dry. Although annual rainfall averages between 500 and 800 millimeters over most of the sertão and 1300 millimeters on the northern coast at Fortaleza, it is confined to a short rainy season; this season extends from January to April in the west, but in the eastern sertão it occurs from March to June. However, rainfall is erratic and in some years the rains are minimal, leading to catastrophic drought. Meio-Norte is a transition area between the high rainfalls region of Amazon Rainforest and the semi arid region of Sertão covering the state of Maranhão and half of Piaui; the Northeast region comprises the drainage basins of the São Francisco, Canindé, Parnaíba Rivers. Geographically, Nordeste consists chiefly of an eroded continental craton with many low hills and small ranges.
The highest peaks are around 1,850 metres in Bahia, while further north there are no
Municipalities of Brazil
The municipalities of Brazil are administrative divisions of the Brazilian states. At present, Brazil has 5,570 municipalities, making the average municipality population 34,361; the average state in Brazil has 214 municipalities. Roraima is the least subdivided state, with 15 municipalities, while Minas Gerais is the most subdivided state, with 853; the Federal District cannot be divided into municipalities, according to the Brazilian Constitution, the Federal District assumes the same constitutional and legal powers and obligations of the states and municipalities, instead, it is divided by administrative regions. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution treats the municipalities as parts of the Federation and not dependent subdivisions of the states; each municipality has an autonomous local government, comprising a mayor and a legislative body called municipal chamber. Both the local government and the legislative body are directly elected by the population every four years; these elections take place at the same time all over the country.
Each municipality has the constitutional power to approve its own laws, as well as collecting taxes and receiving funds from the state and federal governments. However, municipal governments have no judicial power, courts are only organised at the state or federal level. A subdivision of the state judiciary, or comarca, can either correspond to an individual municipality or encompass several municipalities; the seat of the municipal administration is a nominated city, with no specification in the law about the minimum population, area or facilities. The city always has the same name as the municipality. Municipalities can be subdivided, only for administrative purposes, into districts. Other populated sites with no legal effect or regulation. All municipalities are subdivided into neighbourhoods, although most municipalities do not define their neighbourhood limits. Municipalities can be split or merged to form new municipalities within the borders of the state, if the population of the involved municipalities expresses a desire to do so in a plebiscite.
However, these must abide by the Brazilian Constitution, forming exclaves or seceding from the state or union is expressly forbidden. Municipalities of Acre Municipalities of Alagoas Municipalities of Amapá Municipalities of Amazonas Municipalities of Bahia Municipalities of Ceará Municipalities of Espírito Santo Municipalities of Goiás Municipalities of Maranhão Municipalities of Mato Grosso Municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul Municipalities of Minas Gerais Municipalities of Pará Municipalities of Paraíba Municipalities of Paraná Municipalities of Pernambuco Municipalities of Piauí Municipalities of Rio de Janeiro Municipalities of Rio Grande do Norte Municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul Municipalities of Rondônia Municipalities of Roraima Municipalities of Santa Catarina Municipalities of São Paulo Municipalities of Sergipe Municipalities of Tocantins Lists of cities List of largest cities in Brazil List of municipalities of Brazil Administrative region Map on the World Gazetteer at Archive.today Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
Paraíba is a state of Brazil. It is located in the Brazilian Northeast, it is bordered by Rio Grande do Norte to the north, Ceará to the west, Pernambuco to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Paraíba is the third most densely populated state of the Northeast. Paraíba is most populated along the Atlantic coast, which extends as far as Ponta do Seixas, the easternmost point of the Americas; the state is industrial hotspot. It is named after the Paraíba river; some of the most notable Brazilian writers and poets are from Paraíba like Augusto dos Anjos, José Américo de Almeida, José Lins do Rego, Ariano Suassuna and Pedro Américo, the last being known for his historical paintings. See also: History of ParaíbaIn the mid-16th century, settlers from Spain and Portugal and Itamaracá founded Filipéia de Nossa Senhora das Neves at the mouth of the Paraíba do Norte River; the area soon proved perfect for sugar production, with the French, the Dutch and the Portuguese all fighting to control the Paraíba region to grow the lucrative sugarcane in.
The fortress of Santa Catarina, near João Pessoa, was built to protect the city from the Dutch, who soon became a threat to Portuguese supremacy in Brazil. In late 1989 a team led by gemstone prospector Heitor Dimas Barbosa uncovered in a small mountain range what some consider to be the finest tourmaline crystals found. A trace of copper gives the tourmalines a vivid turquoise color that had never been seen before in the gems, is sometimes referred to as "neon"; the "neon" paraiba tourmaline, a vivid blue and blue green, has been found in other deposits close to the Batalha mine of Barbosa, in the neighboring state of Rio Grande do Norte. The bright colors of this tourmaline are due to the presence of copper. Around 2000, a similar copper-containing tourmaline was found in Nigeria, although the colors are not as intense. Around 2005, beautiful crystals of copper-containing tourmaline were found in Mozambique; the nomenclature for this tourmaline was "Paraíba tourmaline". Note the capitalization and the accent on the "i".
In 2006, the LMHC agreed that "paraiba" should refer to a variety of tourmaline, not indicate a geographic origin. Note "paraiba" is not capitalized, does not have an accent on the "i". For more information on paraiba tourmaline, see article on tourmaline; the term "paraiba tourmaline" may now refer to gems found in Brazil and Mozambique that contain copper and have the characteristic blue-green color. According to the IBGE census as of 2010, there were 3,766,528 people residing in the state, with a population density of 66.7 inh./km². Other numbers include: Urbanization rate: 75.4%, Population growth: 0.8% and Houses: 987,000. The 2010 census revealed the following figures relating ethnicity: 1,986,619 Brown people, 1,499,253 White, 212,968 Black and 67,636 people of Amerindian and Asian ancestry. Among people of mixed ancestry the White and African altogether combination is the most prevalent one, followed by caboclo and zambo. Vehicles: 432,337; the service sector is the largest component of GDP at 56.5%, followed by the industrial sector at 33.1%.
Agriculture represents 10.4%, of GDP. Paraíba exports: woven of cotton 36.3%, footweares 20.1%, sugar and alcohol 10.8%, fish and crustacean 9.7%, sisal 7%, cotton 6.6%. Share of the Brazilian economy: 0.8%. The Paraíba economy is based upon the making of shoes and other leather products, the raising of cattle for beef, sugarcane, corn. Though sugarcane has dominated the Paraíba agricultural sector, pineapple and beans cultivation are widespread; the other important economical sector in the state is tourism the state urban and unspoilt beaches and festivals such as "carnaval" and "São João." Portuguese is the official and only language spoken in the state and thus the primary language taught in schools. Minor dialectal differences regarding other Brazilian varieties are phonological. English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. Universidade Federal da Paraíba. Festa Junina was introduced to Northeastern Brazil by the Portuguese for whom St John's day, on the 24th of June, is one of the oldest and most popular celebrations of the year.
Differently, of course, from what happens on the European Midsummer Day, the festivities in Brazil do not take place during the summer solstice but during the winter solstice. The festivities traditionally begin after the 12th of June, on the eve of St Anthony's day, last until the 29th, Saint Peter's day. During these fifteen days
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro