Tofu known as bean curd, is a food prepared by coagulating soy milk and pressing the resulting curds into solid white blocks of varying softness. It is a traditional component of Southeast Asian cuisines, it can be silken, firm, or extra firm. It has a subtle flavor, so it can be used in savory and sweet dishes, it is seasoned or marinated to suit the dish and its flavors, absorbs flavours well. Nutritionally, tofu is low in calories, while containing a large amount of protein, it is high in iron, can have a high calcium or magnesium content depending on the coagulants used in manufacturing. The English term "tofu" comes from Japanese tōfu, borrowed from the original Chinese equivalent "bean" + "curdled" or "fermented". A reference to the word towfu exists in a letter dated 1770 from the English merchant James Flint to American statesman and scientist Benjamin Franklin; this is believed to be the first documented use of the word in English. The term "bean curd" for tofu has been used in the United States since at least 1840.
It is used outside of the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Tofu-making was first recorded during the Chinese Han dynasty some 2,000 years ago. Chinese legend ascribes its invention to Prince Liu An. Tofu and its production technique were introduced to Japan during the Nara period; some scholars believe tofu arrived in Vietnam during the 11th centuries. It spread to other parts of Southeast Asia as well; this coincided with the spread of Buddhism as it is an important source of protein in the vegetarian diet of East Asian Buddhism. Li Shizhen, during the Ming Dynasty, described a method of making tofu in the Compendium of Materia Medica. Since tofu has become a staple in many countries, including Vietnam and Korea, with regional variations in production methods, texture and usage; the most held of the three theories of tofu's origin maintains that tofu was discovered by Lord Liu An, a Han Dynasty prince. While plausible, the paucity of reliable sources for this period makes this difficult to conclusively determine.
In Chinese history, important inventions were attributed to important leaders and figures of the time. In 1960, a stone mural unearthed from an Eastern Han dynasty tomb provided support for the theory of Han origin of tofu. Another theory suggests that the production method for tofu was discovered accidentally when a slurry of boiled, ground soybeans was mixed with impure sea salt; such sea salt would have contained calcium and magnesium salts, allowing the soy mixture to curdle and produce a tofu-like gel. The last group of theories maintains that the ancient Chinese learned the method for curdling soy milk by emulating the milk curdling techniques of the Mongolians or East Indians. Despite their advanced culture, no technology or knowledge of culturing and processing milk products existed within ancient Chinese society; the primary evidence for this theory is the etymological similarity between the Chinese term for Mongolian fermented milk and the term doufu or tofu. Although intriguing and possible, there is no evidence to substantiate this theory beyond academic speculation.
A form of tofu may have been discovered during the Han dynasty, but it did not become a popular food in China until the Song dynasty. In China, tofu is traditionally used as a food offering when visiting the graves of deceased relatives, it is claimed that the spirits have long lost their chins and jaws, so that only tofu is soft enough for them to eat. Before refrigeration was available in China, tofu was only sold during winter, since tofu did not spoil as in cold weather. During the warmer months, once made, spoiled if stored for more than a day. Chinese war hero Guan Yu used to be a tofu maker. Chinese martial arts expert and hero Yim Wing-chun was a celebrated tofu maker in her village. Tofu was introduced to Japan during the Nara period by Zen Buddhist monks, who called it "Chinese curd". Much of tofu's early use in Asia was as a vegetarian substitute for meat and fish by Buddhist monks those following Zen Buddhism; the earliest Japanese document concerning tofu refers to the dish being served as an offering at the Kasuga Shrine in Nara in 1183.
The book Tofu Hyakuchin, published in the Edo period, lists 100 recipes for cooking tofu. In Southeast Asia, tofu was introduced to the region by Chinese immigrants from Fujian province, as evidenced by many countries in Southeast Asia referring to tofu using the Min Nan Chinese pronunciations for either soft and firm tofu, or "tāu-hū" and "tāu-goan" respectively. In Indonesia, Singapore, Cambodia and the Philippines, tofu is available and used in many local dishes. Tofu is called tahu in Indonesia, Indonesian dishes such as tahu sumbat, taugeh tahu, asinan and some curries add slices of tofu. Tahu goreng, tahu isi and tahu sumedang are popular fried tofu snacks. Tofu is called tauhu in Singapore. Malaysian and Singaporean Indians use tofu in their cuisine, such as in Indian mee gore
Chicken as food
Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world. Owing to the relative ease and low cost of raising them in comparison to animals such as cattle or hogs, chickens have become prevalent throughout the cuisine of cultures around the world, their meat has been variously adapted to regional tastes. Chicken can be prepared in a vast range of ways, including baking, barbecuing and boiling, among many others, depending on its purpose. Since the latter half of the 20th century, prepared chicken has become a staple of fast food. Chicken is sometimes cited as being more healthful than red meat, with lower concentrations of cholesterol and saturated fat; the poultry farming industry that accounts for chicken production takes on a range of forms across different parts of the world. In developed countries, chickens are subject to intensive farming methods, while less-developed areas raise chickens using more traditional farming techniques; the United Nations estimates there to be 19 billion chickens on Earth today, making them outnumber humans more than two to one.
The modern chicken is a descendant of red junglefowl hybrids along with the grey junglefowl first raised thousands of years ago in the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Chicken as a meat has been depicted in Babylonian carvings from around 600 BC. Chicken was one of the most common meats available in the Middle Ages. For thousands of years, a number of different kinds of chicken have been eaten across most of the Eastern hemisphere, including capons and hens, it was one of the basic ingredients in blancmange, a stew consisting of chicken and fried onions cooked in milk and seasoned with spices and sugar. In the United States in the 1800s, chicken was more expensive than other meats and it was "sought by the rich because so costly as to be an uncommon dish." Chicken consumption in the U. S. increased during World War II due to a shortage of pork. In Europe, consumption of chicken overtook that of beef and veal in 1996, linked to consumer awareness of Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Modern varieties of chicken such as the Cornish Cross, are bred for meat production, with an emphasis placed on the ratio of feed to meat produced by the animal.
The most common breeds of chicken consumed in the U. S. are White Rock. Chickens raised for food are called broilers. In the U. S. broilers are butchered at a young age. Modern Cornish Cross hybrids, for example, are butchered as early as 8 weeks for fryers and 12 weeks for roasting birds. Capons produce fattier meat. For this reason, they are considered a delicacy and were popular in the Middle Ages. Main Breast: These are white meat and are dry. Leg: Comprises two segments: The "drumstick". Wing: Often served as a light meal or bar food. Buffalo wings are a typical example. Comprises three segments: the "drumette", shaped like a small drumstick, this is white meat, the middle "flat" segment, containing two bones, the tip discarded. Other Chicken feet: These contain little meat, are eaten for the skin and cartilage. Although considered exotic in Western cuisine, the feet are common fare in other cuisines in the Caribbean and China. Giblets: organs such as the heart and liver may be included inside a butchered chicken or sold separately.
Head: Considered a delicacy in China, the head is split down the middle, the brains and other tissue is eaten. Kidneys: Normally left in when a broiler carcass is processed, they are found in deep pockets on each side of the vertebral column. Neck: This is served in various Asian dishes, it is stuffed to make helzel among Ashkenazi Jews. Oysters: Located on the back, near the thigh, these small, round pieces of dark meat are considered to be a delicacy. Pygostyle and testicles: These are eaten in East Asia and some parts of South East Asia. By-products Blood: Immediately after slaughter, blood may be drained into a receptacle, used in various products. In many Asian countries, the blood is poured into low, cylindrical forms, left to congeal into disc-like cakes for sale; these are cut into cubes, used in soup dishes. Carcass: After the removal of the flesh, this is used for soup stock. Chicken eggs: The most well-known and well-consumed byproduct. Heart and gizzard: in Brazilian churrascos, chicken hearts are an seen delicacy.
Liver: This is the largest organ of the chicken, is used in such dishes as Pâté and chopped liver. Schmaltz: This is produced by rendering the fat, is used in various dishes. Chicken meat contains about two to three times as much polyunsaturated fat as most types of red meat when measured as weight percentage. Chicken includes low fat in the meat itself; the fat is concentrated on the skin. A 100g serving of baked chicken breast contains 4 grams of fat and 31 grams of protein, compared to 10 grams of fat and 27 grams of protein for the same portion of broiled, lean skirt steak. In factory farming, chickens are administered with the feed additive Roxarsone, an organoarsenic compound which decomposes into inorganic arsenic compounded in the flesh of chickens, in their feces, which are used as a fertilizer; the compound is used to promote growth. In a 2013 sample conducted by the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health of chicken meat from poultry producers that did not prohibit roxarsone, 70% of the samples in the US had levels which exceeded the safety limits as set by the FDA.
The FDA has since revi
Malaysian Indian cuisine
Malaysian Indian cuisine, or the cooking of the ethnic Indian communities in Malaysia consists of adaptations of authentic dishes from India, as well as original creations inspired by the diverse food culture of Malaysia. Because the vast majority of Malaysia's Indian community are of South Indian descent, are ethnic Tamils who are descendants of immigrants from a historical region which consists of the modern Indian state of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka's Northern Province, much of Malaysian Indian cuisine is predominantly South Indian inspired in character and taste. A typical Malaysian Indian dish is to be redolent with curry leaves and powdered spice, contains fresh coconut in various forms. Ghee is still used for cooking, although vegetable oils and refined palm oils are now commonplace in home kitchens. Before a meal it is customary to wash hands as cutlery is not used while eating, with the exception of a serving spoon for each respective dish; as nearly 90% of Malaysian Indians originated from South India, banana leaf were one most favorite food.
The meal were famous in Malaysia. With rice at the center and different accompaniments like pickle, fried meat or vegetable, papadam, it’s a feast by itself and various curries that are served around this is not just a treat for the eyes but to the palate. Etiquette is important. One part involves the practice of serving, namely the way the leaf is placed before a diner and where the food is placed on the leaf itself. Eating with your hands is a must The folding aspect of the banana leaf is contentious with many believing it to be a rating system – fold towards you if you’re satisfied and fold away if you’re not. Chettinad cuisine, the cuisine of the Chettinad region in Tamil Nadu, is popular and available at specialist restaurants; the traditional cookery of the Chettiar community is distinct from the predominantly vegetarian fare of Tamil cuisine as it is based on robustly spiced meat preparations. Coconut milk is sparingly used in favour of liberal quantities of onions and tomatoes to flavour and thicken curries.
Mamak dishes have developed a distinctly Malaysian style. Available throughout the country, the omnipresent Mamak stalls or restaurants are popular among the locals as they offer a wide range of food and some outlets are open 24 hours a day. A type of Indian Muslim meal served buffet-style at specialist Mamak eateries is called nasi kandar, white rice or briyani rice served with other dishes of curry either with chicken, beef, or mutton, accompanied with pickled vegetables and papadum. People of all races and ages frequent mamak stalls to gossip or catch a late-night football game while enjoying a cup of hot teh tarik. No other eatery has quite as much cultural significance in Malaysia, save for the kopitiam. Achar: known as Indian pickles, achar are made from certain individual varieties of vegetables and fruits that are chopped into small pieces and cooked in edible oils like sesame oil or brine with many different spices. Appam: a type of bowl-shaped pancake made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk.
Attukal Paya: Mutton leg soup. Local version known as Sup kambing Avial: a vegetable stew made from julienned or shredded vegetables sauteed in coconut oil and seasoned with spices like curry leaves, cumin powder and green chilies; the vegetables are simmered with coconut milk and finished off with some yoghurt. Banana leaf rice: White rice is served on a banana leaf with an assortment of vegetables, curried meat or fish, pickles or papadum. To show your appreciation after a satisfying meal, fold the banana leaf towards you to signify that the meal was good. Folding the opposite direction signifies that the meal was not satisfying. Biryani or nasi beriani: a flavoured rice dish cooked or served with mutton, vegetable or fish curry. Basmati rice is used. Alternatively, dum biryani is a version more akin to the traditional South Asian dish, a variant that bakes the spiced meat with the rice. Butter chicken a famous Punjabi food. Chapati: a type of North Indian style flatbread, it is made from a dough of atta flour and salt by rolling the dough out into discs of twelve centimetres in diameter and browning the discs on both sides on a hot, dry tava or frying pan with no oil.
Chapatis are eaten with vegetable curry dishes, pieces of the chapati are used to wrap around and pick up each bite of the cooked dish. Chicken 65: a spicy, deep-fried chicken dish originating from Tamil Nadu; the flavour of the dish comes from ginger, cayenne pepper, mustard powder and vinegar although the exact recipe can vary. It can be prepared using chicken off the bone. Curry leaves play an important role in the flavour. Chicken kali mirchi: a chicken dish cooked in a sauce predominantly flavoured with coarsely ground black pepper, popular in Pakistan.. Chutney: the term chutney refers to a family of condiments associated with South Asian cuisine that contain some mixture of spices, vegetables or fruits. Chutneys may be either wet or dry, can have a coarse to a fine texture. Dal makhani: Punjabi-style lentil stew made with whole urad dhal and cream. Fish head curry: a dish with some Chinese and Malay influences; the head of a Red snapper is stewed in curry consisting of varying amounts of coconut milk and tamarind juice with vegetables (lady's fingers and brin
Ayam kecap or ayam masak kicap is a Maritime Southeast Asia chicken dish poached or simmered in sweet soy sauce found in Indonesia and Malaysia. In Indonesia, ayam kecap is pieces of chicken simmered in kecap manis, spiced with shallot or onion, ginger, pepper and tomato. Other version might add richer spices, including nutmeg and cloves. In Indonesia, the term ayam kecap is interchangeable with ayam goreng kecap and semur ayam, Indonesian sweet soy stew which uses chicken instead of beef. Since all of them are similar — if not identical, recipes of chicken cooked in sweet soy sauce. However, semur ayam add richer spices, which includes clove and star anise. On the other hand, ayam goreng kecap has thicker sweet soy sauce and added with slices of fresh lime or splash of lime juices; the main difference is its water content, despite quite moist, both ayam kecap and ayam goreng kecap are dryer and has thicker soy sauce compared to semur ayam, more watery. In Indonesian, fried chicken in sweet soy sauce is a typical chicken dish served across Indonesia.
However, it is more of Javanese-Chinese origin. The recipe follows the production of Indonesian kecap manis. Soy sauce production is linked to Chinese influence in the archipelago. However, Indonesian Javanese version of soy sauce has its own twist, a generous addition of thick liquid palm sugar with consistency of molasses; the ayam kecap pedas is a spicier version which add generous amount of chili pepper. In Indonesia, ayam kecap is poached chicken cut in pieces, which includes its bones. However, there is a variant called ayam panggang kecap which uses identical sweet soy sauce and spices, but the chicken is boneless fillet and being grilled instead of being fried; the Malay ayam masak kicap is different from the Chinese version of soy sauce chicken as the chicken meat is cut into pieces and mixed with its own spices. Ayam bakar Ayam goreng Ayam taliwang Babi kecap Soy sauce chicken List of chicken dishes
Bubur kacang hijau
Bubur kacang hijau, abbreviated Burjo is an Indonesian sweet dessert made from mung beans porridge with coconut milk and palm sugar or cane sugar. The beans are boiled till soft, sugar and coconut milk are added, it is sometimes referred to as "kacang hijau," meaning "green bean". Bubur means porridge. Different names may be used in different regions of Indonesia, such as kacang ijo in Javanese areas, it is served as dessert or snack. In Indonesia, warungs that specialize in selling bubur kacang hijau are found, they also offering roti bakar, half cooked boiled egg and instant noodle. The most basic variant of bubur kacang hijau only consists of mung bean porridge, coconut milk and palm sugar. However, in most part of Indonesia, bubur kacang hijau is always served with ketan hitam, accompanied with bread; the black glutinous rice is can be made as sweet porridge as bubur ketan hitam. Sometimes a special bubur kacang hijau mix with durian is prepared, it is served as it can be eaten together with bread.
Most of bubur kacang hijau are served warm, another variant with identical ingredients is served cold. It is called ais kacang hijau in Malaysia. Es or ais means "ice". Bubur cha cha List of desserts List of legume dishes List of porridges Red bean paste
Asam pedas is a Minangkabau and Malay sour and spicy fish stew dish. It is popular in Malaysia; the spicy and sour fish dish is known in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. It is part of the culinary heritage of both Minangkabau and Malay traditions, thus its exact origin is unclear; the Minang asam padeh can be found throughout Padang restaurants in Indonesia and Malaysia. It has become a typical cuisine of Malays from Jambi, Riau Islands, as far north in Aceh; the spice mixture and the fish used might be different according to the area. The main ingredients in asam pedas are seafood or freshwater fish, they are cooked in asam fruit juice with spices. The cooking process involves soaking the pulp of the tamarind fruit until it is soft and squeezing out the juice for cooking the fish. Asam paste may be substituted for convenience. Vegetables such as terong or brinjals and tomatoes are added. Fish and seafood — such as mackerel, mackerel tuna, skipjack tuna, red snapper, pangasius, hemibagrus or cuttlefish — either the whole body or sometimes only the fish heads are added to make a spicy and tart fish stew.
It is important that the fish remain intact for serving so the fish is added last. In Indonesia, the most common fish used in asam pedas is tongkol. Kaeng som is the Thai version of asam pedas. In Bengal, India there is a similar dish. Pindang Fish stew List of fish dishes List of stews
Ambuyat is a dish derived from the interior trunk of the sago palm. It is a starchy bland substance, similar to tapioca starch. Ambuyat is the national dish of Brunei, a local delicacy in the Malaysian states of Sarawak and the federal territory of Labuan, where it is sometimes known as linut. Ambuyat is eaten with a bamboo fork called a chandas, by rolling the starch around the prongs and dipping it into a sauce, of which there are many varieties. There is a similar dish in eastern Indonesia called papeda. List of delicacies