Cursus honorum

The cursus honorum was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire. It was designed for men of senatorial rank; the cursus honorum comprised a mixture of political administration posts. Each office had a minimum age for election. There were minimum intervals between holding successive offices and laws forbade repeating an office; these rules were flagrantly ignored in the course of the last century of the Republic. For example, Gaius Marius held consulships for five years in a row between 104 BC and 100 BC, he was consul seven times in all serving in 107 and 86. Presented as opportunities for public service, the offices became mere opportunities for self-aggrandizement; the reforms of Sulla required a ten-year interval before holding the same office again for another term. To have held each office at the youngest possible age was considered a great political success. For instance, to miss out on a praetorship at 39 meant that one could not become consul at 42.

Cicero expressed extreme pride not only in being a novus homo who became consul though none of his ancestors had served as a consul, but in having become consul "in his year". The cursus honorum began with ten years of military duty in the Roman cavalry or in the staff of a general, a relative or a friend of the family; the ten years of service were intended to be mandatory in order to qualify for political office, but in practice, the rule was not always rigidly applied. A more prestigious position was that of a military tribune. In the early Roman Republic, 24 men at the age of around 20 were elected by the Tribal Assembly to serve as commanders on a rotating basis. Tribunes could be appointed by the consuls or by military commanders in the field as necessary. After the reforms of Gaius Marius in 107 BC, the six tribunes acted as staff officers for the legionary legatus and were appointed tasks and command of units of troops whenever the need arose; the subsequent steps of the cursus honorum were achieved by direct election every year.

The first official post was that of quaestor. Candidates had to be at least 30 years old. However, men of patrician rank could subtract two years from this and other minimum age requirements. Twenty quaestors served in the financial administration at Rome or as second-in-command to a governor in the provinces, they could serve as the paymaster for a legion. A young man who obtained this job was expected to become a important official. An additional task of all quaestors was the supervision of public games; as a quaestor, an official was allowed to wear the toga praetexta, but was not escorted by lictors, nor did he possess imperium. At 36 years of age, proquaestor could stand for election to one of the aedile positions. Of these aediles, two were plebeian and two were patrician, with the patrician aediles called Curule Aediles; the plebeian aediles were elected by the Plebeian Council and the curule aediles were either elected by the Tribal Assembly or appointed by the reigning consul. The aediles had administrative responsibilities in Rome.

They had to take care of the temples, organize games, be responsible for the maintenance of the public buildings in Rome. Moreover, they took charge of Rome's food supplies; the Aedile was the supervisor of public works. He oversaw the public works and markets. Therefore, the Aediles would have been in some cooperation with the current Censors, who had similar or related duties, they oversaw the organization of festivals and games, which made this a sought-after office for a career minded politician of the late republic, as it was a good means of gaining popularity by staging spectacles. Curule Aediles were added at a date in the 4th century BC, their duties do not differ from plebeian aediles. However, unlike plebeian aediles, curule aediles were allowed certain symbols of rank—the sella curulis or'curule chair,' for example—and only patricians could stand for election to curule aedile; this changed, both Plebeians and Patricians could stand for Curule Aedileship. The elections for Curule Aedile were at first alternated between Patricians and Plebeians, until late in the 2nd century BC, when the practice was abandoned and both classes became free to run during all years.

While part of the cursus honorum, this step was not required to hold future offices. Though the office was held after the quaestorship and before the praetorship, there are some cases with former praetors serving as aediles. After serving either as quaestor or as aedile, a man of 39 years could run for praetor; the number of praetors elected varied through history increasing with time. During the republic, six or eight were elected each year to serve judicial functions throughout Rome and other governmental responsibilities. In the absence of the consuls, a praetor would be given command of the garrison in Italy. A praetor could exercise the functions of the consuls throughout Rome, but their main function was that of a judge, they would preside over trials involving criminal acts, grant court orders and validate "illegal" acts as acts of administering justice. A praetor was escorted by six l


Radinskya is an extinct perissodactyl-like mammal from the Paleocene of China. It is named after palaeontologist and perissodactyl expert Leonard Radinsky who died prematurely in 1985. Before the discovery of Radinskya, palaeontologists speculated on an American origin for the tethythere-perissodactyl radiation that took place during the Paleocene-Eocene transition; the primitive Radinskya from China made it clear that this radiation began in Asia during the Paleocene, from where it spread to North America and Africa during the Eocene. With its enigmatic position at the base of this radiation, Radinskya is a member of the Chinese Paleocene fauna which includes primitive tethytheres such as Minchenella and the oldest arsinoitheres. Radinskya is known only from a partial skull and upper dentition, which makes it difficult to assess its relationships to other fossils. Rose 2006 described the upper molars as "quadrate with a rhomboid outline and a weak, π-shaped crown pattern formed by the incipient ectoloph and metaloph.

This arrangement resembles the crown pattern of early perissodactyls, but the strong conules and some other characters suggest relationship to phenacolophids" and added that "Radinskya may be the sister taxon of all other Altungulata or may be closer to the origin of Perissodactyla than is any phenacodontid."Radinskya has been included into the Embrithopoda, treated as an outgroup to perissodactyls. Other Nongshanian phenacolophids include Yuelophus, Tienshanilophus and the large form Minchenella

Alton National Cemetery

Alton National Cemetery is a United States National Cemetery located in the city of Alton, in Madison County, Illinois. Administered by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, it encompasses only half an acre plot of land, as of the end of 2005, had 522 interments, it is maintained in St. Louis, Missouri. A military section of the Alton City Cemetery, in use since 1870, the half acre lot was donated to the federal government in 1940, it was intended that the remains buried in the cemetery be moved to the Springfield National Cemetery, but public protest prevented it. It is the resting place of many Civil War Union soldiers. In 2006, Alton announced the first of what is hoped to be an annual Memorial Day Sunset Ceremony at the cemetery that will include speeches by local elected officials, a performance by the Scott Air Force Base band and Drums, a VFW 21-gun salute; this event is well-attended and has continued as of 2018. Burials are limited to cremains and, as of August 2018, soon to be limited to "second interments" of the second decedent, whether, the veteran, spouse, or a child.

Media related to Alton National Cemetery at Wikimedia Commons National Cemetery Administration Alton National Cemetery Alton National Cemetery Historic American Landscapes Survey No. IL-1, "Alton National Cemetery, 600 Pearl Street, Madison County, IL", 13 photos, 2 photo caption pages U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Alton National Cemetery Alton National Cemetery at Find a Grave