A geneticist is a biologist who studies genetics, the science of genes and variation of organisms. A geneticist can be employed as a lecturer. Geneticists perform general research on genetic processes as well as development of genetic technologies to aid in the medicine and agriculture industries; some geneticists perform experiments in model organisms such as Drosophila, C. elegans, rodents or Humans and analyze data to interpret the inheritance of biological traits. A geneticist can be a scientist who has earned a Ph. D in Genetics or a physician, trained in genetics as a specialization, they evaluate and manage patients with hereditary conditions or congenital malformations, genetic risk calculations, mutation analysis as well as refer patients to other medical specialties. The geneticist carries out studies and counsels patients with genetic disorders. Geneticists participate in courses from many areas, such as biology, physics, cell biology and mathematics, they participate in more specific genetics courses such as molecular genetics, transmission genetics, population genetics, quantitative genetics, ecological genetics, genomics.
Geneticists can work in many different fields, doing a variety of jobs. There are many careers for geneticists in medicine, wildlife, general sciences, or many other fields. Listed below are a few examples of careers a geneticist may pursue
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Eugenics is a set of beliefs and practices that aim to improve the genetic quality of a human population by excluding certain genetic groups judged to be inferior, promoting other genetic groups judged to be superior. The definition of eugenics has been a matter of debate since the term was coined by Francis Galton in 1883; the concept predates the term. Frederick Osborn's 1937 journal article "Development of a Eugenic Philosophy" framed it as a social philosophy—a philosophy with implications for social order; that definition is not universally accepted. Osborn advocated for higher rates of sexual reproduction among people with desired traits or reduced rates of sexual reproduction or sterilization of people with less-desired or undesired traits. Alternatively, by 2014, gene selection was made possible through advances in genome editing, leading to what is sometimes called new eugenics known as "neo-eugenics", "consumer eugenics", or "liberal eugenics". While eugenic principles have been practiced as early as ancient Greece, the contemporary history of eugenics began in the early 20th century, when a popular eugenics movement emerged in the United Kingdom, spread to many countries, including the United States and most European countries.
In this period, eugenic ideas were espoused across the political spectrum. Many countries adopted eugenic policies, intended to improve the quality of their populations' genetic stock; such programs included both positive measures, such as encouraging individuals deemed "fit" to reproduce, negative measures, such as marriage prohibitions and forced sterilization of people deemed unfit for reproduction. Those deemed "unfit to reproduce" included people with mental or physical disabilities, people who scored in the low ranges on different IQ tests, criminals and "deviants," and members of disfavored minority groups; the eugenics movement became associated with Nazi Germany and the Holocaust when many of the defendants at the Nuremberg trials attempted to justify their human rights abuses by claiming there was little difference between the Nazi eugenics programs and the U. S. eugenics programs. In the decades following World War II, with the institution of human rights, many countries began to abandon eugenics policies, although some Western countries, the United States and Sweden among them, continued to carry out forced sterilizations.
Since the 1980s and 1990s, with new assisted reproductive technology procedures available, such as gestational surrogacy, preimplantation genetic diagnosis, cytoplasmic transfer, fear has emerged about the possible revival of a more potent form of eugenics after decades of promoting human rights. The State of California Legislature and Governor passed a form of negative eugenics into law via SB 1095, resulting in a State law requiring the screening for "any disease" "detectable in the blood" prior to birth; the bill, still law in California, has been regarded as a form of scientific racism, though its proponents continue to claim that it is necessary. A system was proposed by California Senator Skinner to compensate victims of the well-documented examples of prison sterilizations resulting from California's eugenics programs, but this did not pass by the bill's 2018 deadline in the Legislature. A major criticism of eugenics policies is that, regardless of whether negative or positive policies are used, they are susceptible to abuse because the genetic selection criteria are determined by whichever group has political power at the time.
Furthermore, negative eugenics in particular is criticized by many as a violation of basic human rights, which include the right to reproduce. Another criticism is that eugenics policies lead to a loss of genetic diversity, thereby resulting in inbreeding depression due to a loss of genetic variation, yet another criticism of contemporary eugenics policies is that they propose to permanently and artificially disrupt millions of years of evolution, that attempting to create genetic lines "clean" of "disorders" can have far-reaching ancillary downstream effects in the genetic ecology, including negative effects on immunity and species resilience. The concept of positive eugenics to produce better human beings has existed at least since Plato suggested selective mating to produce a guardian class. In Sparta, every Spartan child was inspected by the council of elders, the Gerousia, which determined if the child was fit to live or not. In the early years of ancient Rome, a Roman father was obliged by law to kill his child if they were physically disabled.
Among the ancient Germanic tribes, people who were cowardly, unwarlike or "stained with abominable vices" were put to death by being drowned in swamps. The first formal negative eugenics, a legal provision against the birth of inferior human beings, was promulgated in Western European culture by the Christian Council of Agde in 506, which forbade marriage between cousins; this idea was promoted by William Goodell who advocated the castration and spaying of the insane. The idea of a modern project of improving the human population through a statistical understanding of heredity used to encourage good breeding was developed by Francis Galton and was linked to Darwinism and his theory of natural selection. Galton had read his half-cousin Charles Darwin's theory of
Theodosius Grygorovych Dobzhansky was a prominent Ukrainian-American geneticist and evolutionary biologist, a central figure in the field of evolutionary biology for his work in shaping the modern synthesis. Dobzhansky was born in Ukraine part of the Russian Empire, became an immigrant to the United States in 1927, aged 27, his 1937 work Genetics and the Origin of Species became a major influence on the synthesis and was awarded the US National Medal of Science in 1964, the Franklin Medal in 1973. Dobzhansky was born on January 25, 1900 in Nemyriv, Russian Empire Ukraine, an only child, his father, Grigory Dobzhansky, was a mathematics teacher, his mother was Sophia Voinarsky. In 1910 the family moved to Kiev, Russian Empire. At high school, Dobzhansky decided to become a biologist. In 1915, he met Victor Luchnik. Dobzhansky attended the Kiev State University between 1917 and 1921, where he studied until 1924 specializing in entomology, he moved to Saint Petersburg, Russia, to study under Yuri Filipchenko, where a Drosophila melanogaster lab had been established.
On August 8, 1924, Dobzhansky married geneticist Natalia "Natasha" Sivertzeva, working with I. I. Schmalhausen in Kiev, Ukraine; the Dobzhanskys had one daughter, who married the American archaeologist and anthropologist Michael D. Coe. Before moving to the United States, Dobzhansky published 35 scientific works on entomology and genetics. Dobzhansky immigrated to the United States in 1927 on a scholarship from the International Education Board of the Rockefeller Foundation to work and study in the United States. Upon arriving in New York City on December 27, he joined the Drosophila Group at Columbia University working alongside Thomas Hunt Morgan and Alfred Sturtevant, their work provided crucial information on Drosophila cytogenetics. Dobzhansky’s original mindset, was that there were serious doubts on using data obtained from phenomena happening in local populations and phenomena happening on a global scale. Filipchenko believed that there were only two types of inheritance: Mendelian inheritance of variation within species, Non-Mendelian inheritance of variation in a macroevolutionary sense.
Dobzhansky stated that Filipchenko “bet on the wrong horse”. He followed Morgan to the California Institute of Technology from 1930 to 1940. On the basis of his experiments, he articulated the idea that reproductive isolation can be caused by differences in presence of microbial symbionts between populations. In 1937, he published one of the major works of the modern evolutionary synthesis, the synthesis of evolutionary biology with genetics, entitled Genetics and the Origin of Species, which amongst other things, defined evolution as "a change in the frequency of an allele within a gene pool". Dobzhansky's work was instrumental in spreading the idea that it is through mutations in genes that natural selection takes place. In 1937, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. During this time, he had a public falling out with one of his Drosophila collaborators, Alfred Sturtevant, based in professional competition. In 1941, Dobzhansky was awarded the Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal from the National Academy of Sciences.
In 1943, the University of Sao Paulo awarded him an honorary doctorate. He returned to Columbia University from 1940 to 1962, he was one of the signatories of the 1950 UNESCO statement The Race Question. He moved to the Rockefeller Institute until his retirement in 1971. In 1972 he was elected the first president of the BGA, was recognized by the society for his role in behavior genetics, the founding of the society by the creation of the Dobzhansky Award. Dobzhansky’s work in the field of evolutionary genetics, with the help of Sewall Wright, integrated standards of the theoretical, natural historical, experimental work. Dobzhansky was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1965. In 1970, he published Genetics of the evolutionary process. Dobzhansky was a renowned biologist having been the president of the Genetics Society of America in 1941, president of the American Society of Naturalists in 1950, president of the Society for the Study of Evolution in 1951, president of the American Society of Zoologists in 1963, a member of the Board of Directors of the American Eugenics Society in 1964, president of the American Teilhard de Chardin Association in 1969.
Dobzhansky’s research and studies allowed him to travel the world and receive honorary degrees in Australia, Brazil, Denmark, Germany, Italy and Sweden. Theodosius Dobzhansky had three editions of the Origin of Species. Although his book was directed towards people with a background in biology, it was to be understood. In regards to the subjects of Genetics and Evolution, Dobzhansky’s book is recognized as one of the most important books written. With each revision of Genetics and the Origin of Species, Dobzhansky added new material with respect to crucial, up to date topics, removed material he deemed to be no longer crucial, his book sparked trends in genetic theory. At the time, Dobzhansky first edition of Genetics and the Origin of Species tried to highlight the most recent discoveries in genetics and how they applied to the concept of evolution; the book starts by addressing the problem of evolution and ho
Richard Benedict Goldschmidt was a German-born American geneticist. He is considered the first to attempt to integrate genetics and evolution, he pioneered understanding of reaction norms, genetic assimilation, dynamical genetics, sex determination, heterochrony. Controversially, Goldschmidt advanced a model of macroevolution through macromutations popularly known as the "Hopeful Monster" hypothesis. Goldschmidt described the nervous system of the nematode, a piece of work that influenced Sydney Brenner to study the wiring diagram of Caenorhabditis elegans, winning Brenner and his colleagues the Nobel Prize in 2002. Goldschmidt was born in Frankfurt-am-Main, Germany to upper-middle class parents of Ashkenazi Jewish heritage, he had a classical education and entered the University of Heidelberg in 1896, where he became interested in natural history. From 1899 Goldschmidt studied anatomy and zoology at the University of Heidelberg with Otto Bütschli and Carl Gegenbaur, he received his Ph. D. under Bütschli in 1902, studying development of the trematode Polystomum.
In 1903 Goldschmidt began working as an assistant to Richard Hertwig at the University of Munich, where he continued his work on nematodes and their histology, including studies of the nervous system development of Ascaris and the anatomy of Amphioxus. He founded the histology journal Archiv für Zellforschung while working in Hertwig's laboratory. Under Hertwig's influence, he began to take an interest in chromosome behavior and the new field of genetics. In 1909 Goldschmidt became professor at the University of Munich and, inspired by Wilhelm Johannsen's genetics treatise Elemente der exakten Erblichkeitslehre, began to study sex determination and other aspects of the genetics of the gypsy moth of which he was crossbreeding different races, he observed different stages of their sexual development. Some of the animals were neither male, nor female, nor hermaphrodites, but represented a whole spectrum of gynandromorphism, he named them'intersex', the phenomenon accordingly'intersexuality'. His studies of the gypsy moth, which culminated in his 1934 monograph Lymantria, became the basis for his theory of sex determination, which he developed from 1911 until 1931.
Goldschmidt left Munich in 1914 for the position as head of the genetics section of the newly founded Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology. During a field trip to Japan in 1914 he was not able to return to Germany due to the outbreak of the First World War and got stranded in the United States, he ended up in an internment camp in Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia for "dangerous Germans". After his release in 1918 he worked at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute. Sensing that it was unsafe for him to remain in Germany he emigrated to the United States in 1936, where he became professor at the University of California, Berkeley. During World War 2, the Nazi party published a propaganda poster entitled "Jewish World Domination" displaying the Goldschmidt family tree. Goldschmidt was the first scientist to use the term "hopeful monster", he thought that small gradual changes could not bridge the divide between microevolution and macroevolution. In his book The Material Basis of Evolution, he wrote "the change from species to species is not a change involving more and more additional atomistic changes, but a complete change of the primary pattern or reaction system into a new one, which afterwards may again produce intraspecific variation by micromutation."
Goldschmidt believed. His ideas about macromutations became known as the hopeful monster hypothesis, a type of saltational evolution, attracted widespread ridicule. According to Goldschmidt, "biologists seem inclined to think that because they have not themselves seen a'large' mutation, such a thing cannot be possible, but such a mutation need only be an event of the most extraordinary rarity to provide the world with the important material for evolution". Goldschmidt believed that the neo-Darwinian view of gradual accumulation of small mutations was important but could account for variation only within species and was not a powerful enough source of evolutionary novelty to explain new species. Instead he believed that large genetic differences between species required profound "macro-mutations" a source for large genetic changes which once in a while could occur as a "hopeful monster". Goldschmidt is referred to as a "non-Darwinian", he veered from the synthetic theory only in his belief that a new species develops through discontinuous variation, or macromutation.
Goldschmidt presented his hypothesis when neo-Darwinism was becoming dominant in the 1940s and 1950s, protested against the strict gradualism of neo-Darwinian theorists. His ideas were accordingly seen as unorthodox by most scientists and were subjected to ridicule and scorn. However, there has been a recent interest in the ideas of Goldschmidt in the field of evolutionary developmental biology, as some scientists, such as Günter Theißen and Scott F. Gilbert, are convinced he was not wrong. Goldschmidt presented two mechanisms. One mechanism, involving "systemic mutations", rejected the classical gene concept and is no longer considered by modern science; these kinds of mutations are similar to those considered in contemporary evolutionary developmental biology. Goldschmidt, R
Thomas Hunt Morgan
Thomas Hunt Morgan was an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist and science author who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries elucidating the role that the chromosome plays in heredity. Morgan received his Ph. D. from Johns Hopkins University in zoology in 1890 and researched embryology during his tenure at Bryn Mawr. Following the rediscovery of Mendelian inheritance in 1900, Morgan began to study the genetic characteristics of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In his famous Fly Room at Columbia University, Morgan demonstrated that genes are carried on chromosomes and are the mechanical basis of heredity; these discoveries formed the basis of the modern science of genetics. During his distinguished career, Morgan wrote 370 scientific papers; as a result of his work, Drosophila became a major model organism in contemporary genetics. The Division of Biology which he established at the California Institute of Technology has produced seven Nobel Prize winners.
Morgan was born in Kentucky, to Charlton Hunt Morgan and Ellen Key Howard Morgan. Part of a line of Southern planter elite on his father's side, Morgan was a nephew of Confederate General John Hunt Morgan. Through his mother, he was the great-grandson of Francis Scott Key, the author of the "Star Spangled Banner", John Eager Howard and senator from Maryland. Following the Civil War, the family fell on hard times with the temporary loss of civil and some property rights for those who aided the Confederacy, his father had difficulty finding work in politics and spent much of his time coordinating veterans reunions. Beginning at age 16 in the Preparatory Department, Morgan attended the State College of Kentucky, he focused on science. S. Geological Survey in his summers, he graduated as valedictorian in 1886 with a Bachelor of Science degree. Following a summer at the Marine Biology School in Annisquam, Morgan began graduate studies in zoology at the founded Johns Hopkins University, the first research-oriented American university.
After two years of experimental work with morphologist William Keith Brooks and writing several publications, Morgan was eligible to receive a master of science from the State College of Kentucky in 1888. The college required two years of study at another institution and an examination by the college faculty; the college offered Morgan a full professorship. Under Brooks, Morgan completed his thesis work on the embryology of sea spiders—collected during the summers of 1889 and 1890 at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts—to determine their phylogenetic relationship with other arthropods, he concluded that with respect to embryology, they were more related to spiders than crustaceans. Based on the publication of this work, Morgan was awarded his Ph. D. from Johns Hopkins in 1890, was awarded the Bruce Fellowship in Research. He used the fellowship to travel to Jamaica, the Bahamas and to Europe to conduct further research. Nearly every summer from 1890 to 1942, Morgan returned to the Marine Biological Laboratory to conduct research.
He became involved in governance of the institution, including serving as an MBL trustee from 1897 to 1945. Morgan was an atheist. In 1890, Morgan was appointed associate professor at Johns Hopkins' sister school Bryn Mawr College, replacing his colleague Edmund Beecher Wilson. Morgan taught all morphology-related courses, while the other member of the department, Jacques Loeb, taught the physiological courses. Although Loeb stayed for only one year, it was the beginning of their lifelong friendship. Morgan lectured in biology five days a week, he included his own recent research in his lectures. Although an enthusiastic teacher, he was most interested in research in the laboratory. During the first few years at Bryn Mawr, he produced descriptive studies of sea acorns, ascidian worms and frogs. In 1894 Morgan was granted a year's absence to conduct research in the laboratories of Stazione Zoologica in Naples, where Wilson had worked two years earlier. There he worked with German biologist Hans Driesch, whose research in the experimental study of development piqued Morgan's interest.
Among other projects that year, Morgan completed an experimental study of ctenophore embryology. In Naples and through Loeb, he became familiar with the Entwicklungsmechanik school of experimental biology, it was a reaction to the vitalistic Naturphilosophie, influential in 19th-century morphology. Morgan changed his work from traditional descriptive morphology to an experimental embryology that sought physical and chemical explanations for organismal development. At the time, there was considerable scientific debate over the question of. Following Wilhelm Roux's mosaic theory of development, some believed that hereditary material was divided among embryonic cells, which were predestined to form particular parts of a mature organism. Driesch and others thought that development was due to epigenetic factors, where interactions between the protoplasm and the nucleus of the egg and the environment could affect development. Morgan was in the latter camp.
The term racial hygiene was used to describe an approach to eugenics in the early 20th century, which found its most extensive implementation in Nazi Germany. It was marked by efforts to avoid miscegenation, analogous to an animal breeder seeking purebred animals; this was motivated by belief in a racial hierarchy and the related fear that lower races would "contaminate" a higher one. As with most eugenicists at the time, racial hygienists believed that lack of eugenics would lead to rapid social degeneration, the decline of civilisation by the spread of inferior characteristics; the German eugenicist Alfred Ploetz introduced the term Rassenhygiene in his "Racial hygiene basics" in 1895. He discussed the importance of avoiding "counterselective forces" such as war, free healthcare for the poor and venereal disease. In its earliest incarnation it was concerned more with the declining birthrate of the German state and the increasing number of mentally-ill and disabled people in state-run institutions than with the "Jewish question" and "degeneration of the Nordic race" which would come to dominate its philosophy in Germany from the 1920s to the Second World War.
During the end of the 19th century, German racial hygienists Alfred Ploetz and Wilhelm Schallmayer regarded certain people as inferior, opposed their ability to procreate. These theorists believed that all human behaviors, including crime and divorce, were caused by genetics. Institutes in Nazi Germany during the 1930s and 1940s studied genetics, created genetic registries and researched twins. Nazi scientists studied blood, developed theories on the supposed racial specificity of blood types, with the goal of distinguishing an "Aryan" from a Jew by examining their blood. In the 1930s, Josef Mengele, a doctor in the Schutzstaffel, provided human remains taken from Auschwitz – blood and other body parts – to be studied at the institutes. Harnessing racial hygiene as justification, the scientists used prisoners from Auschwitz and other concentration camps as test subjects for their human experiments. In Nazi propaganda, the term "race" was interchangeably used to mean the "Aryan" or Germanic "Übermenschen", said to represent an ideal and pure master race, biologically superior to all other races.
In the 1930s, under eugenicist Ernst Rüdin, National Socialist ideology embraced this latter use of "racial hygiene", which demanded Aryan racial purity and condemned miscegenation. That belief in the importance of German racial purity served as the theoretical backbone of Nazi policies of racial superiority and genocide; the policies began in 1935, when the National Socialists enacted the Nuremberg Laws, which legislated racial purity by forbidding sexual relations and marriages between Aryans and non-Aryans as Rassenschande. Theories on racial hygiene led to an elaborate sterilization program, with the goal of eliminating what the Nazis regarded as diseases harmful to the human race. Sterilized individuals, reasoned the Nazis, would not pass on their diseases to their children; the Sterilization Law, passed on July 14, 1933 known as the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring, called for the sterilization of any person who had a genetically determined illness. The Sterilization Law was created by some of Germany's top racial hygienists, including: Fritz Lenz, Alfred Ploetz, Ernst Rudin, Heinrich Himmler, Gerhard Wagner and Fritz Thyssen.
Robert N. Proctor has shown that the list of illnesses targeted included "feeblemindedness, manic depression, Huntington's chorea, genetic blindness, "severe alcoholism."" The estimated number of citizens who were sterilized in Nazi Germany ranges from 350,00 to 400,000. As a result of the Sterilization Law, sterilization medicine and research soon became one of the largest medical industries. Racial hygienists played key roles in the Holocaust, the German National Socialist effort to purge Europe of Jews, Romani people, Serbs, mixed race people, physically or intellectually disabled people. In the Aktion T4 program, Hitler ordered the execution of mentally-ill patients by euthanasia under the cover of deaths from strokes and illnesses; the methods and equipment, used in the murder of thousands of mentally ill were transferred to concentration camps because the materials and resources needed to efficiently kill large numbers of people existed and had been proven successful. The nurses and the staff who had assisted and performed the killings were moved along with the gas chambers to the concentration camps, which were being built in order to be able to replicate the mass murders repeatedly.
The doctors who carried out experiments on the prisoners in concentration camps specialised in racial hygiene and used the supposed science to back their medical experiments. Some of the experiments were used for general medical research, for example by injecting prisoners with known diseases to test vaccines or possible cures. Other experiments were used to further the Germans' war strategy by putting prisoners in vacuum chambers to see what could happen to pilots' bodies if they were ejected at a high altitude or immerse prisoners in ice water to see how long they would survive and what materials could be used to prolong life if worn by German pilots shot down over the English Channel; the precursors of this notion were earlier performing medical experiments on African prisoners of war in concentration camps in Namibia during the Herero and Namaqua Genocide. A key part of National Socialism was the concept of racial hygiene and the field was elevated to the primary philosophy of the Ger