Devotion (1946 film)
Devotion is a 1946 American biographical film directed by Curtis Bernhardt and starring Ida Lupino, Paul Henreid, Olivia de Havilland, Sydney Greenstreet. Based on a story by Theodore Reeves, the film is a fictionalized account of the lives of the Brontë sisters; the movie features Montagu Love's last role. The story takes place in the early 1800s, when the Brontë sisters Charlotte and Anne have made the decision to leave their family - their sister Emily, their brother Branwell, their aunt and their vicar father - to take positions as governesses in other families; the two sisters long to break free from their tedious life and get experiences from the outside world, to prepare for their careers as writers. They have the intention of giving part of their income from the governess positions to their talented brother Branwell, so that he can go to London and study art, to become a great temperamental painter. One night when Bran is getting drunk at a local tavern, a man named Arthur Nicholls, his father's new curate, arrives.
The drunk Bran insists. At first Arthur refuses; when he realizes how drunk Bran has become, he accompanies him to see that he gets home safe and sound. Emily, who answers the door, mistakes Arthur for one of Bran's drunken friends and treats him with contempt; the next day Bran leaves for London again, Arthur reappears at the house. He is greeted by the unwelcoming Mr. Brontë, soon Emily realizes her mistake and she and Arthur become good friends, they go on walks together, one day Emily shows Arthur a lonely house on a hill, the one that inspired her writing her novel Wuthering Heights. Time a disillusioned Bran returns home from London, he blames all his sisters for his failure as a painter. Soon after Charlotte and Anne return home, at a ball at the neighboring Thornton house, Arthur is struck by Charlotte's beauty and falls in love with her; when Charlotte realizes that Emily is interested in Arthur, she becomes interested in him as well. A drunken Bran disrupts the dance, Arthur leaves the dance and takes him home.
Arthur discovers that Charlotte wants to take Emily with her to Brussels to further their educations. Since he is in love with Charlotte he decides to sponsor the trip, he secretly buys a painting from Bran, with the money from the sale the sisters are able to go to Europe. Emily hopes that Arthur will ask her to stay behind, but he has fallen in love with Charlotte and will not comply; the girls start their education at the school of Madame Heger, located in Brussels. Before long Charlotte admits to Emily that she has received unwelcome attentions while she was a governess and that after she returned home, Arthur kissed her. Emily is heartbroken by the news; that night, Emily dreams about a threatening black horseman. Not so long after that, Monsieur Heger takes Charlotte to an exhibition and kisses her; when she returns to the Hegers' house, Emily is packing, having received a letter from Anne saying that Bran is ill. Both Charlotte and Emily rush back to England, once they are back, they both start writing their novels.
Bran reads them both and he tells Emily that they are both in love with the same man. The sisters learn that Arthur bought the painting that financed their trip to Europe, Emily insists that they should repay him. One day Emily can't find Bran, she finds him, shortly after that he collapses and dies. Emily’s book Wuthering Heights and Charlotte's book Jane Eyre are both published under male pseudonyms. Despite the fact that Charlotte's sells best, famous author William Makepeace Thackeray believes that Emily's is the greatest of the two. Thackeray introduces her to London society, she convinces him to take her to the poverty-stricken East End. Arthur admits to Charlotte that he loves her, but because Emily loved him, he felt he could not stay in Yorkshire. Charlotte gets a message that Emily is taken ill, she hurries home to Yorkshire, she arrives just in time to say goodbye. After Emily’s demise Arthur returns to woo Charlotte. Ida Lupino as Emily Brontë Paul Henreid as Reverend Arthur Nicholls Olivia de Havilland as Charlotte Brontë.
Despite playing the biggest part, she was only credited third due to her lawsuit against Warner Brothers. Sydney Greenstreet as William Makepeace Thackeray Nancy Coleman as Anne Brontë Arthur Kennedy as Branwell Brontë Dame May Whitty as Lady Thornton Victor Francen as Monsieur Heger Montagu Love as Reverend Bronte Ethel Griffies as Aunt Branwell Edmund Breon as Sir John Thornton Odette Myrtil as Madame Heger Doris Lloyd as Mrs. Ingraham Marie De Becker as Tabby Eily Malyon as Lady Thornton's friend at the ball Devotion was filmed between November 11, 1942 and mid-February 1943, but its screening was delayed until April 5, 1946 at the Strand Theater in Manhattan, due to a lawsuit by Olivia de Havilland against Warner Brothers. De Havilland sued her studio to terminate her contract without providing the studio an extra six months to make up for her time on suspension, it proved a landmark case for the industry. Bosley Crowther wrote in The New York Times: “The Warners have simplified matters to an irreducible extreme and have found an explanation for the Brontës in Louisa May Alcott terms.
They have visioned sombrous Emily, the author of Wuthering Heights, Charlotte, the writer of Jane Eyre, as a couple of'little women' with a gift." Despite an excellent score by Erich Wolfgang Korngold, production values and an ending that hearkened back to th
The Man Who Murdered
The Man Who Murdered is a 1931 German crime film directed by Curtis Bernhardt and starring Conrad Veidt, Trude von Molo and Heinrich George. The film's sets were designed by the art directors Heinrich Hermann Warm. Location filming took place in Istanbul; the following year a separate English version Stamboul was made. Conrad Veidt as Marquis de Sévigné Trude von Molo as Lady Falkland Heinrich George as Lord Falkland Friedl Haerlin as Lady Edith Frida Richard as Lady Foult Friedrich Kayßler as Mehmed Pascha Gregori Chmara as Prince Cernuwicz Erich Ponto as Boucher - franz. Gesandter Hans-Joachim Möbis as Terrail Yvette Rodin as Mme. Terrail Rolf Drucker as George Falkland - Sohn Bruno Ziener as Prospère - Diener bei Sévigné The Right to Love Stamboul Grange, William. Cultural Chronicle of the Weimar Republic. Scarecrow Press, 2008. Spicer, Andrew & Hanson, Helen. A Companion to Film Noir. John Wiley & Sons, 2013; the Man Who Murdered on IMDb
1951 in film
The year 1951 in film involved some significant events. Sweden – May Britt is scouted by Italian film-makers Carlo Ponti and Mario Soldati United States of America – Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland premieres; the Wilhelm scream, one of the most frequently-used stock sound effects, makes its first use in the film Distant Drums. The scream would not get its name until The Charge at Feather River in 1953. September 10 - Rashomon wins the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival, bringing worldwide attention to Japanese film. September - The House Un-American Activities Committee investigation into Communism in the film industry starts to wind up after four years, they report in February 1952 that Hollywood has not done enough against Communist employees and hearings and blacklisting continues. After theatrical re-issue The highest-grossing 1951 films in countries outside of North America; the following table lists known worldwide gross figures for several high-grossing films that released in 1951.
Note that this list is incomplete and is therefore not representative of the highest-grossing films worldwide in 1951. This list includes gross revenue from re-releases; the Top Ten Money Making Stars Poll was published by Quigley Publishing Company based on a poll of U. S. movie theater owners who were asked to name who they felt were the previous year's top 10 moneymaking stars. They published a Western stars poll which Roy Rogers topped for the ninth year running. U. S. A. release unless stated # The 13th Letter, directed by Otto Preminger, starring Linda Darnell and Charles BoyerA Abbott and Costello Meet the Invisible Man, starring Bud Abbott and Lou Costello Ace in the Hole, directed by Billy Wilder, starring Kirk Douglas and Jan Sterling Across the Wide Missouri, starring Clark Gable The African Queen, directed by John Huston, starring Humphrey Bogart and Katharine Hepburn – Air Cadet, starring Gail Russell and Stephen McNally Alice in Wonderland, an animated film by Walt Disney Along the Great Divide, starring Kirk Douglas An American in Paris, directed by Vincente Minnelli, starring Gene Kelly and Leslie Caron Angels in the Outfield, starring Paul Douglas and Janet Leigh Anna, starring Silvana Mangano, Raf Vallone and Vittorio Gassman – Another Man's Poison, directed by Irving Rapper, starring Bette Davis, Gary Merrill, Emlyn Williams and Anthony Steel – Apache Drums, starring Stephen McNally and Coleen Gray Appointment with Danger, starring Alan Ladd, with future Dragnet co-stars Jack Webb and Harry Morgan Appointment with Venus, starring Glynis Johns and David Niven – As Young as You Feel, starring Monty Woolley Atoll K, starring Laurel and Hardy in their final film Awaara, directed by and starring Raj Kapoor – The Axe of Wandsbek – B Baazi, starring Dev Anand – Bedtime for Bonzo, starring Ronald Reagan Bellissima, directed by Luchino Visconti, starring Anna Magnani – Blackmailed, starring Mai Zetterling and Dirk Bogarde – The Blue Veil, starring Jane Wyman Bright Victory, starring Arthur Kennedy The Browning Version, directed by Anthony Asquith, starring Michael Redgrave and Jean Kent – Bullfighter and the Lady, starring Robert Stack and Joy PageC Callaway Went Thataway, starring Fred MacMurray, Dorothy McGuire, Howard Keel Call Me Mister, starring Betty Grable Captain Horatio Hornblower, starring Gregory Peck – Cattle Drive, starring Joel McCrea, Dean Stockwell and Chill Wills Cause for Alarm!, starring Loretta Young and Barry Sullivan China Corsair, starring Jon Hall Circle of Danger, starring Ray Milland – The Clouded Yellow, starring Trevor Howard and Jean Simmons – Come Fill the Cup, starring James Cagney and Gig Young Comin' Round The Mountain, starring Abbott and Costello Cops and Robbers, directed by Mario Monicelli – Cry Danger, starring *** Powell and Rhonda Fleming Cry, the Beloved Country, directed by Zoltan Korda, starring Sidney Poitier – D Darling, How Could You!, starring Joan Fontaine Daughter of Deceit, directed by Luis Buñuel – David and Bathsheba, starring Gregory Peck and Susan Hayward The Day the Earth Stood Still, directed by Robert Wise, starring Michael Rennie and Patricia Neal Death of a Salesman, starring Fredric March Decision Before Dawn, starring Richard Basehart, Gary Merrill and Oskar Werner Deedar, starring Ashok Kumar, Dilip Kumar, Nargis – The Desert Fox: The Story of Rommel, starring James Mason Detective Story, starring Kirk Douglas, Eleanor Parker, William Bendix, Lee Grant, Horace McMahon, George Macready Diary of a Country Priest, directed by Robert Bresson – Distant Drums, directed by Raoul Walsh, starring Gary Cooper Double Dynamite, starring Jane Russell, Frank Sinatra and Groucho Marx Dream of a Cossack, starring Sergei Bondarchuk – Daar Doer in Die Bosveld, starring Jamie Uys – E-F Early Summer, directed by Yasujirō Ozu – Encore, starring Nigel Patrick and Kay Walsh – The Enforcer, starring Humphrey Bogart and Zero Mostel FBI Girl, starring Audrey Totter and Cesar Romero The Family Secret, starring John Derek and Lee J. Cobb Father's Little Dividend, starring Spencer Tracy and Elizabeth Taylor The Fighting Seventh, starring Lloyd Bridges Flying Leathernecks, starring John Wayne and Robert Ryan Follo
The Woman One Longs For
The Woman One Longs For is a 1929 German silent drama film directed by Curtis Bernhardt and starring Marlene Dietrich, Fritz Kortner and Frida Richard. Made at the Babelsberg Studios, it premiered on 29 April 1929 at the Mozartsaal in Berlin; the film's art direction was by Robert Neppach. It is known by the alternative title The Three Lovers; the film was silent with a scored orchestra accompaniment by Giuseppe Becce. In 1931 a synchronised soundtrack was added with music by Edward Kilenyi. Marlene Dietrich as Stascha Fritz Kortner as Dr. Karoff Frida Richard as Mme. Leblanc Oskar Sima as Charles Leblanc Uno Henning as Henry Leblanc Karl Etlinger as Poitrier Bruno Ziener as Diener Edith Edwards as Angela Poitrier Bach, Steven. Marlene Dietrich: Life and Legend. University of Minnesota Press, 2011. Kreimeier, Klaus; the Ufa Story: A History of Germany's Greatest Film Company, 1918-1945. University of California Press, 1999. Spoto, Donald. Blue Angel: The Life of Marlene Dietrich. Rowman & Littlefield, 2000.
The Woman One Longs For on IMDb
Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. Its estimated 2014 population was 200,167, making it the third-largest city in Los Angeles County and the 23rd-largest city in California, it is located about 8 mi north of downtown Los Angeles. Glendale lies in the southeastern end of the San Fernando Valley, bisected by the Verdugo Mountains, is a suburb in the Los Angeles metropolitan area; the city is bordered to the northwest by the Sun Tujunga neighborhoods of Los Angeles. The Golden State, Ventura and Foothill freeways run through the city. Glendale is known to have one of the largest communities of Armenian descent in the United States. In 2013, Glendale was named LA's Neighborhood of the Year by the editors of Curbed.com. Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery contains the remains of many noted celebrities and local residents. Grand Central Airport was the departure point for the first commercial west-to-east transcontinental flight flown by Charles Lindbergh; the area was long inhabited by the Tongva people, who were renamed the Gabrieleños by the Spanish missionaries, after the nearby Mission San Gabriel Arcángel.
In 1798, José María Verdugo, a corporal in the Spanish army from Baja California, received the Rancho San Rafael from Governor Diego de Borica, formalizing his possession and use of land on which he had been grazing livestock and farming since 1784. Rancho San Rafael was a Spanish concession. Unlike the Mexican land grants, the concessions were similar to grazing permits, with the title remaining with the Spanish crown. In 1860, his grandson Teodoro Verdugo built the Verdugo Adobe, the oldest building in Glendale; the property is the location of the Oak of Peace, where early Californio leaders including Pio Pico met in 1847 and decided to surrender to Lieutenant Colonel John C. Frémont. Verdugo's descendants sold the ranch in various parcels, some of which are included in present-day Atwater Village, Eagle Rock, Highland Park neighborhoods of Los Angeles. In 1884, residents gathered to form a townsite and chose the name "Glendale" (it was bounded by First Street on the north, Fifth Street on the south, Central Avenue on the west, the Childs Tract on the east.
Residents to the southwest formed "Tropico" in 1887. The Pacific Electric Railway brought streetcar service in 1904. Glendale incorporated in 1906, annexed Tropico 12 years later. An important civic booster of the era was Leslie Coombs Brand, who built an estate in 1904 called El Miradero, featuring an eye-catching mansion, the architecture of which combined characteristics of Spanish and Indian styles, copied from the East Indian Pavilion at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago, which he visited. Brand loved to fly, built a private airstrip in 1919 and hosted "fly-in" parties, providing a direct link to the soon-to-be-built nearby Grand Central Airport; the grounds of El Miradero are now city-owned Brand Park and the mansion is the Brand Library, according to the terms of his will. Brand partnered with Henry E. Huntington to bring the Pacific Electric Railway, or the "Red Cars", to the area. Today, he is memorialized by one of Brand Boulevard; the city's population rose from 13,756 in 1920 to 62,736 in 1930.
The Forest Lawn Cemetery opened in 1906 and was renamed Forest Lawn Memorial-Park in 1917. Pioneering endocrinologist and entrepreneur Henry R. Harrower opened his clinic in Glendale in 1920, which for many years was the largest business in the city; the American Green Cross, an early conservation and tree preservation society, was formed in 1926. Until as late as the 1960s, Glendale was a sundown town. Nonwhites were required to leave city limits by a certain time each day or risk arrest and possible violence. In the 1930s, Glendale and Burbank prevented the Civilian Conservation Corps from stationing African American workers in a local park, citing sundown town ordinances that both cities had adopted. In 1964, Glendale was selected by George Lincoln Rockwell to be the West Coast headquarters of the American Nazi Party, its offices, on Colorado Street in the downtown section of the city, remained open until the early 1980s. In 1977 and 1978, 10 murdered women were found in and around Glendale in what became known as the case of the Hillside Strangler.
The murders were the work of Kenneth Bianchi and Angelo Buono, the latter of whom resided at 703 East Colorado Street, where most of the murders took place. Glendale is located at the junction of the San Fernando and the San Gabriel. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 79.212 km2. It is bordered to the north by the foothill communities of La Cañada Flintridge, La Crescenta, Tujunga. Glendale is located 10 miles north of downtown Los Angeles. Several known earthquake faults criss-cross the Glendale area and adjacent mountains, as in much of Southern California. Among the more recognized faults are the
My Love Came Back
My Love Came Back is a 1940 American comedy-drama film directed by Curtis Bernhardt and starring Olivia de Havilland, Jeffrey Lynn, Eddie Albert, Jane Wyman. Based on the 1935 Austrian film Episode written and directed by Walter Reisch, the film is about a gifted young violinist who considers leaving a prestigious music academy to play in a jazz band to earn money; the academy's new president—a distinguished wealthy patron of the arts—convinces her to stay after secretly arranging a scholarship for her out of his own pocket, the two begin attending concerts together. Complications arise when he asks his young business manager to take his place at one of the concerts; the film is notable for Heinz Eric Roemheld's musical direction and Ray Heindorf's unique swing orchestral arrangements of classical pieces. My Love Came Back was released by Warner Bros. Pictures in the United States on July 13, 1940. A beautiful young violinist named Amelia Cornell is a student at the prestigious Brissac Academy of Music in New York City.
Unable to support her mother on her meager scholarship stipend, she is forced to provide music lessons in her spare time—something forbidden by the school and enforced zealously by the dean of the school, Dr. Kobbe. Frustrated by her financial constraints and at being treated like a child by the dean, Amelia decides to leave the academy and join a jazz group led by her fellow student and swing bandleader Dusty Rhodes. Meanwhile, after seeing Amelia perform at a concert, a distinguished wealthy patron of the arts, Julius Malette accepts the academy's offer to make him president of the school—an offer inspired by Julius' wealth and influence; when he learns that Amelia is planning to leave the academy for financial reasons, Julius—who has a crush on the much younger violinist—secretly arranges for a second scholarship that will allow her to continue her studies. After Amelia meets her patron, the kind and gentlemanly president sends her a phonograph player and records, escorts her to concerts to broaden her musical experience.
One evening, Julius is unable to attend a concert with Amelia and sends his young business manager, Tony Baldwin, to the concert hall to explain his absence. In the coming days and Amelia begin to fall in love, but Tony does not reveal his feelings, believing that Amelia is his boss's mistress; the budding relationship between Tony and Amelia is further complicated when Julius' brash son Paul discovers that Tony has been mailing company checks to Amelia, unaware that these "scholarship" checks were mailed at his father's request. When Paul accuses Tony of misappropriating company funds, Tony protects his boss with his silence. Paul sees his Julius entering Amelia's apartment, he believes that his father is being unfaithful to his mother, he thanks him for trying to shield his family from the sordid news. When Paul tells Tony that Julius is with Amelia, Tony decides not to see Amelia again, nor answer her calls, his distrust is reinforced when he learns that the checks sent to Amelia have been cashed—he doesn't know that her friend Dusty "borrowed" the money.
Soon after and his wife organize a party and hire Amelia's roommate, Joy O'Keefe, her boyfriend, Dusty Rhodes, to provide an evening of innovative classical and swing music. At the party, Amelia confesses everything to Mrs. Malette, plays swing violin with the band, shocking Julius and her teacher; the music critic at the party, however, is impressed. When Amelia learns that Dusty "borrowed" her check, how that must have looked to Tony, she demands that Dusty explain to Tony what had been going on. Afterwards, Tony approaches Amelia in the garden, apologizes for his suspicions, kisses her passionately. Olivia de Havilland as Amelia Cornell Jeffrey Lynn as Anthony'Tony' Baldwin Eddie Albert as Dusty Rhodes Jane Wyman as Joy O'Keefe Charles Winninger as Julius Malette Spring Byington as Mrs. Clara Malette Grant Mitchell as Dr. Kobbe William T. Orr as Paul Malette Ann Gillis as Valerie Malette S. Z. Sakall as Geza Peyer Charles Trowbridge as Dr. Downey, the music critic Mabel Taliaferro as Dowager William B.
Davidson as Music Agent Nanette Vallon as Sophie, Malette's maid Sidney Bracey as Ransom, Malette's butler My Love Came Back is based on the Austrian film Episode, directed by Walter Reisch and starred Paula Wessely and Karl Ludwig Diehl. Episode was in fact a sequel to another Austrian film, Maskerade—which was remade by MGM in 1935 under the title Escapade; the working titles for My Love Came Back were Episode, Men on Her Mind, Two Loves Have I. "Overture" from Orpheus in the Underworld performed by the student orchestra "Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 in C Sharp Minor" played on a record, swing version performed by Dusty and Amelia "Long, Long Ago" played when Julius tells Clara he has to go out "Wedding March" from A Midsummer Night's Dream, Op. 61 played on piano by Valerie and Paul "An der schönen, blauen Donau, Op. 314" played at the Beaux Arts Ballroom, played by Clara and Valerie and Paul "Pizzicato Polka" played at the Beaux Arts Ballroom "Geschichten aus dem Wienerwald, Op. 325" played at the Beaux Arts Ballroom "Mazurka in G" played at the Beaux Arts Ballroom "Romantic Waltz" played at the Beaux Arts Ballroom "Ein Herz, ein Sinn, Op. 323" played at the Beaux Arts Ballroom "Wein, weib und Gesan
Worms is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, situated on the Upper Rhine about 60 kilometres south-southwest of Frankfurt-am-Main. It had 82,000 inhabitants as of 2015. A pre-Roman foundation, Worms was the capital of the Kingdom of the Burgundians in the early 5th century and hence the scene of the medieval legends referring to this period, notably the first part of the Nibelungenlied. Worms has been a Roman Catholic bishopric since at least 614, was an important palatinate of Charlemagne. Worms Cathedral is one of the Imperial Cathedrals and among the finest examples of Romanesque architecture in Germany. Worms prospered in the High Middle Ages as an Imperial Free City. Among more than a hundred Imperial Diets held at Worms, the Diet of 1521 ended with the Edict of Worms in which Martin Luther was declared a heretic. Today, the city is famed as the origin of Liebfraumilch wine. Other industries include metal goods and fodder. Worms is located on the west bank of the river Rhine between the cities of Mainz.
On the northern edge of the city the Pfrimm flows into the Rhine, on the southern edge the Eisbach flows into the Rhine. Worms has 13 boroughs around the city centre, they are as follows: The climate in the Rhine Valley is temperate in winter and quite enjoyable in summer. Rainfall is below average for the surrounding areas. Winter snow accumulation is low and melts quickly. Worms was in ancient times a Celtic city named Borbetomagus meaning "water meadow", it was conquered by the Germanic Vangiones. In 14 BC, Romans under the command of Drusus captured and fortified the city, from that time onwards a small troop of infantry and cavalry were garrisoned there; the Romans renamed the city after the then-emperor and the local tribe. The name does not seem to have taken hold and the German Worms developed from Borbetomagus; the garrison grew into a small town with a regular Roman street plan, a forum, temples for the main gods Jupiter, Juno and Mars. Roman inscriptions and votive offerings can be seen in the archaeological museum, along with one of Europe's largest collections of Roman glass.
Local potters worked in the town's south quarter. Fragments of amphoras contain traces of olive oil from Hispania Baetica, doubtless transported by sea and up the Rhine by ship. During the disorders of 411–13 AD, the Roman usurper Jovinus established himself in Borbetomagus as a puppet-emperor with the help of King Gunther of the Burgundians, who had settled in the area between the Rhine and Moselle some years before; the city became the capital of the Burgundian kingdom under Gunther. Few remains of this early Burgundian kingdom survive, because in 436 it was all but destroyed by a combined army of Romans and Huns. Provoked by Burgundian raids against Roman settlements, the combined Romano-Hunnic army destroyed the Burgundian army at the Battle of Worms, killing King Gunther, it is said. The Romans led; the story of this war inspired the Nibelungenlied. The city appears on the Peutinger Map, dated to the 4th century. Worms has been a Roman Catholic bishopric since at least 614, with an earlier mention in 346.
In the Frankish Empire, the city was the location of an important palatinate of Charlemagne, who built one of his many administrative palaces here. The bishops administered its territory; the most famous of the early medieval bishops was Burchard of Worms. Worms Cathedral, dedicated to St Peter, is one of the finest examples of Romanesque architecture in Germany. Alongside the nearby Romanesque cathedrals of Speyer and Mainz, it is one of the so-called Kaiserdome; some parts in early Romanesque style from the 10th century still exist, while most parts are from the 11th and 12th century, with some additions in Gothic style. Four other Romanesque churches as well as the Romanesque old city fortification still exist, making the city Germany's second in Romanesque architecture only to Cologne. Worms prospered in the High Middle Ages. Having received far-reaching privileges from King Henry IV as early as 1074, the city became an Imperial Free City, being independent of any local ruler and responsible only to the Holy Roman Emperor himself.
As a result, Worms was the site of several important events in the history of the Empire. In 1122 the Concordat of Worms was signed. Most important, among more than a hundred Imperial Diets held at Worms, that of 1521 ended with the Edict of Worms, in which Martin Luther was declared a heretic after refusing to recant his religious beliefs. Worms was the birthplace of the first Bibles of the Reformation, both Martin Luther's German Bible and William Tyndale's first complete English New Testament by 1526; the city, known in medieval Hebrew by the name Varmayza or Vermaysa, was a centre of medieval Ashkenazic Judaism. The Jewish community was established there in the late 10th century, Worms's first synagogue was erected in 1034. In 1096, eight hundred Jews were murdered by the local mob; the Jewish Cemetery in Worms, dating from the 11th century, is believed to be the oldest surviv