Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Independent Baptist churches are Christian congregations holding to conservative Baptist beliefs. The term independent refers to the doctrinal position of church autonomy and a refusal to join any affiliated Baptist denomination, convention or hierarchical structure; the Independent Baptist tradition began at the Cross Baptist congregations whose members were concerned about the advancement of modernism and liberalism into national Baptist denominations and conventions in the United States and the United Kingdom. In response to the concerns, some local Baptist churches separated en masse from their former denominations and conventions and reestablished the congregations as Independent Baptist churches. In other cases, the more conservative members of existing churches withdrew from their local congregations and set about establishing new Independent Baptist churches. Members of Independent Baptist churches comprised two and a half percent of the United States adult population according to a 2014 survey by the Pew Research Center.
Association of Independent Methodists List of Independent Baptist higher education institutions Independent Baptists at Curlie
Decatur is a city in, the county seat of, DeKalb County, Georgia, part of the Atlanta metropolitan area. With a population of 20,148 in the 2013 census, the municipality is sometimes assumed to be larger since multiple ZIP Codes in unincorporated DeKalb County bear the Decatur name; the city is served by three MARTA rail stations. The city is located 5 miles northeast of downtown Atlanta and shares its western border with Atlanta. Decatur was established at the intersection of two Native American trails: the Sandtown, which led east from the Chattahoochee River at Utoy Creek, the Shallowford, which follows today's Clairmont Road, crossed near Roswell, it was named for United States Navy Commodore Stephen Decatur. Shallowford Road, which led to the Shallow Ford, has been renamed Clairmont Avenue because it does not go to, from or past any place called Clairmont. Covington Road is now Sycamore Street because it leads to Covington and has no Sycamores on it. Nelson's Ferry Road, named after the local family which ran the ferry at the Chattahoochee end of the road, has been named Ponce de Leon after a family prominent, before Castro, in Havana, Cuba.
During the American Civil War, Decatur became a strategic site in Sherman's Atlanta Campaign. In July 1864, Major-General James McPherson occupied the town to cut off the Confederates' supply line from Augusta. On July 22, during the Battle of Atlanta, Confederate cavalry under Major-General Joseph Wheeler attacked McPherson's supply wagons and the Union troops left to defend the wagons. A historical marker at the old courthouse marks the site of this skirmish. We attacked Decatur on the 22d and took the town driving out a Brigade of Infantry and a good deal of Dismounted Cavalry. Our Brigade took the town, tho' it was supported on both flanks by a Brigade of Cavalry dismounted; the fight lasted about two hours and was hot for a while. The Yankees had the hills and houses on us and fought well for a time. Our dash was made to distract attention. We killed and wounded about one hundred and fifty. Our loss about seventy wounded. In the last half of the twentieth century the metropolitan area of Atlanta expanded into unincorporated DeKalb County surrounding two sides of the town of Decatur.
Concurrently many well-to-do and middle class white Americans fled the area to more distant suburbs. The 1960s and 1970s witnessed dramatic drops in property values. However, more the city has regained economic vigor thanks to several long-term downtown development plans that have come to fruition, making Decatur a trendy small mixed-use district with easy transit to downtown Atlanta. Over the past twenty years, it has gained a local and national reputation as a progressive city with a high level of citizen involvement that retains a small town feel despite its proximity to Atlanta. Decatur is located at 33°46′17″N 84°17′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.2 square miles, all land. The Eastern Continental Divide bisects the city along the CSX trackage right of way. US 78 SR 155 US 278 Avondale MARTA Station Decatur MARTA Station East Lake MARTA Station As of the 2010 census, there were 19,335 people, 8,599 occupied housing units, 4,215 families residing in the city.
The population density was 4,603.6 people per square mile. There were 9,335 housing units at an average density of 2,222.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 73.5% White, 20.2% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.9% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.2% of the population. There were 2,541 households which had children under the age of 18 living with them, 3,336 were a Husband-Wife family living together, 984 of households had a female householder with no husband present, 4,063 did not fit into either of the two mentioned categories. 3,263 of all households were made up of individuals of those, 1,814 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.96. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.1% under the age of 19, 5.2% from 20 to 24, 32.9% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. There are 44 males for every 56 females; the median income for a household in the city was $73,602. Males had a median income of $73,089 versus $58,580 for females; the per capita income for the city was $42,926. About 12.20% of families and 14.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.2% of those under age 18 and 12.5% of those age 65 or over. Education levels for Decatur are above average for the Atlanta area, with 56% of residents having obtained a bachelor's degree or higher, 27% having obtained a graduate degree or higher; the Decatur City School District, which serves the city limits, holds pre-school to grade twelve, consists of a pre-K early childhood learning center, five elementary schools, a fourth and fifth grade academy, a middle school, a high school. The Decatur City School District was the highest performing school district in Georgia on the SATs for the 2014-2015 school year; the DeKalb County School District, which serves unincorporated areas in DeKalb County around Decatur, operates the William Bradley Bryant Center in an unincorporated area near Decatur.
Decatur High School Carl G. Renfroe Middle School The 4/5 Academy at Fifth Avenue Glenwood Elementary Clairemont Elementa
Murfreesboro is a city in, the county seat of, Rutherford County, United States. The population was 108,755 according to the 2010 census, up from 68,816 residents certified in 2000. In 2017, census estimates showed a population of 136,372; the city is home to both the center of population of Tennessee, the geographic center of Tennessee. Murfreesboro is located 34 miles southeast of downtown Nashville in the Nashville metropolitan area of Middle Tennessee, it is one of the fastest growing cities in the country. Murfreesboro is home to Middle Tennessee State University, the second largest undergraduate university in the state of Tennessee, with 22,729 total students as of fall 2014. In 2006, Murfreesboro was ranked by Money as the 84th best place to live in the United States, out of 745 cities with a population over 50,000. In 2018, Murfreesboro was ranked by Money as the 19th best place to live in the United States. On October 27, 1811, the Tennessee General Assembly designated the location for a new county seat for Rutherford County, giving it the name Cannonsburgh in honor of Newton Cannon, then-representative to the Assembly for the local area.
At the suggestion of William Lytle, it was renamed Murfreesborough on November 29, 1811, after Revolutionary War hero Colonel Hardy Murfree. The name was shortened to Murfreesboro in January 1812. Author Mary Noailles Murfree was his great-granddaughter; as Tennessee settlement expanded to the west, the location of the state capital in Knoxville became inconvenient for most newcomers. In 1818, Murfreesboro was designated as the capital of Tennessee and its population boomed. Eight years however, it was itself replaced by Nashville. On December 31, 1862, the Battle of Stones River called the Battle of Murfreesboro, was fought near the city between the Union Army of the Cumberland and the Confederate Army of Tennessee; this was a major engagement of the American Civil War, between December 31 and January 2, 1863, the rival armies suffered a combined total of 23,515 casualties. It was the bloodiest battle of the war by percentage of casualties. Following the Confederate retreat after the drawn Battle of Perryville in central Kentucky, the Confederate army moved through East Tennessee and turned northwest to defend Murfreesboro.
General Braxton Bragg's veteran cavalry harassed Union General William Rosecrans' troop movements and destroying many of his supply trains. However, they could not prevent supplies and reinforcements from reaching Rosecrans. Despite the large number of casualties, the battle was inconclusive, it is considered a Union victory, since afterwards General Bragg retreated 36 miles south to Tullahoma. So, the Union army did not move against Bragg until a full six months in June 1863; the battle was significant since it did provide the Union army with a base to push the eventual drive further south, which allowed the advances against Chattanooga and Atlanta. These allowed the Union to divide the Eastern and Western theaters, followed by Sherman's March to the Sea; the Stones River National Battlefield is now a national historical site. General Rosecrans' move to the south depended on a secure source of provisions, Murfreesboro was chosen to become his supply depot. Soon after the battle, Brigadier General James St. Clair Morton, Chief Engineer of the Army of the Cumberland, was ordered to build Fortress Rosecrans, some 2 miles northwest of the town.
The fortifications were the largest built during the war. Fortress Rosecrans consisted of four redoubts and connecting fortifications; the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad and the West Fork of the Stones River both passed through the fortress, while two roads provided additional transportation. The fort's interior was a huge logistical resource center, including sawmills, quartermaster maintenance depots, ammunition magazines, living quarters for the 2,000 men who handled the operations and defended the post; the fortress was completed in June 1863, only did Rosecrans dare to move south. The fortress was never attacked, in part because the Union troops held the town of Murfreesboro hostage by training their artillery on the courthouse. Major portions of the earthworks still have been incorporated into the battlefield site. Murfreesboro had begun as a agricultural community, but by 1853 the area was home to several colleges and academies, gaining the nickname the "Athens of Tennessee". Despite the wartime trauma, the town's growth had begun to recover by the early 1900s, in contrast to other areas of the devastated South.
In 1911, the state legislature created Middle Tennessee State Normal School, a two-year institute to train teachers. It would soon merge with the Tennessee College for Women. In 1925 the Normal School was expanded to a four-year college. In 1965 it became Middle Tennessee State University. MTSU now has the largest undergraduate enrollment in the state, including many international students. World War II resulted in Murfreesboro diversifying into industry and education. Growth has been steady since that time. Murfreesboro has enjoyed substantial residential and commercial growth, with its population increasing 123.9% between 1990 and 2010, from 44,922 to 100,575. The city has been a destination for many immigrants leaving areas affected by warfare; the city has become more cosmopolitan by attracting more numerous international students to the university. The city council has six members, all elected at-large for four-year term
Jack Frasure Hyles was a leading figure in the Independent Baptist movement, having pastored the First Baptist Church of Hammond in Hammond, from 1959 until his death. He was well known for being an innovator of the church bus ministry that brought thousands of people each week from surrounding towns to Hammond for services. Hyles built First Baptist up from fewer than a thousand members to a membership of 100,000. In 1993 and again in 1994, it was reported that 20,000 people attended First Baptist every Sunday, making it the most attended Baptist church in the United States. In 2001, at the time of Hyles's death, 20,000 people were attending church services and Sunday school each week, he was accused of several sexual abuse scandals while pastoring the church, his doctrinal positions put him at odds with other Christians — with other fundamentalist Baptists. Hyles was raised in Italy, Texas, a low-income area in Ellis County, south of Dallas. Hyles described his less-than-ideal upbringing which, he said, included a distant father.
At the age of eighteen, Hyles enlisted in the United States Army and served as a paratrooper with the 82nd Airborne Division during World War II. He and his wife, were married during the war. After the war was over, Hyles completed his college education at East Texas Baptist University in Marshall, the seat of Harrison County. After his graduation from East Texas, Hyles started preaching at several small Texas churches, whose memberships began to grow; these churches included: Marris Chapel Baptist Church, Texas. After receiving his education Hyles pastored at the Miller Road Baptist Church in Garland in Dallas County for about six years. During this time the congregation grew from 44 to 4,000 members, it was during those days that Hyles left the Southern Baptist Convention and became an independent Baptist. Hyles led Miller Road Baptist Church as an independent preacher for a while. In 1959, Hyles moved to the church provided parsonage at 8232 Greenwood avenue, Munster and became the pastor of First Baptist Church of Hammond.
When he arrived, the church had a membership of about seven hundred, said to be "high-society types." About a third of the members left the church after hearing Hyles' preaching style, much different than that to which they had been accustomed. Hyles led the church to its status as an independent Baptist church—freeing it from its ties with the American Baptists. Hyles started his bus ministry and soon shepherded the church from a congregation of several hundred to more than 20,000. In the early 1990s a national survey ranked First Baptist as the largest church in the nation, by average weekly attendance figures. Beginning in 1969, continuing for several years, First Baptist received recognition for the size of its Sunday School. In 1969, Elmer Towns wrote a book called The Ten Largest Sunday Schools and What Makes Them Grow which analyzed First Baptist's Sunday School. Towns presented a plaque to Hyles in 1971, naming First Baptist Church of Hammond the nation’s largest Sunday school. In 1972, for several years following, Christian Life Magazine proclaimed First Baptist Church of Hammond to have "the world's largest Sunday School".
In 1972, Jack Hyles and Russell Anderson founded Hyles–Anderson College, an unaccredited Bible college, to specialize in training Baptist ministers and Christian school teachers. Hyles–Anderson College never sought accreditation because Hyles insisted school accreditation would undermine his ability to control how the college ought to run. One of the most notable aspects of Hyles is his church bus ministry; as early as 1975, Time magazine described the phenomenon in an article titled, "Superchurch." The Time article notes that First Baptist Church of Hammond Sunday School, which ran 14,000 people, pushed the church to a record attendance of 30,560 on March 16, 1975, thanks to a boisterous contest between two bus route teams. In that year, the First Baptist bus route ministry consisted of 1,000 workers using 230 buses to ferry as many as 10,000 people every Sunday. In 2001, a fleet of over 200 buses was ferrying 7,000 to 15,000 people from all over the area. Hyles spoke at'The Sword of the Lord' conferences with John R. Rice and his own annual "Pastors School".
The school continues to attract as many as seven thousand annual visitors to the Hammond area. Hyles wrote fifty works in his lifetime with over 14 million total copies in circulation, including the popular Is There A Hell?, based on a sermon he preached at a National Sword of the Lord Conference. Another work, Enemies of Soul Winning tackled many issues considered controversial in fundamentalist and evangelical circles, which include the doctrine of repentance, Lordship salvation, the role of the church in soul winning; the Calvary Contender wrote, "Hyles will be remembered as a one-of-a-kind controversial leader whose ministry touched the lives of multitudes."Hyles was better known as "Brother Hyles" to his tens of thousands of congregants. Hyles held nationwide speaking engagements. In 1984, for instance, he addressed a large gathering in the small city of Snyder, the seat of Scurry County, hosted by pastor Luther Wallace "Buck" Hatfield of Faith Baptist Church. Independent Baptists from throughout the area, such as Ross J. Spencer from Bethany Baptist Church in Lubbock, organized bus trips to the convention hall in Snyder.
Hatfield and Spencer adapted the bus ministry approach for their congregations. In his book, Enemies of Soulwinning, Hyles taught that one could not be born again unless the Ki
Scottdale is a census-designated place in DeKalb County, United States. The population was 10,631 at the 2010 census. Scottdale, aka SCD is located at 33°47′40″N 84°15′44″W; the unincorporated community is centered on East Ponce de Leon Avenue, between Decatur and Clarkston. The northern boundary is Stone Mountain Freeway; the ZIP code for Scottdale is 30079. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.5 square miles, all land. According to the 2010 census, there were 10,631 people residing in the CDP; the racial makeup of the CDP was 29.9% White, 37.7% African American, 0.20% Native American, 23.0% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 2.3% from other races, 3.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.3% of the population. 12.7% of the population are Asian Indians. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,803 people, 4,010 households, 2,201 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 2,818.2 people per square mile. There were 4,236 housing units at an average density of 1,217.8/sq mi.
The racial makeup of Scottdale was 48.6% Black, 37.1% White, 0.19% Native American, 9.60% Asian, 0.18% Pacific Islander, 1.7% from other races, 2.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.5% of the population. There were 4,010 households out of which 67.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 29.8% were married couples living together, 69.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 45.1% were non-families. 18.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.15. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 34.5% under the age of 18, 12.0% from 18 to 24, 39.3% from 25 to 44, 16.7% from 45 to 64, 7.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 64.4 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $18,731, the median income for a family was $27,521.
Males had a median income of $27,489 versus $21,813 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $24,262. About 54.24% of families and 76.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 44.6% of those under age 18 and 32.3% of those age 65 or over. Scottdale is named for Colonel George Washington Scott, who founded the Scottdale Cotton Mill in the late 1800s. Colonel Scott arrived in DeKalb County from Florida, where he had owned a plantation, served in the Confederate Army, unsuccessfully run for governor. Col. Scott was a benefactor of nearby Agnes Scott College; the Scottdale Cotton Mill development included the mill and nearby housing for workers. From the 1920s through the 1940s, Scottdale Manufacturing Company supported a baseball team; the mill shut down in 1982. Philanthropist Tobie Grant donated several acres of property to disenfranchised, unemployed African-Americans and created a community known as Tobie Grant; this community still houses low-income African Americans to this day.
Oak Forest Apartments was opened under this theme in 1968. The commercial district in Scottdale is focused on East Ponce de Leon Avenue, which bisects the community from the southwest to the northeast. Your DeKalb Farmers Market and antique shops are located on this road, along with several auto body shops and industrial buildings. Steel LLC maintains a large steel fabrication and distribution facility in Scottdale, near the intersection of North Clarendon Avenue and East Ponce de Leon Avenue. Efforts to rehabilitate East Ponce de Leon Avenue commenced in 2007. Scottdale, Georgia has produced musical and entertainment talent such as the rappers Mr. Ku, Joe Green, Charlie Boy Gang, Brothers 3 Band with Michael Harden, A-Dam-Shame, as well as recent retiree from NFL New England Patriots Patrick Pass,comedian Saleem Cooke. Avondale Middle School, 3131 Old Rockbridge Rd. Robert Shaw Theme Elementary School, 385 Glendale Rd. DeKalb County Elementary School. Hamilton High School and Robert Shaw Elementary School, DeKalb County closed 1969 Avondale High School 1192 Clarendon Road, closed 2011 to public turned into a Performance Arts only campus.
Druid Hills High School, Decatur, Ga. Cedar Park, 3165 Cedar St. Three acre DeKalb County park with a multi-use field, basketball court, multi-use court and picnic area. Hamilton Recreation Center & Park, 3262 Chapel St. Eight acre DeKalb County park with a softball field, football field, a multi-use field, recreation center and playground. Needham Park, McLendon Dr. & East Ponce de Leon Ave. Greenspace park. Tobie Grant Park, Pool & Recreation Center
The Sword of the Lord
The Sword of the Lord is a Christian fundamentalist, Independent Baptist biweekly newspaper. The Sword of the Lord is published by Sword of the Lord Ministries, a non-profit organization based in Murfreesboro, which publishes religious books and tracts from a fundamentalist Christian perspective, as Sword of the Lord Publications. In 2012 the newspaper was a 24-page, biweekly tabloid with a circulation of "just over 100,000." The Sword of the Lord was first published on September 28, 1934, in Dallas, Texas by John R. Rice, who edited the publication until his death on December 29, 1980. At first it was the four-page paper of Fundamentalist Baptist Church of Dallas, where Rice was the pastor; the paper was handed out on the street, Rice's daughters and other Sunday school children delivered it door-to-door. The Sword of the Lord moved with the Rice family to Wheaton, Illinois in 1940, to its present location in 1963. Upon the Sword's move to Tennessee, Rice co-edited the paper with his brother Bill until Bill's death.
Curtis Hutson replaced Bill Rice as co-editor, he became the sole editor two years when John R. Rice died. Hutson died in 1995, editorship passed to Shelton Smith, former pastor of the Church of the Open Door/Carroll Christian Schools, Maryland; the name of the ministry and publication is taken from a phrase in Judges 7:20: "And they cried, The Sword of the LORD, of Gideon." The verse is featured in the banner, as is the newspaper's stated purpose: "An Independent Christian Publication, Standing for the Verbal Inspiration of the Bible, the Deity of Christ, His Blood Atonement, Salvation by Faith, New Testament Soul Winning and the Premillennial Return of Christ. As is true in many small businesses, family members of the editors assumed integral roles in the ministry of The Sword of the Lord. In 2009, the fifty employees of the Sword of the Lord Foundation included editor Shelton Smith; the Sword of the Lord emphasizes soul winning, the belief that Christians should seek to convert others to faith in Jesus Christ.
It promotes fulfilling the Great Commission by publishing books and materials on the topic as well as sponsoring annual "School of the Prophets" seminars. The Sword of the Lord believes "the Bible, the Scriptures of the Old Testament and the New Testament, preserved for us in the Masoretic Text, Textus Receptus, in the King James Bible, is verbally and plenarily inspired of God, it is the inspired, inerrant and altogether authentic and authoritative Word of God, therefore the supreme and final authority in all things.." For many years The Sword of the Lord has published sermons of contemporary Independent Baptist preachers who are part of its circle. It publishes sermons from a wider spectrum of evangelicals of past generations, including Hyman Appelman, Harry A. Ironside, Bob Jones, Sr. R. A. Torrey, Robert G. Lee, Dwight L. Moody, Billy Sunday, T. De Witt Talmage, George Truett; the Sword of the Lord is anti-Calvinist and as such does not publish sermons by Calvinist preachers, although an exception has been made for the noted nineteenth-century Calvinist Charles Spurgeon.
Spurgeon's sermons have been edited to remove Calvinist-leaning passages. The paper includes "Editor's Notes," a column by Smith commenting on his recent travels and upcoming events; the Sword of the Lord