The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
George Alexander Macfarren
Sir George Alexander Macfarren was an English composer and musicologist. George Alexander Macfarren was born in London on 2 March 1813 to George Macfarren, a dancing-master, dramatic author and journalist, who became the editor of the Musical World, Elizabeth Macfarren, née Jackson. At the age of seven, Macfarren was sent to Dr. Nicholas's school in Ealing, where his father was dancing-master, his health was poor and his eyesight weak, so much so that he was given a large-type edition of the Bible and had to use a powerful magnifying-glass for all other reading. He was withdrawn from the school in 1823 to undergo a course of eye treatment; the treatment was unsuccessful, his eyesight progressively worsened until he became blind in 1860. However, his blindness had little effect on his productivity, he overcame. One amanuensis was composer Oliveria Prescott. On 27 September 1844, Macfarren married Clarina Thalia Andrae, subsequently known as Natalia Macfarren, an operatic contralto and pianist, born in Lübeck.
Trained at the Royal Academy of Music, she was successively a concert singer and singing teacher, as well as being a writer and a prolific translator of German poetry and operatic libretti into English. Her singing translation for the finale text of Beethoven's Symphony No. 9, the "Ode to Joy", became its most popular translation in England. She composed for piano, his brother Walter Macfarren was a pianist and professor of the Royal Academy. Emma Maria Macfarren, the wife of another brother, was a pianist and composer. Macfarren was knighted in 1883, he "suffered from chronic bronchitis and a weak heart" but refused to abate his working schedule, died on 31 October 1887, at his house in Hamilton Terrace, St John's Wood. He is buried in Hampstead Cemetery. Macfarren began to study music. In 1829, at the age of sixteen, he entered the Royal Academy of Music, where he studied composition under Cipriani Potter as well as piano under William Henry Holmes and trombone with John Smithies, his ability to perform, was hindered by his poor eyesight and he soon concentrated upon composing only.
In his first year at the Academy, Macfarren composed the Symphony in F minor. From 1834 to 1836 Macfarren taught at the Academy without a professorship, he resigned in 1847 when his espousal of Alfred Day's new theory of harmony became a source of dispute between him and the rest of the Academy's faculty. Macfarren's eyesight had at that point deteriorated so that he spent the next 18 months in New York to receive treatment from a leading oculist, but to no effect, he was re-appointed a professor at the Academy in 1851, not because the faculty had any greater love for Day's theories, but because they decided that free thought should be encouraged. He succeeded Sir William Sterndale Bennett as principal of the Academy in 1876, he was appointed professor of music at Cambridge University in 1875, again succeeding Bennett. Macfarren founded the Handel Society which attempted to produce a collected edition of the works of George Frideric Handel. Among his theoretical works was an analysis of Beethoven's Missa solemnis.
His overture "Chevy Chace" was performed on 26 October 1843 by the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra conducted by Felix Mendelssohn. Mendelssohn had heard it performed in London and wrote to the composer that he "liked it much". After the Leipzig concert Mendelssohn wrote again to say "Your overture went well, was most cordially and unanimously received by the public, the orchestra playing it with true delight and enthusiasm". Richard Wagner admired the peculiar and wildly passionate character of the piece. Wagner described the overture's composer as "a pompous, melancholy Scotsman"; the "Chevy Chace" overture and two of his symphonies have been recorded. Among Macfarren's operas were King Charles II, produced at the Princess's Theatre in 1849, an adaptation of Robin Hood produced in 1860, his oratorios brought him some critical success. The most enduringly successful of these, St John the Baptist, was first performed in 1873 at the Bristol Festival; the Resurrection premiered in 1876, Joseph in 1877 and King David in 1883.
Macfarren wrote chamber music, most notably the six string quartets that span over 40 years from 1834. Other chamber works include a piano trio in E minor, a piano quintet in G minor, sonatas for flute and violin, three piano sonatas. Among his compositions of light music is a Romance and Barcarole for Concertina and Fortepiano written in 1856. 1828 – Symphony No. 1 in C 1831 – Symphony No. 2 in D minor 1832 – Symphony No. 3 in E minor 1832 – Overture in E-flat 1833 – Symphony No. 4 in F minor 1833 – Symphony No. 5 in A minor 1834 – The Merchant of Venice, overture 1835 – Piano Concerto in C minor 1836 – Symphony No. 6 in B-flat 1836 – Romeo and Juliet, overture 1836 – Concertino in A, for cello and orch
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
William Sterndale Bennett
Sir William Sterndale Bennett was an English composer, pianist and music educator. At the age of ten Bennett was admitted to the London Royal Academy of Music, where he remained for ten years. By the age of twenty, he had begun to make a reputation as a concert pianist, his compositions received high praise. Among those impressed by Bennett was the German composer Felix Mendelssohn, who invited him to Leipzig. There Bennett became friendly with Robert Schumann, who shared Mendelssohn's admiration for his compositions. Bennett spent three winters performing in Leipzig. In 1837 Bennett began to teach at the RAM, with which he was associated for most of the rest of his life. For twenty years he taught there also teaching at Queen's College, London. Amongst his pupils during this period were Arthur Sullivan, Hubert Parry, Tobias Matthay. Throughout the 1840s and 1850s he composed little, although he performed as a pianist and directed the Philharmonic Society for ten years, he actively promoted concerts of chamber music.
From 1848 onwards his career was punctuated by antagonism between himself and the conductor Michael Costa. In 1858 Bennett returned to composition, but his works, though popular, were considered old-fashioned and did not arouse as much critical enthusiasm as his youthful compositions had done, he was Professor of Music at the University of Cambridge from 1856 until 1875. In 1866 he became Principal of the RAM, rescuing it from closure, remained in this position until his death, he was knighted in 1871. He was buried in Westminster Abbey. Bennett had a significant influence on English music, not as a composer but as a teacher, as a promoter of standards of musical education and as an important figure in London concert life. In recent years, appreciation of Bennett's compositions has been rekindled and a number of his works, including a symphony, his piano concerti, some vocal music and many of his piano compositions, have been recorded. In his bicentenary year of 2016, several concerts of his music and other related events took place.
Bennett was born in Sheffield, the third child and only son of Robert Bennett, the organist of Sheffield parish church, his wife Elizabeth, née Donn. In addition to his duties as an organist, Robert Bennett was a conductor and piano teacher, his mother died in 1818, aged 27, his father, after remarrying, died in 1819. Thus orphaned at the age of three, Bennett was brought up in Cambridge by his paternal grandfather, John Bennett, from whom he received his first musical education. John Bennett was a professional bass, who sang as a lay clerk in the choirs of King's, St John's and Trinity colleges; the young Bennett entered the choir of King's College Chapel in February 1824 where he remained for two years. In 1826, at the age of ten, he was accepted into the Royal Academy of Music, founded in 1822; the examiners were so impressed by the child's talent that they waived all fees for his tuition and board. Bennett was a pupil at the RAM for the next ten years. At his grandfather's wish his principal instrumental studies were at first as a violinist, under Paolo Spagnoletti and Antonio James Oury.
He studied the piano under W. H. Holmes, after five years, with his grandfather's agreement, he took the piano as his principal study, he was a shy youth and was diffident about his skill in composition, which he studied under the principal of the RAM, William Crotch, under Cipriani Potter, who took over as principal in 1832. Amongst the friends Bennett made at the Academy was the future music critic J. W. Davison. Bennett did not study singing, but when the RAM mounted a student production of The Marriage of Figaro in 1830, aged fourteen, was cast in the mezzo-soprano role of the page boy Cherubino; this was among the few failures of his career at the RAM. The Observer wryly commented, "of the page... we will not speak", but acknowledged that Bennett sang pleasingly and to the satisfaction of the audience. The Harmonicon, called his performance "in every way a blot on the piece". Among Bennett's student compositions were a piano concerto, a symphony and an overture to The Tempest; the concerto received its public premiere at an orchestral concert in Cambridge on 28 November 1832, with Bennett as soloist.
Performances soon followed in London and, by royal command, at Windsor Castle, where Bennett played in April 1833 for King William IV and Queen Adelaide. The RAM published the concerto at its own expense as a tribute. A further London performance was given in June 1833; the critic of The Harmonicon wrote of this concert: he most complete and gratifying performance was that of young Bennett, whose composition would have conferred honour on any established master, his execution of it was surprising, not for its correctness and brilliancy, but for the feeling he manifested, which, if he proceed as he has begun, must in a few years place him high in his profession. In the audience was Felix Mendelssohn, sufficiently impressed to invite Bennett to the Lower Rhenish Music Festival in Düsseldorf. Bennett asked, "May I come to be your pupil?" Mendelssohn replied, "no. You must come to be my friend". In 1834 Bennett was appointed organist of St Ann's, London, a chapel of ease to Wandsworth parish church.
He held the post for a year, after which he taught private students in central London and at schools in Edmonton and Hendon. Although by common consent the RAM had little more to teach him after his seventh or eighth year, h
Charleston is a city in and the county seat of Coles County, United States. The population was 21,838, as of the 2010 census; the city has close ties with its neighbor, Mattoon. Both are principal cities of the Charleston–Mattoon Micropolitan Statistical Area. Native Americans lived in the Charleston area for thousands of years before the first European settlers arrived. With the great tallgrass prairie to the west, beech-maple forests to the east, the Embarras River and Wabash Rivers between, the Charleston area provided semi-nomadic Indians access to a variety of resources. Indians may have deliberately set the "wildfires" which maintained the local mosaic of prairie and oak–hickory forest. Streams with names like'Indian Creek' and'Kickapoo Creek' mark the sites of former Indian settlements. One village is said to have been located south of Fox Ridge State Park near a deposit of flint; the early history of settlement in the area was marked by uneasy co-existence between Indians and European settlers.
Some settlers lived peacefully with the natives. After Indians harassed surveying crews, an escalating series of poorly documented skirmishes occurred between Indians and the Illinois Rangers. Two pitched battles occurred just south of Charleston along "the hills of the Embarrass," near the entrance to Lake Charleston park; these conflicts did not slow American settlement, Indian history in Coles County ended when all natives were expelled by law from Illinois after the 1832 Black Hawk War. With the grudging exception of Indian wives, the last natives were driven out by the 1840s. First settled by Benjamin Parker in 1826, Charleston was named for Charles Morton, its first postmaster; the city was established in 1831, but not incorporated until 1865. When Abraham Lincoln's father moved to a farm on Goosenest Prairie south of Charleston in 1831, Lincoln helped him move left to start his own homestead at New Salem in Sangamon County. Lincoln was a frequent visitor to the Charleston area, though he spent more time at the Coles County courthouse than at the home of his father and stepmother.
One of the famous Lincoln-Douglas debates was held in Charleston on September 18, 1858, is now the site of the Coles County fairgrounds and a small museum. Lincoln's last visit was in 1859, when the future President visited his stepmother and his father's grave. Although Illinois was a solidly pro-Union, anti-slavery state, Coles County was settled by many Southerners with pro-slavery sentiments. In 1847, the county was divided when prominent local citizens offered refuge to a family of escaped slaves brought from Kentucky by Gen. Robert Matson. Abe Lincoln, by a young railroad lawyer, appeared in the Coles County Courthouse to argue for the return of the escaped slaves under the Fugitive Slave Act in a case known as Matson v. Ashmore; as in the rest of the nation, this long-simmering debate broke out into violence during the American Civil War. On March 28, 1864 a riot—or a small battle—erupted in downtown Charleston when armed Confederate sympathizers known as Copperheads arrived in town to attack half-drunk Union soldiers preparing to return to their regiment.
In 1895, the Eastern Illinois State Normal School was established in Charleston, which became Eastern Illinois University. This led to lasting resentment in nearby Mattoon, which had led the campaign to locate the proposed teaching school in Coles County. A Mattoon newspaper printed a special edition announcing the decision with the derisive headline "Catfish Town Gets It." Thomas Lincoln's log cabin has been restored and is open to the public as the Lincoln Log Cabin State Historic Site, 8 mi. south of Charleston. The Lincoln farm is maintained as a living history museum where historical re-enactors depict life in 1840s Illinois. Thomas and Sarah Bush Lincoln are buried in the nearby Shiloh Cemetery. On May 26, 1917, a tornado ripped through Charleston, killing 38 and wounding many more along with destroying 220 homes. Charleston is located at 39°29′5″N 88°10′41″W. According to the 2010 census, Charleston has a total area of 9.63 square miles, of which 8.92 square miles is land and 0.71 square miles is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 21,472 people, 7,972 households, 3,329 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,632.2 people per square mile. There were 8,794 housing units at an average density of 1,019.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.4% White, 5.7% African American, 0.1% Native American, 2.4% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.9% from other races, 0.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population. There were 7,972 households out of which 20.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.9% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 56.6% were non-families. 34.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.75 and the average family size was 2.44. In the city, the population was spread out with 9.8% under the age of 18, 44.1% from 18 to 24, 18.7% from 25 to 44, 13.7% from 45 to 64, 7.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 21.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $21,849, the median income for a family was $49,625. Males had a median income of $30,906 versus $21,822 for females; the per capita income f