Albert Curtz, was a German astronomer and member of the Society of Jesus. He used the pseudonym of Lucius Barrettus. Latin version of the name Albert Curtz, Albertus Curtius is an anagram of his pseudonym, Lucius Barretus. Together with Johann Deckers, Francesco Maria Grimaldi, Jean-Baptiste Riccioli, he contributed to our early understanding of the Moon, he published Historia coelestis and Augustae Vindelicorum, Simonem Utzschneiderum in 1666. The crater Curtius on the Moon was named after him. List of Jesuit scientists List of Roman Catholic scientist-clerics
Dirk Donker Curtius
Dirk Donker Curtius was a Dutch politician. Parlement.com biography
Janus Henricus Donker Curtius
Jan Hendrik Donker Curtius was the last Opperhoofd of the Dutch trading post in Japan, located at Dejima an artificial island in the harbor of Nagasaki. To negotiate with the Japanese government for a treaty, he received the title "Dutch Commissioner in Japan" in 1855. Donker Curtius was born in Arnhem in the Netherlands, as the son of Hendrik Herman Donker Curtius, a theologian, he studied law at Leiden University. To further his career prospects, he accepted a position as a judge at the High Court in Semarang in the Netherlands East Indies, he married a relative while on home leave in Amsterdam, his first son, was born at Semarang in 1845 ). His second son, Jan Hendrik, born at Batavia in 1849. In July 1852, he was appointed to the post of Opperhoofd, the chief of the Nederlandsche Handel-Maatschappij trading post in Nagasaki, Japan. Since the beginning of the seventeenth century, the ruling Tokugawa shogunate of Japan pursued a policy of isolating the country from outside influences. Foreign trade was maintained only with the Dutch and the Chinese and was conducted at Nagasaki.
By the early nineteenth century, this policy of isolation was under challenge. In 1844, King William II of the Netherlands sent a letter urging Japan to end the isolation policy on its own before change would be forced from the outside; the Dutch had warned the Japanese of the Perry Expedition, urged that Japan conclude a treaty of friendship and commerce with the Dutch government before a more onerous one was forced upon them by the Americans. In early August 1853, Russian vice admiral Yevfimy Putyatin arrived at Nagasaki with a fleet of four vessels, just one month after the visit to Perry to Uraga in an attempt to force the opening of Japan. At the time, Russia was at war with Great Britain, alarmed at the possibility that Russia would obtain the upper hand in Japan, Royal Navy vice admiral Sir James Stirling, commander of the East Indies and China Station led a fleet of British warships to Nagasaki on September 7, 1854. Stirling requested the assistance of Curtius to reaffirm Japan’s neutrality in the conflict, but through a series of miscommunications and misunderstandings, the negotiations ended with the signing of the Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty of 1854.
In 1855 Curtius organized the transfer of the HM Soembing from Royal Netherlands Navy to the Japanese government as a gift from Dutch King William III to Shogun Tokugawa Iesada. Renamed Kankō Maru, this was Japan’s first steam warship. Kankō Maru was assigned to be a training ship to the newly formed Nagasaki Naval Training Center with 22 Dutch sailors. Curtius followed with the Dutch-Japanese Friendship Treaty of January 1856, which opened the city and port of Nagasaki to Dutch traders, who were no longer to be confined to their prison-like location in Dejima. However, the treaty was condemned in the Dutch Parliament and by the Minister of Colonies for its lack of a paragraph confirming trading rights. Curtius was forced to negotiate a follow-on agreement called the'Additional Articles' in October 1857. Among the Japanese concessions to the Dutch in the "Additional Articles" was a pledge that the Dutch may practice Christianity in Japan. In 1857 Curtius published a little book on Japanese grammar, corrected and enlarged by J.
J. Hoffman, Professor of Japanese and Chinese at Leiden University. However, during this time Curtius was plagued with administrative problems, issued with his staff led him to dismiss most of his employees and order them back to Batavia. In 1858 Curtius made a ceremonial visit to Edo as representative of the King William III of the Netherlands to pay tribute to Shogun Tokugawa Iesada, he was accompanied by his secretary Dirk de Graeff van Polsbroek, who left a description of the voyage to Edo in his diary. In Edo, Curtius found that the American Consul Townsend Harris had concluded the Treaty of Amity and Commerce, which gave the Americans a far more advantageous position for trade than what had been enjoyed by the Dutch, he therefore concluded a new treaty between the Netherlands and Japan based on the American treaty, with the additional clause that the use of Fumi-e to check for illegal Kirishitan at the Nagasaki magistrate would be abolished. During his stay in Japan Curtius acquired a collection of 111 books on Rangaku, which are today preserved at the Leiden University Library.
Curtius left Japan in 1860 for Batavia. In 1861 he concluded a treaty between Siam and the Netherlands, after which he returned to Amsterdam. In 1864, he remarried to Geertruida Margaretha Constance Balck, he subsequently was employed by the Internationale Crediet Maatschappij at Rotterdam. Curtius died in his native Arnhem in 1879. Archive of the Ministry of the Colonies in the National Archive at The Hague, Dutch Factory in Japan
Georg Curtius was a German philologist. Curtius was born in Lübeck, was the brother of the historian and archeologist Ernst Curtius. After an education at Bonn and Berlin, he was for three years a schoolmaster in Dresden, until he returned to Berlin University as privatdocent. In 1849 he was placed in charge of the Philological Seminary at Prague, two years was appointed professor of classical philology in Prague University. In 1852, he moved from Prague to a similar appointment at Kiel, again in 1862 from Kiel to Leipzig, his philological theories exercised a widespread influence. The more important of his publications are: Die Sprachvergleichung in ihrem Verhältniss zur classischen Philologie Sprachvergleichende Beiträge zur griechischen und lateinischen Grammatik Grundzüge der griechischen Etymologie Das Verbum der griechischen Sprache; the last two works have been translated into English by Augustus Samuel Wilkins and Edwin Bourdieu England. From 1878 till his death Curtius was general editor of the Leipziger Studien zur classischen Philologie.
His Griechische Schulgrammatik, first published in 1852, has passed through more than twenty editions, has been edited in English. In his last work, Zur Kritik der neuesten Sprachforschung, he attacks the views of the emerging Neogrammarian school of philology. Curtius died in Hermsdorf am Kynast, aged 65, was succeeded at Leipzig by Karl Brugmann; the Opuscula of Georg Curtius were edited after his death by Ernst Windisch. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Curtius, Ernst". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press; this work in turn cites: Richard Meister, "Curtius, Georg", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 47, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 597–602 Ernst Windisch in Conrad Bursian's Biographisches Jahrbuch für Alterthumskunde Works by or about Georg Curtius at Internet Archive Works by Georg Curtius at LibriVox
Julius Curtius was a German politician who served as Minister for Economic Affairs and Foreign Minister of the Weimar Republic. Julius Curtius was born on 7 February 1877 at Duisburg in what was the Prussian Rhine Province, his father Friedrich owned a ultramarine works at Duisburg and an alum works at Eichelkamp. Friedrich's brother was a professor of chemistry. Julius' mother was Adele. Julius married Adda Carp, sister of industrialist Werner Carp, in 1905, they had three daughters. Curtius studied law at Kiel and Bonn and was awarded a doctorate at Berlin. In 1905, he started practicing law at Duisburg. After 1911, he began working on issues in the field of public policy at Heidelberg, he served in the First World War, finishing at the rank of Hauptmann of the Landwehr and Batterieführer and was awarded both Iron Crosses. He remained at Heidelberg where he was a member of the city council until 1921, he worked as a lawyer at the Kammergericht Berlin. He represented firms in the steel and coal and railway rolling stock businesses.
From 1920 to 1932, he was a member of the Reichstag for the German People's Party. Curtius became Reichswirtschaftsminister in January 1926 as a member of the second cabinet of Hans Luther and remained in that office in several different cabinets that followed. After Gustav Stresemann died on 3 October 1929, Curtius became the acting Foreign Minister and in November vacated his old position and took over the Auswärtiges Amt; as a minister he supported job-creation schemes and a close cooperation with the Soviet Union in economic affairs. His main achievement was - as collaborator and "heir" of Stresemann - progress in the question of wartime reparations and the return of the occupied Rhineland; as the minister responsible for the Young Plan, Curtius was criticized by DNVP, Stahlhelm and the Pan-German League, who labelled him a "traitor to the fatherland". Curtius unsuccessfully worked with Austria's Johann Schober in March 1931 to set up a German-Austrian custom union. However, France blocked this by putting economic pressure on Austria and by bringing about a decision by the Permanent Court of International Justice at Den Haag, which voted 8:7 to rule the union in contradiction of the Geneva protocol of 1922.
This caused Curtius to resign on 3 October 1931. To prevent the union being established, the French had withdrawn a number of short loans they had made to Austria. Curtius was intimately involved in the negotiations that led to the issuing of the Hoover Moratorium by the U. S President Herbert Hoover that halted war reparations payments by Germany in June 1931 as part of the effort to limit the financial fall-out of the banking collapse. Following his resignation, Curtius worked as a lawyer, asset manager and farmer. After his house in Berlin was destroyed in World War II and his estate in Mecklenburg was seized by the Communist authorities he moved to Heidelberg in July 1946. Curtius died at Heidelberg on 10 November 1948. Über die Einführung von Volksinitiative und Volksreferendum in der neuen Verfassungen der deutschen Staaten, 1919 Bismarcks Plan eines deutschen Volkswirtschaftsrats, 1919 Was im Haag erreicht wurde, 1929 Innere Konsolidierung und außenpolitische Aktionsfähigkeit, 1930 Zur nationalen Freiheit, in: Um Deutschlands Zukunft, 1931, p. 17-38 Germany and the Polish Corridor, 1933 Bemühung um Österreich, Das Scheitern des Zollunionsplans von 1931, 1947 Sechs Jahre Minister der deutschen Republik, 1948 Der Young-Plan, Entstellung und Wahrheit, 1950 Media related to Julius Curtius at Wikimedia Commons Curtius at the Akten der Reichskanzlei online edition Curtius at the Datenbank der deutschen Parlamentsabgeordneten, with pictures Newspaper clippings about Julius Curtius in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Begonia is a genus of perennial flowering plants in the family Begoniaceae. The genus contains more than 1,800 different plant species; the Begonias are native to moist tropical climates. Some species are grown indoors as ornamental houseplants in cooler climates. In cooler climates some species are cultivated outside in summertime for their bright colourful flowers, which have sepals but no petals. With 1,831 species, Begonia is one of the largest genera of flowering plants; the species are terrestrial herbs or undershrubs, occur in subtropical and tropical moist climates, in South and Central America and southern Asia. Terrestrial species in the wild are upright-stemmed, rhizomatous, or tuberous; the plants are monoecious, with unisexual male and female flowers occurring separately on the same plant. In most species, the fruit is a winged capsule containing numerous minute seeds, although baccate fruits are known; the leaves, which are large and variously marked or variegated, are asymmetric. The genus name Begonia was coined by Charles Plumier, a French patron of botany, adopted by Linnaeus in 1753, to honor Michel Bégon, a former governor of the French colony of Saint-Domingue.
The following phylogenetic tree shows the relationships between different sections of the genus Begonia. Selected species: The different groups of begonias have different cultural requirements, but most species come from tropical regions, so they and their hybrids require warm temperatures. Most require bright shade. In general, begonias require a well-drained growing medium, neither wet nor allowed to dry out completely. Many begonias will grow and flower year-round except for tuberous begonias, which have a dormant period. During this dormant period, the tubers can be stored in a dry place. Begonias of the semperflorens group are grown as bedding plants outdoors. A recent group of hybrids derived from this group is marketed as "Dragonwing" begonias. Tuberous begonias are used as container plants. Although most Begonia species are tropical or subtropical in origin, the Chinese species B. grandis is hardy to USDA hardiness zone 6 and is known as the "hardy begonia". Most begonias can be grown outdoors year-round in subtropical or tropical climates, but in temperate climates, begonias are grown outdoors as annuals, or as house or greenhouse plants.
Most begonias are propagated by division or from stem cuttings. In addition,some can be propagated from leaf cuttings or sections of leaves the members of the rhizomatous and rex groups; the following begonia hybrids have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:- The nomenclature of begonias can be complex and confusing. The term'picotee' refers to an edging on the petals, in contrast to the colour of the main petal, if the colours blend. If they do not the term'marginata' is used, but sometimes these terms are used simultaneously.'Non-Stop' refers to a camellia tuberous hybrid that under certain conditions will bloom'non-stop' all year round. Because of their sometimes showy flowers of white, scarlet, or yellow color and attractively marked leaves, many species and innumerable hybrids and cultivars are cultivated; the genus is unusual in that species throughout the genus those coming from different continents, can be hybridized with each other, this has led to an enormous number of cultivars.
The American Begonia Society classifies begonias into several major groups: cane-like shrub-like tuberous rhizomatous semperflorens Rex trailing-scandent thick-stemmedFor the most part, these groups do not correspond to any formal taxonomic groupings or phylogeny, many species and hybrids have characteristics of more than one group, or do not fit well in any of them. Angel wing begonia Begonia'Immense' Begonia × sedenii Begonia × semperflorens-cultorum hort. Begonia x benariensis Begonia × tuberhybrida Voss - tuberous begonias, sometimes considered a cultivar group, Begonia Tuberhybrida Group The cultivar'Kimjongilia' is a floral emblem of North Korea. Most begonias are sour to the taste, some people in some areas eat them; this is safe in small amounts but toxic in large quantities due to the prevalence of oxalic acid in the tissues. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Begonia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. American Begonia Society W. S. Hoover et al. 2004, Notes on the geography of South-East Asian Begonia and species diversity in montane forests Phylogenetic Relationships of the Afro-Malagasy Members of the Large Genus Begonia Inferred from trnL Intron Sequences A Phylogeny of Begonia Using Nuclear Ribosomal Sequence Data and Morphological Characters Begonia L. Plants of the World Online Accepted species Plants of the World Online
Geheimrat Julius Wilhelm Theodor Curtius was professor of Chemistry at Heidelberg University and elsewhere. He published the Curtius rearrangement in 1890/1894 and discovered diazoacetic acid and hydrazoic acid. Theodor Curtius was born in Duisburg in the Ruhr area in Germany, he studied chemistry with Robert Bunsen at Heidelberg University and with Hermann Kolbe at Leipzig University. He received his doctorate in 1882 in Leipzig. After working from 1884 to 1886 for Adolf von Baeyer at the University of Munich, Curtius became the director of the analytical chemistry department at University of Erlangen until 1889, he accepted the chair in Chemistry at the University of Kiel, where he remained productive. In line with this success, Curtius was appointed Geheimer Regierungsrat in 1895. After a one-year appointment as the successor of the famous August Kekulé at Bonn University in 1897, Curtius succeeded Victor Meyer as Professor of Chemistry at his old university in Heidelberg in 1898, where he remained until his retirement in 1926.
He was succeeded by Karl Freudenberg, who wrote Curtius' biography in 1962. In his free time, he composed music, sang in concerts, was an active mountaineer. In 1894 he founded the Kiel section of the Association of German and Austrian Alpinists, which he supported with gifts. In his Munich period, he became a close friend of the alpinist guide Christian Klucker, with whom he made mountaineering hikes for many years thereafter. Theodor Curtius died in Heidelberg on 8 February 1928; the Heidelberg University Archives has, in its possession, a photo album from 1907 marking the 25th anniversary of Theodor Curtius receiving his Doctorate. It shows pictures of science scholars and labs such as the physio-chemical and organics labs, much more. Curtius wrote over 300 publications. Several had a significant impact on chemical science. Diazo- und Azoverbindungen der Fettreihe, Leipzig Studien mit Hydrazin, Leipzig, Bd 1,2, Bd 3,4 Einwirkung von Basen auf Diazoessigester, Berlin Die reduktion der aromatische Aldazine und Ketazine, Leipzig Hydrazide und Azide der Azidofettsäuren, Berlin Die Einwirkungen von Hydrazin auf Nitroverbindungen, Leipzig Buchner, E..
"Synthese von Ketonsäureäthern aus Aldehyden und Diazoessigäther". Berichte. 18: 2373–2377. Doi:10.1002/cber.188501802118. Buchner, E.. "Ueber die Einwirkung von Diazoessigäther auf aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe". Berichte. 18: 2377–2379. Doi:10.1002/cber.188501802119. Curtius, Th.. "Chemische Notizen". Berichte. 23: 3023–3041. Doi:10.1002/cber.189002302233. Curtius, Th.. "Hydrazide und Azide organischer Säuren I. Abhandlung". J. Prakt. Chem.. 50: 275–294. Doi:10.1002/prac.18940500125. The Curtius family is from Bremen area. Several other members of the family were notable. Curtius ^ Karl Freudenberg. "Obituary: Theodor Curtius. 1857-1928". Chemische Berichte. 96: I–XXV. doi:10.1002/cber.19630960434. Royal Society of Chemistry, Historical Group, short biography of Curtius University of Kiel history of the inorganic department Heidelberg University German Alpen Association, Kiel section