Black Hills Expedition
The Black Hills Expedition was a United States Army expedition in 1874 led by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer that set out on July 2, 1874 from modern day Bismarck, North Dakota, Fort Abraham Lincoln in the Dakota Territory, with orders to travel to the uncharted Black Hills of South Dakota. Its mission was to look for suitable locations for a fort, find a route to the southwest, to investigate the possibility of gold mining. Custer and his unit, the 7th Cavalry, arrived in the Black Hills on July 22, 1874, with orders to return by August 30; the expedition set up a camp at the site of the future town of Custer. Nonetheless, this prompted a mass gold rush which in turn antagonised the Sioux Indians, promised protection of their sacred land through Treaties made by the US government, who were to kill Custer at the Battle of the Little Big Horn in the Great Sioux War of 1876–1877 between themselves and the United States; the entire expedition was photographed by William H. Illingworth, an English photographer who accompanied Custer after selection by the then-Captain William Ludlow.
Ludlow, the engineer for the expedition, financed Illingworth's photography and paid him $30 per month to provide photographic plates for the US Army, of which he made 70 in all. Custer embarked on his expedition with 1000-1200 men, in 110 wagons with numerous horses and cattle of the 7th Cavalry, along with artillery and two months food supply; the expedition took a number of Native American scouts led by Bloody Knife and Lean Bear. At the time, the Black Hills were unknown, with few white expeditions returning from them The commander of Custer's engineering corps, Captain Hardy, assured him that he had heard of them and had them marked on his maps, but had never entered them during his earlier expeditions. En route to the Black Hills, Custer's party managed to locate the track of Hardy's group when they spotted two lines of sunflowers that had grown along the ruts of his passing wagons. Custer and his force entered the Black Hills from the north, travelling south at a slow pace of no more than four or five miles a day on some occasions.
On July 31, 1874, the wagon train reached Harney Peak, Custer together with Ludlow took three or four men to climb it. In the mean time, the rest of the expedition made camp at the mountain's base at the newly named Custer Park. While the majority of the force remained there, Custer took a small unit with him to locate a suitable site for a new fort. By August 2, 1874 this force had reached a point eight and a half miles south-east of the mountain, to a location they named Agnes Park, having had a number of peaceful encounters with Native American settlements. On August 7 Custer shot and killed a grizzly bear, forever claiming this to be his greatest achievement as a hunter. Throughout the expedition, civilian experts who accompanied the expedition located traces of gold in the rivers; the first discovery goes uncredited, however an undated diary entry by William McKay, a miner accompanying the expedition, notes that while camping at the newly named Custer Park, "In the evening I took a pan and shovel, went out prospecting.
The first panful was taken from the sand obtained in the bed of the creek. A significant discovery was made on August 1 when tests of the soil by the French Creek determined that a miner could earn as much as $150 per day mining in the Black Hills. Custer wrote in a letter of August 15, 1874 to the Assistant Adjutant General of the Department of Dakota that "there is no doubt as to the existence of various metals throughout the hills." His messages were carried by scout Charley Reynolds to Fort Laramie, from there it was telegraphed to the press eastwards. The force remained there at Agnes Park until August 15 whereupon it turned around to return to Fort Lincoln; the expedition returned on August 30, with the scouts returned to their reservations on September 10. In total and his forces had traveled for 60 days over 883 miles; the table of organisation for the 7th Cavalry for the Black Hills Expedition of 1874 was. Field and staff Lt. Colonel George Armstrong Custer Lt. Colonel Frederick D. Grant, 4th cavalry and acting aide Major George A. Forsyth, 9th cavalry commander First Lieutenant James Calhoun, adjutant First Lieutenant Algernon E. Smith, quartermaster Second Lieutenant George D. Wallace, commander of the Indian scouts Cavalry companies Company A - Captain Myles Moylan and Second Lieutenant Charles Varnum Company B - First Lieutenant Benjamin H. Hodgson Company C - Captain Verling Hart and Second Lieutenant Henry M. Harrington Company E - First Lieutenant Thomas M. McDougall Company F - Captain George W. Yates Company G - First Lieutenant Donald McIntosh Company H - Captain Frederick W. Benteen and First Lieutenant Francis M. Gibson Company K - Captain Owen Hale and First Lieutenant Edward S. Godfrey Company L - First Lieutenant Thomas W. Custer Company M - Captain Thomas French and First Lieutenant Edward Gustave Mathey Medical staff Dr. John W. Williams, chief medical officer Dr. S. J. Allen, Jr. assistant surgeon Dr. A. C.
Bergen, assistant surgeon Engineering Captain William Ludlow, chief engineer W. H. Wood, civilian assistant Mining detachment Horatio Nelson Ross William McKay Scientist George Bird Grinnell Newton H. Winchell A. B. Donaldson Luther North Photographer William H. Illingworth Correspondents William E. Curtis, Chicago Inter-Ocean Samuel J. Barrows, New York Tribune Nathan H. Knappen, Bi
Deadwood, South Dakota
Deadwood is a city in South Dakota, United States, the county seat of Lawrence County. It was named by early settlers after the dead trees found in its gulch; the city had its heyday from 1876 to 1879, after gold deposits had been discovered there, leading to the Black Hills Gold Rush. At its height, the city had a population of 5,000, attracted larger-than-life Old West figures including Wyatt Earp, Calamity Jane and Wild Bill Hickok. In 2010, the population was 1,270 according to the 2010 census; the entire city has been designated as a National Historic Landmark District, for its well-preserved Gold Rush-era architecture. The settlement of Deadwood began illegally in the 1870s on land, granted to the Lakota people in the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie; the treaty had guaranteed ownership of the Black Hills to the Lakota people, who considered this area to be sacred. The squatters led to numerous land disputes, several of which reached the United States Supreme Court. Everything changed after Colonel George Armstrong Custer led an expedition into the Black Hills and announced the discovery of gold in 1874 on French Creek near present-day Custer, South Dakota.
This announcement was a catalyst for the Black Hills Gold Rush, miners and entrepreneurs swept into the area. They created the new and lawless town of Deadwood, which reached a population of around 5,000. In early 1876, frontiersman Charlie Utter and his brother Steve led a wagon train to Deadwood containing what they believed were needed commodities to bolster business; the numerous gamblers and prostitutes staffed several profitable ventures. Madame Mustache and Dirty Em were on the wagon train and set up shop in what was referred to as Deadwood Gulch. Demand for women was high by the miners and the business of prostitution proved to have a good market. Madam Dora DuFran became the most profitable brothel owner in Deadwood followed by Madam Mollie Johnson. Deadwood became known for its lawlessness; the town attained further notoriety when gunman Wild Bill Hickok was killed on August 2, 1876. Both he and Calamity Jane were buried at Mount Moriah Cemetery, as were less notable figures such as Seth Bullock.
Hickok's murderer, Jack McCall, was prosecuted twice, despite the U. S. Constitution's prohibition against double jeopardy; because Deadwood was an illegal town in Indian Territory, non-native civil authorities lacked the jurisdiction to prosecute McCall. McCall's trial was moved to a Dakota Territory court, where he was found guilty of murder and hanged; as the economy changed from gold panning to deep mining, the individual miners went elsewhere or began to work in other fields. Deadwood lost some of its rough and rowdy character, began to develop into a prosperous town, but beginning August 12, 1876, a smallpox epidemic swept through. So many persons fell ill. In 1876, General George Crook pursued the Sioux Indians from the Battle of Little Big Horn on an expedition that ended in Deadwood in early September and is known as the Horsemeat March; the same month, businessman Tom Miller opened the Bella Union Saloon. Al Swearengen, who controlled the opium trade, opened a saloon called the Gem Variety Theater on April 7, 1877.
The saloon burned down and was rebuilt in 1879. When it burned down again in 1899, Swearengen left town; the Homestake Mine in nearby Lead was established in October 1877. It operated for more than a century, becoming the longest continuously operating gold mine in the United States. Gold mining operations did not cease until 2002; the mine has been open for visiting by tourists. On September 26, 1879, a fire devastated Deadwood, destroying more than three hundred buildings and consuming the belongings of many inhabitants. Many of the newly impoverished left town to start again elsewere. Thomas Edison demonstrated the incandescent lamp in New Jersey in 1879. Judge Squire P. Romans took a gamble and founded the "Pilcher Electric Light Company of Deadwood" on September 17, 1883, he ordered an Edison wiring and 15 incandescent lights with globes. After delays the equipment arrived without the globes. Romans had been advertising an event to show off the new lights, decided to continue with the lighting, a success.
His company grew. Deadwood had electricity service fewer than four years after Edison invented it, less than a year after commercial service was started in Roselle, New Jersey, around the same time that many larger cities around the country established the service. A narrow-gauge railroad, the Deadwood Central Railroad, was founded by resident J. K. P. Miller and his associates in 1888, in order to serve their mining interests; the railroad was purchased by the Chicago and Quincy Railroad in 1893. A portion of the railroad between Deadwood and Lead was electrified in 1902 for operation as an interurban passenger system, which operated until 1924; the railroad was abandoned in 1930, apart from a portion from Kirk to Fantail Junction, converted to standard gauge. The remaining section was abandoned by the successor Burlington Northern Railroad in 1984; some of the other early town residents and frequent visitors included E. B. Farnum, Charlie Utter, Sol Star, Martha Bullock, A. W. Merrick, Samuel Fields, Dr. Valentine McGillycuddy, the Reverend Henry Weston Smith, Aaron Dunn.
The gold rush attracted Chinese immigrants to the area. Their population peaked at 250. A few engaged in mining. A Chinese quarter arose on Main Street, as there were no restrictions on foreign property ownership in Dakota Territory, a high level of tolerance of differen
7th Cavalry Regiment
The 7th Cavalry Regiment is a United States Army cavalry regiment formed in 1866. Its official nickname is "Garryowen", after the Irish air "Garryowen", adopted as its march tune. Following its activation, the Seventh Cavalry Regiment patrolled the Western plains for raiding Native Americans and to protect the westward movement of pioneers. From 1866 to 1881, the regiment marched a total of 181,692 miles across Kansas and Dakota Territory; the regiment was constituted on 28 July 1866 in the regular army as the 7th United States Cavalry. It was organized on 21 September 1866 at Fort Riley, Kansas, as part of an expansion of the regular army following the demobilization of the wartime volunteer and draft forces. From 1866 through 1871, the regiment was posted to Fort Riley and fought in the American Indian Wars. In the Battle of the Washita in 1868, the regiment sustained 22 losses, while inflicting more that 150 deaths on a Cheyenne encampment women and children; this attack was led by George Armstrong Custer, who led the 7th Cavalry to the most calamitous defeat of U.
S. forces in the Indian Wars. Typical of post-Civil War cavalry regiments, the 7th Cavalry was organized as a twelve-company regiment without a formal battalion organization. Battalions at this time were flexible tactical organizations, with companies being assigned and removed as the field commander desired or felt necessary. Throughout this period, the cavalryman was armed with the Colt Single Action Army.45 caliber revolvers and trapdoor Springfield carbines, caliber.45–70, until 1892. The regiment used the McClellan saddle. Sabres were issued but not carried on campaign; the 7th Cavalry, like the other U. S. Army regiments of the time, had a band, which performed mounted as well as on foot, seated for concerts. Established with the support of Major Alfred Gibbs, the 7th's band adopted Garryowen as their favorite tune and thus gave the Seventh their nickname among the rest of the army. From 1871 through 1873, 7th Cavalry companies participated in constabulary duties in the deep South in support of the Reconstruction Act and, for half the regiment, again in 1874–1876.
In 1873, the 7th Cavalry moved its garrison post to Dakota Territory. From here, the regiment carried out Custer's 1874 Black Hills Expedition; this led to the discovery of gold in the Black Hills, starting a gold rush in 1874 that precipitated the Great Sioux War of 1876–77. In June, 1876, Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer was killed in the Battle of the Little Bighorn, along with 267 soldiers of the 7th Cavalry. Although the regiment is well known for the Battle of the Little Bighorn, it participated in other battles of the American Indian Wars, including the Battle of Bear Paw in Montana and the Battle of Crow Agency in Montana. On 29 December 1890, the regiment instigated the Wounded Knee Massacre in South Dakota, an event that signaled the end of the American Indian Wars. Washita River, Indian Territory - November 27, 1868 Honsinger Bluff, Montana Territory - August 4, 1873 Yellowstone River, Montana Territory - August 11, 1873 Little Bighorn, Montana Territory - June 25–26, 1876 Canyon Creek, Montana Territory - September 13, 1877 Bear Paw Mountain, Montana Territory - September 30-October 5, 1877 Crow Agency, Montana Territory - November 5, 1887 Wounded Knee, South Dakota - December 29, 1890 Drexel Mission, South Dakota - December 30, 1890 September 1866 – November 1866 Maj. John W. Davidson.
November 1866 – April 1869 Col. Andrew J. Smith May 1869 – June 1886 Col. Samuel D. Sturgis July 1886 – November 1894 Col. James W. Forsyth A total of 45 men earned the Medal of Honor while serving with the 7th Cavalry during the American Indian Wars: 24 for actions during the Battle of the Little Bighorn, two during the Battle of Bear Paw, 17 for being involved in the Wounded Knee Massacre or an engagement at White Clay Creek the next day, two during other actions against the Sioux in December 1890. From 1895 until 1899, the regiment served in New Mexico and Oklahoma overseas in Cuba from 1899 to 1902. An enlisted trooper with the Seventh Cavalry, "B" Company, from May 1896 until March 1897 at Fort Grant Arizona Territory was author Edgar Rice Burroughs; the regiment served in the Philippines during the Philippine-American War from 1904 through 1907, with a second tour from 1911 through 1915. Back in the United States, the regiment was again stationed in the southwest, in Arizona, where it patrolled the U.
S.-Mexico border and was part of the Mexican Punitive Expedition of 1916 to 1917. In December 1917, 7th Cavalry was assigned to the 15th Cavalry Division, an on-paper organization designed for service in France during World War I, never more than a simple headquarters; this was because no significant role emerged for mounted troops on the Western Front during the 19 months between the entry of the United States into the war and the Armistice of 11 November 1918. The 7th Cavalry was released from this assignment in May 1918. On 13 September 1921, 7th Cavalry Regiment was assigned to the 1st Cavalry Division, which assignment was maintained until 1957; the division and its 2nd Cavalry Brigade was garrisoned at Fort Bliss, while the 1st Cavalry Brigade was garrisoned at Douglas, Arizona. Additional garrison points were used as well; the 7th Cavalry Regiment continued to train as horse cavalry right up to the American entry into World War II, including participation in several training maneuvers at the Louisiana Maneuver Area on 26 April 1940 – 28 May 1940 12–22 August 1940.
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Custer County, South Dakota
Custer County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 8,216, its county seat is Custer. The county was created in 1875, was organized in 1877. Custer County is included in SD Metropolitan Statistical Area. Custer County lies on the west line of South Dakota, its west boundary line abuts the east boundary line of the state of Wyoming. The Yellowstone River flows northeastward along the upper portion of the county's east boundary. Battle Creek flows southeastward in the upper eastern part of the county, discharging into Yellowstone River along the county's northeastern boundary line. Spring Creek flows northeastward through the upper eastern part of the county, discharging into the river just north of the county border; the county terrain is mountainous its western portion. The terrain slopes to the east, its highest point is a mountain crest along the north boundary line, at 6,657' ASL. Custer County has a total area of 1,559 square miles, of which 1,557 square miles is land and 2.1 square miles is water.
As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 7,275 people, 2,970 households, 2,067 families in the county. The population density was 5 people per square mile. There were 3,624 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.17% White, 0.27% Black or African American, 3.12% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 1.88% from two or more races. 1.51% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 32.2 % were of 9.2 % English, 7.1 % Norwegian and 5.7 % American ancestry. There were 2,970 households out of which 26.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.20% were married couples living together, 6.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.40% were non-families. 25.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.80. The county population contained 24.10% under the age of 18, 6.30% from 18 to 24, 22.40% from 25 to 44, 31.10% from 45 to 64, 16.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 104.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,303, the median income for a family was $43,628. Males had a median income of $30,475 versus $20,781 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,945. About 6.20% of families and 9.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.00% of those under age 18 and 7.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 8,216 people, 3,636 households, 2,427 families in the county; the population density was 5.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,628 housing units at an average density of 3.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.2% white, 2.9% American Indian, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.4% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 42.1% were German, 13.1% were Irish, 11.4% were English, 10.8% were Norwegian, 7.9% were American.
Of the 3,636 households, 21.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.2% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.3% were non-families, 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.65. The median age was 50.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $46,743 and the median income for a family was $58,253. Males had a median income of $39,194 versus $29,375 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,353. About 4.3% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.9% of those under age 18 and 11.7% of those age 65 or over. Custer Buffalo Gap Fairburn Hermosa Pringle Dewey Four Mile The county is divided into two areas of territory: East of Custer State Park West of Custer State Park Custer County voters are Republican. In only one national election since 1936 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Custer County, South Dakota Crazy Horse Memorial
The Oglala are one of the seven subtribes of the Lakota people who, along with the Dakota, make up the Očhéthi Šakówiŋ. A majority of the Oglala live on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, the eighth-largest Native American reservation in the United States; the Oglala are a federally recognized tribe. However, many Oglala reject the term "Sioux" due to the hypothesis that its origin may be a derogatory word meaning "snake" in the language of the Ojibwe, who were among the historical enemies of the Lakota, they are known as Oglala Lakota. Oglala elders relate stories about the origin of the name "Oglala" and their emergence as a distinct group sometime in the 18th century. In the early 1800s, Europeans passed through Lakota territory in greater numbers, they sought furs beaver fur at first, buffalo fur. The trade in fur changed the Oglala way of life. 1868 brought the Fort Laramie Treaty, in its wake the Oglala became polarized over this question: How should they react to continued American encroachment on their territory?
This treaty forfeited large amounts of Oglala territory to the United States in exchange for food and other necessities. Some bands turned to the Indian agencies—forerunners to the Indian reservations—where they received beef and other rations from the US government. Other bands held fast to traditional ways of life. Many bands moved between these two extremes, coming in to the agencies during the winter and joining their relatives in the north each spring; these challenges further split the various Oglala bands. The Great Sioux Reservation was broken up into five portions; this caused the Red Cloud Agency to be moved multiple times throughout the 1870s until it was relocated and renamed the Pine Ridge Reservation in 1878. By 1890, the reservation included 5,537 people, divided into a number of districts that included some 30 distinct communities; the respected Oglala elder Left Heron once explained that before the coming of the White Buffalo Calf Woman, "the people ran around the prairie like so many wild animals," not understanding the central importance of community.
Left Heron emphasized that not only did this revered spirit woman bring the Sacred Pipe to the tribe but she taught the Lakota people many valuable lessons, including the importance of family and community. The goal of promoting these two values became a priority, in the words of Dakota anthropologist Ella Cara Deloria, "every other consideration was secondary — property, personal ambition, good times, life itself. Without that aim and the constant struggle to attain it, the people would no longer be Dakotas in truth, they would no longer be human." This strong and enduring connection between related families profoundly influenced Oglala history. Dr. John J. Saville, the U. S. Indian agent at the Red Cloud Agency, observed in 1875 that the Oglala tribe was divided into three main groups: the Kiyuksa, the Oyuĥpe and the True Oglala. "Each of these bands are subdivided into smaller parties, variously named designated by the name of their chief or leader." As the Oglala were settled on the Pine Ridge Reservation in the late 1870s, their communities looked something like this: Oyuȟpe Tiyošpaye True Oyuȟpe.
Other members include: Black Elk Wakaŋ Makaicu Oglala Tiyośpaye True Oglala Caŋkahuȟaŋ. Other members include: Short Bull. Hokayuta Huŋkpatila Iteśica Payabya Wagluȟe Kiyaksa Tiyošpaye True Kiyaksa Kuinyan Tapišleca By 1830, the Oglala had around 3,000 members. In the 1820s and 1830s, the Oglala, along with the Brulé, another Lakota band, three other Sioux bands, formed the Sioux Alliance; this Alliance attacked surrounding tribes for hunting reasons. Women have been critical to the family's life: making everything used by the family and tribe, they have processed a variety of crops. Women have controlled the food and movable property, as well as owned the family's home. In the Oglala Lakota society, the men are in charge of the politics of the tribe; the men are the chiefs for political affairs, war leaders and warriors, hunters. Traditionally, when a man marries, he goes to live with his wife with her people. First used in 1961, this flag was approved by the Oglala Sioux Triba OST Council on March 9, 1962, as the flag of the Oglala Sioux Tribe.
The circle of eight teepees on the flag represent the nine districts of the reservation: Porcupine, Medicine Root, Pass Creek, Eagle Nest, White Clay, LaCreek, Wounded Knee, Pine Ridge. The red field represents the blood shed by the tribe in defense of their lands and an allegorical reference to the term "red man," by which they were referred to by European Americans; the blue represents the sky, as seen in all four cardinal directions during the worship of the Great Spirit, the elements. It represents the Lakota spiritual concept of heaven or "the Spirit World" to which departed tribal members go. American Horse American Horse Bryan Brewer Crazy Horse Crow Dog (Ka
South Dakota is a U. S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States; as the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889 with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200, is South Dakota's largest city. South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska and Montana; the state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, the area's fertile soil is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending.
Most of the Native American reservations are in West River. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux, are in the southwest part of the state. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is there. South Dakota has a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west; the state's ecology features species typical of a North American grassland biome. Humans have inhabited the area for several millennia, with the Sioux becoming dominant by the early 19th century. In the late 19th century, European-American settlement intensified after a gold rush in the Black Hills and the construction of railroads from the east. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Key events in the 20th century included the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, increased federal spending during the 1940s and 1950s for agriculture and defense, an industrialization of agriculture that has reduced family farming.
While several Democratic senators have represented South Dakota for multiple terms at the federal level, the state government is controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. Dominated by an agricultural economy and a rural lifestyle, South Dakota has sought to diversify its economy in areas to attract and retain residents. South Dakota's history and rural character still influence the state's culture. South Dakota is in the north-central United States, is considered a part of the Midwest by the U. S. Census Bureau; the culture and geography of western South Dakota have more in common with the West than the Midwest. South Dakota has a total area of 77,116 square miles, making the state the 17th largest in the Union. Black Elk Peak named Harney Peak, with an elevation of 7,242 ft, is the state's highest point, while the shoreline of Big Stone Lake is the lowest, with an elevation of 966 ft. South Dakota is bordered to the north by North Dakota.
The geographical center of the U. S. is 17 miles west of Castle Rock in Butte County. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is between Allen and Kyle, 1,024 mi from the nearest coastline; the Missouri River is the longest river in the state. Other major South Dakota rivers include the Cheyenne, Big Sioux, White Rivers. Eastern South Dakota has many natural lakes created by periods of glaciation. Additionally, dams on the Missouri River create four large reservoirs: Lake Oahe, Lake Sharpe, Lake Francis Case, Lewis and Clark Lake. South Dakota can be divided into three regions: eastern South Dakota, western South Dakota, the Black Hills; the Missouri River serves as a boundary in terms of geographic and political differences between eastern and western South Dakota. The geography of the Black Hills, long considered sacred by Native Americans, differs from its surroundings to such an extent it can be considered separate from the rest of western South Dakota. At times the Black Hills are combined with the rest of western South Dakota, people refer to the resulting two regions divided by the Missouri River as West River and East River.
Eastern South Dakota features higher precipitation and lower topography than the western part of the state. Smaller geographic regions of this area include the Coteau des Prairies, the Dissected Till Plains, the James River Valley; the Coteau des Prairies is a plateau bordered on the east by the Minnesota River Valley and on the west by the James River Basin. Further west, the James River Basin is low, flat eroded land, following the flow of the James River through South Dakota from north to south; the Dissected Till Plains, an area of rolling hills and fertile soil that covers much of Iowa and Nebraska, extends into the southeastern corner of South Dakota. Layers deposited during the Pleistocene epoch, starting around two million years ago, cover most of eastern South Dakota; these are the youngest rock and sediment layers in the state, the product of several successive periods of glaciation which deposited a large amount of rocks and soil, known as till, over the area. The Great Plains cover most of the western two-thirds of South Dakota.
West of the Missouri Rive