Rummy is a group of matching-card games notable for similar gameplay based on matching cards of the same rank or sequence and same suit. The basic goal in any form of rummy is to build melds which consists of sets, three or four of a kind of the same rank. If a player discards a card, making a run in the discard pile, it may not be taken up without taking all cards below the top card; the Mexican game of Conquian is considered by games scholar David Parlett to be ancestral to all rummy games, which itself is derived from a Chinese game called Khanhoo and, going further back, Mahjong. The Rummy principle of drawing and discarding with a view to melding appears in Chinese card games at least in the early 19th century, as early as the 18th century, is the essence of Mahjong. Rummy games are popular in India, it is that Indian Rummy is an extension of gin rummy and 500 rum, which originated from the United States. Depending on the variation each player receives a certain number of cards from either a standard deck of 52 cards, more than one deck or a special deck of cards used for specific games.
The undealt cards are placed face down in the middle, it is known as the stock. In most variations a single card is turned face up next to the stock where players discard or shed cards, it is known as the discard pile. A meld can either be a run. A set consists of at least three cards of the same rank, for example 4♥ 4♦ 4♠ or K♥ K♦ K♠ K♣. A run consists of at least three consecutive cards of the same suit J♣ Q♣ K♣ or 4♥ 5♥ 6♥ 7♥. Few variations allow runs that have mixed suits. In a few variations of rummy other patterns may be allowed. In some variations the melds must be 3 or 4 cards, while other variations allow larger melds through the use of longer runs, for example: 8♠ 9♠ 10♠ J♠ Q♠ or, if multiple decks or wild cards are used, 5♦ 5♦ 5♥ 5♠ 5♠ or Q♥ Q♦ Jkr Q♣. Wild cards may be used to represent any card in a meld; the number of wild cards in a meld may be restricted. Depending on the variation of the game, players take turns adding and shedding cards from their hands. There are numerous and quite different ways of doing this though it involves picking a card from the stock and discarding a card to the discard pile.
In some variations melds are revealed to all players by placing them face up on the table, in other variations each player keeps their hand hidden until the show. Some variations permit picking up the entire discard pile. A few variations permit. In most variations a player must put all of their cards into at least two melds. Once the player has melded all their cards they reveal their entire hand and the player submits their hand to validation. All other players reveal their deadweight; the action of submitting the cards is called Showing. After a successful show, the winner or all players score their hand. In most variations numbered cards have certain assigned points and the royal cards have assigned points and the A has a different point value. Scoring involves each player adding up points in their melded cards and deducting points from cards that have not been melded; the winner may receive a bonus for winning. Some special or difficult melds may give extra points to a hand. A player may have a negative score.
Play continues until one player passes a threshold, for example 1,000 points. There are many variations of the card game. Basic Rummy is called Sai Rummy. Another type of Rummy is called Sanka Rummy; the version of rummy prevalent in India is called Indian Rummy. They all share a common set of features found in the basic game. A standard deck of 52 cards is used; the cards rank from 2 to A. Rummy can be played to a fixed number of deals. All rummy games i.e. forming valid combinations of sequences and/or sets. Players discard a card on their turns to achieve the goal; the one who melds his/her cards before all others, is the winner in that game of rummy. Each player draws a card; the player with the lowest card deals first. The deal proceeds clockwise; the player on the dealer's gem right cuts. The number of cards dealt depends on the number of players. If there are two players, each player gets ten cards. In three or four player games, seven cards are dealt to each player. Five or six players may play, in which case each player receives six cards.
Starting with the player to the dealer's left, cards face down, one at a time. The dealer puts the rest of the deck, face down, between the players; this forms the stock pile. A single card is drawn and placed face up next to the stack; this is called the discard pile. Play begins with the player on the dealer's left and proceeds clockwise. On their turn, each player draws the top card from the discard pile; the player may meld or lay off, which are both optional, before discarding a single card to the top of the discard pile to end their turn. If a player has three cards of the same suit in a sequence, they may meld by laying these cards, face up, in front of them. If they have at least three cards of the same value, they may meld a group. Aces can be played as high or low but not both, for example Q♠ K♠ A♠ and A♠ 2♠ 3♠ are legal, but not K♠ A♠ 2♠. Melding is optional. A player may choose, for reasons of strategy; the most important
Gin rummy, or gin, is a two-player card game created in 1909 by Elwood T. Baker and his son C. Graham Baker, it is a variant of rummy. According to the magician and writer John Scarne, gin rummy evolved from 19th-century whiskey poker and was created with the intention of being faster than standard rummy but less spontaneous than knock rummy. John Scarne's theory deriving rummy from poker via whiskey poker has not gained general acceptance. Gin rummy is played with a standard 52-card pack of cards; the ranking from high to low is King, Jack, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, Ace. The objective in gin rummy is to score points and reach an agreed number of points or more 100, before the opponent does; the basic game strategy is to improve one's hand by eliminating deadwood. Gin has two types of meld: Sets of 3 or 4 cards sharing the same rank, e.g. 8♥ 8♦ 8♠. Deadwood cards are those not in any meld. Aces are considered low—they can form a set with other aces but only the low end of runs. A player can form any combination of melds within their hand, whether it contains all sets, all runs, or a mix of both.
A hand can contain three or fewer melds to form legal gin. The deadwood count is the sum of the point values of the deadwood cards—aces are scored at 1 point, face cards at 10, others according to their numerical values. Intersecting melds are not allowed. Dealership alternates from round to round, with the first dealer chosen by any agreed upon method; the dealer deals 10 cards to each player one at a time starting with their opponent, places the next card in the deck face up. This begins the discard pile; the face down pile is known as the stock pile. On the first turn of the round, the non-dealing player has first option of taking the upcard on the discard pile or passing. If the non-dealing player takes the upcard, they must discard a different card to the discard pile; the player acting second can take the top card from the pile of their choice. However, if the non-dealing player passes the upcard, the dealer is given the opportunity to take the upcard or pass. If the dealer passes, the non-dealing player must draw from the stock pile the next turn and after, players can draw from the pile of their choice.
On each subsequent turn, a player must draw either the top card of the discard pile, or the top card from the stock pile, discard one card from their hand onto the discard pile. Players alternate taking turns until one player ends the round by knocking, going Gin, or until only two cards remain in the stock pile, in which case the round ends in a draw and no points are awarded; the game ends. In tournament rules the game is played in best of five with 250 points per game. In standard gin, only a player with 10 or fewer points of deadwood may knock. Knocking with 0 points of deadwood is known as going Gin or having a Gin hand, while knocking with deadwood points is known as going down. To knock, the knocking player discards as usual, announces knocking, the hand is laid out with the melds indicated and deadwood separated; the other player is entitled to lay out any melds in their hand and can lay off any of their remaining deadwood cards that fit into the knocking player's melds, provided that the knocking player does not have a gin hand.
For example, the knocking player has a meld of three Kings. The defending player's deadwood has a king; the player can lay off that king. The knocking player can never lay off their deadwood into the defending player's melds. Once a player knocks or declares gin the round is over and scores are tallied, players cannot draw; the knocking player subtracts their deadwood points from the defending player's deadwood points. The result is the number of points. An undercut occurs if a player knocks and the defending player's deadwood points are less than or equal to the knocking player's. In this case the defending player receives an undercut bonus plus the difference in deadwood points. If the defending player has less or equal deadwood to the knocking player's deadwood after laying off any of their deadwood it is still a valid undercut. If all 10 cards in a player's hand fit into melds and thereby the player has no deadwood, they can choose to go Gin in which case the round ends and the player going Gin receives a Gin bonus of 25 points plus any deadwood points in the opponent's hand.
The defending opponent can only lay out their melds and cannot lay off any deadwood into the melds of an opponent that has declared Gin. A player can go Gin with a hand of three or fewer melds as long. Players can have an 11 card gin, see Big Gin Variant below. Gin hands consist of 10 cards. However, if a player chooses to draw so that 11 cards fit into melds, they can declare Big Gin in which case the player receives a Big Gin bonus of 31 points plus any deadwood in the opponent's hand. Aces are scored at 1 point, face cards at 10, all other cards are scored at their numerical values; the number of points awarded for bonuses may vary from region to region. No matter what the bonus amounts are, points are scored in Gin for the following: Knock Points After a playe
Bugs Bunny is an animated cartoon character, created in the late 1930s by Leon Schlesinger Productions and voiced by Mel Blanc. Bugs is best known for his starring roles in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated short films, produced by Warner Bros. Though a similar character debuted in the WB cartoon Porky's Hare Hunt and appeared in a few subsequent shorts, the definitive character of Bugs is credited to have made his debut in director Tex Avery's Oscar-nominated film A Wild Hare. Bugs is an anthropomorphic gray and white rabbit, famous for his flippant, insouciant personality, he is characterized by a Brooklyn accent, his portrayal as a trickster, his catch phrase "Eh... What's up, doc?" Due to Bugs' popularity during the golden age of American animation, he became an American cultural icon and the official mascot of Warner Bros. Entertainment, he can thus be seen in the older Warner Bros. company logos. Since his debut, Bugs has appeared in various short films, feature films, compilations, TV series, music records, video games, award shows, amusement park rides, commercials.
He has appeared in more films than any other cartoon character, is the ninth most-portrayed film personality in the world, has his own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. According to Chase Craig, who wrote and drew the first Bugs Bunny comic Sunday pages and the first Bugs comic book, "Bugs was not the creation of any one man. In those days, the stories were the work of a group who suggested various gags, bounced them around and finalized them in a joint story conference." A rabbit with some of the personality of Bugs, though looking different, was featured in the film Porky's Hare Hunt, released on April 30, 1938. It was co-directed by an uncredited Cal Dalton; this cartoon has an identical plot to Avery's Porky's Duck Hunt, which had introduced Daffy Duck. Porky Pig is again cast as a hunter tracking a silly prey, more interested in driving his pursuer insane and less interested in escaping. Hare Hunt replaces the little black duck with a small white rabbit; the rabbit introduces himself with the odd expression "Jiggers, fellers," and Mel Blanc gave the character a voice and laugh much like those he would use for Woody Woodpecker.
The rabbit character was popular enough with audiences that the Termite Terrace staff decided to use it again. According to Friz Freleng and Dalton had decided to dress the duck in a rabbit suit; the white rabbit had a shapeless body. In characterization, he was "a rural buffoon", he was loud, zany with a guttural laugh. Blanc provided him with a hayseed voice; the rabbit comes back in Prest-O Change-O, directed by Chuck Jones, where he is the pet rabbit of unseen character Sham-Fu the Magician. Two dogs, fleeing the local dogcatcher, enter his absent master's house; the rabbit harasses them but is bested by the bigger of the two dogs. This version of the rabbit was cool and controlled, he was otherwise silent. The rabbit's third appearance comes in Hare-um Scare-um, directed again by Hardaway; this cartoon—the first in which he is depicted as a gray bunny instead of a white one—is notable as the rabbit's first singing role. Charlie Thorson, lead animator on the film, gave the character a name, he had written "Bugs' Bunny" on the model sheet.
In promotional material for the cartoon, including a surviving 1939 presskit, the name on the model sheet was altered to become the rabbit's own name: "Bugs" Bunny. In his autobiography, Blanc claimed that another proposed name for the character was "Happy Rabbit." In the actual cartoons and publicity, the name "Happy" only seems to have been used in reference to Bugs Hardaway. In Hare-um Scare-um, a newspaper headline reads, "Happy Hardaway." Animation historian David Gerstein disputes that "Happy Rabbit" was used as an official name, believing that the only usage of the term was from Mel Blanc himself in humorous and fanciful tales he told about the character's development in the 1970s and 1980s. Thorson had been approached by Tedd Pierce, head of the story department, asked to design a better rabbit; the decision was influenced by Thorson's experience in designing hares. He had designed Max Hare in Toby Tortoise Returns. For Hardaway, Thorson created the model sheet mentioned, with six different rabbit poses.
Thorson's model sheet is "a comic rendition of the stereotypical fuzzy bunny". He had a pear-shaped body with a protruding rear end, his face had large expressive eyes. He had an exaggerated long neck, gloved hands with three fingers, oversized feet, a "smart aleck" grin; the end result was influenced by Walt Disney Animation Studios' tendency to draw animals in the style of cute infants. He had an obvious Disney influence, but looked like an awkward merger of the lean and streamlined Max Hare from The Tortoise and the Hare, the round, soft bunnies from Little Hiawatha. In Jones' Elmer's Candid Camera, the rabbit first meets Elmer Fudd; this time the rabbit looks more like the present-day Bugs and with a similar face—but retaining the more primitive voice. Candid Camera's Elmer character design is different: taller and chubbier in the face than the modern model, though A
Cuarenta is the national card game of Ecuador. It is a fishing game played with the standard 52 card pack of Anglo-American playing cards, but all 10s, 9s and 8s are omitted; this game is exclusively played in Ecuador. The name of the game, cuarenta is Spanish for the number 40; this refers to the number of points that are required to win a chica and to the number of cards used to play it. Two chicas or the first chica with zapatería win the game; the game can be played by 4 players split into two teams. The score is kept with two kinds of the two-point tantos and the ten-point perros; when a standard 52 card pack is used, the 8s, 9s and 10s can be used to keep the score. Five cards are dealt to each player, given out as a hand of five cards at a time; the opponent of the dealer or the opponents of the dealer's team are given ten points if there are any irregularities during the deal itself, the dealer's turn is handed over to the opponent. A typical indication of these irregularities is that the dealer finds himself or herself with 4 or 6 cards in his or her hand after the second deal.
The cards left over. Before the first individual turn after each deal, special announcements have to be made by each player if applicable; these are the ronda. A doble ronda automatically wins the game; the player to the dealer's right begins. The turn to play passes counterclockwise; each player plays one card face up onto the table. Cards on the table may be captured by the opponent. If cards are captured, they are placed face down in front of his teammate. Played cards remain on the table until they are captured or the round ends. Cards can be captured in the following three ways: matching and sequence. Note that, due to the absence of 8s, 9s, 10s, the Jack follows the 7 in sequence. A table with the cards 3 4 J Q K can be cleaned with a 7; the Ace does not follow the King. The Ace counts as one for all purposes of this game. If a player clears the table by capturing all cards, he scores a limpia. If a player captures the card just played by the player before, this is called a caída (meaning a fall.
These two happen at the same time. In the Cuenca rules variation, both events are scored, for a total of 4 points; this variation in scoring is not regional. Some tournaments may give the match for a doble ronda or caida en ronda in the interest of shortening the duration of the entire tournament. In Quito only 4 points are given for doble caida en ronda. A summary of these variations is shown below: After all five cards are played, there is a new deal. After a new deal, caída does not apply to any cards remaining on the table. After all cards have been played, each player or team counts their collected cards. If the number of collected cards is 20, 6 points are scored. So, 21 cards gives 8 points, 22 cards still gives 8 points. 23 or 24 cards give 10 points. If both teams capture 20 cards, neither side scores 6 points. In this case and all other ties, the non-dealing team scores 2 points; this is called dos por darlas, "two for dealing". If neither team captures 20 cards, the team with more cards scores 2 points.
If a team reaches 38 points, that team is "out of play," called 38 que no juega. The final two points that achieve victory may only be scored by caída. Existing captured cards, ronda will not count towards closing the game for that team. A chica is won when a team reaches 40 points; the game is won when a player or a team wins two chicas or when the opponent doesn't reach ten points at the end of the first chica. Losing as zapatero disqualifies the team from a tournament or match. If the opponent loses with "zapatería", he's called "zapatero" because he ends up "poor" like a shoemaker, it may be related to the expression "Cero, zapatero", a common rhyme colloquially used when referring to the number cero. A similar game called. Mus Tute Cinquillo Rules of Card Games: Cuarenta Rules for one of many versions of the game
Magic, along with its subgenres of, sometimes referred to as illusion, stage magic or close up magic is a performing art in which audiences are entertained by staged tricks or illusions of impossible feats using natural means. It is to be distinguished from paranormal magic which are effects claimed to be created through supernatural means, it is one of the oldest performing arts in the world. Modern entertainment magic, as pioneered by 19th-century magician Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, has become a popular theatrical art form. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, magicians such as Maskelyne and Devant, Howard Thurston, Harry Kellar, Harry Houdini achieved widespread commercial success during what has become known as "The Golden Age of Magic". During this period, performance magic became a staple of Broadway theatre and music halls. Magic retained its popularity in the television age, with magicians such as David Copperfield, Doug Henning, Penn & Teller, David Blaine modernizing the art form.
The term "magic" etymologically derives from the Greek word mageia. In ancient times and Persians had been at war for centuries, the Persian priests, called magosh in Persian, came to be known as magoi in Greek. Ritual acts of Persian priests came to be known as mageia, magika—which came to mean any foreign, unorthodox, or illegitimate ritual practice. During the 17th century, many books were published; until the 18th century, magic shows were a common source of entertainment at fairs. A founding figure of modern entertainment magic was Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, who had a magic theatre in Paris in 1845. John Henry Anderson was pioneering the same transition in London in the 1840s. Towards the end of the 19th century, large magic shows permanently staged at big theatre venues became the norm; as a form of entertainment, magic moved from theatrical venues to television magic specials. Performances that modern observers would recognize as conjuring have been practiced throughout history. For many recorded centuries, magicians were associated with the occult.
During the 19th and 20th centuries, many stage magicians capitalized on this notion in their advertisements. The same level of ingenuity, used to produce famous ancient deceptions such as the Trojan Horse would have been used for entertainment, or at least for cheating in money games, they were used by the practitioners of various religions and cults from ancient times onwards to frighten uneducated people into obedience or turn them into adherents. However, the profession of the illusionist gained strength only in the 18th century, has enjoyed several popular vogues since. Opinions vary among magicians on how to categorize a given effect, but a number of categories have been developed. Magicians may pull a rabbit from an empty hat, make something seem to disappear, or transform a red silk handkerchief into a green silk handkerchief. Magicians may destroy something, like cutting a head off, "restore" it, make something appear to move from one place to another, or they may escape from a restraining device.
Other illusions include making something appear to defy gravity, making a solid object appear to pass through another object, or appearing to predict the choice of a spectator. Many magic routines use combinations of effects. One of the earliest books on the subject is Gantziony's work of 1489, Natural and Unnatural Magic, which describes and explains old-time tricks. In 1584, Englishman Reginald Scot published The Discoverie of Witchcraft, part of, devoted to debunking the claims that magicians used supernatural methods, showing how their "magic tricks" were in reality accomplished. Among the tricks discussed were sleight-of-hand manipulations with rope and coins. At the time and belief in witchcraft was widespread and the book tried to demonstrate that these fears were misplaced. Popular belief held that all obtainable copies were burned on the accession of James I in 1603. During the 17th century, many similar books were published that described in detail the methods of a number of magic tricks, including The Art of Conjuring and The Anatomy of Legerdemain: The Art of Juggling.
Until the 18th century, magic shows were a common source of entertainment at fairs, where itinerant performers would entertain the public with magic tricks, as well as the more traditional spectacles of sword swallowing and fire breathing. In the early 18th century, as belief in witchcraft was waning, the art became respectable and shows would be put on for rich private patrons. A notable figure in this transition was the English showman, Isaac Fawkes, who began to promote his act in advertisements from the 1720s – he claimed to have performed for King George II. One of Fawkes' advertisements described his routine in some detail: He takes an empty bag, lays it on the Table and turns it several times inside out commands 100 Eggs out of it and several showers of real Gold and silver the Bag beginning to swell several sorts of wild fowl run out of it upon the Table, he throws up a Pack of Cards, causes them to be living birds flying about the room. He causes living Beasts and other Creatures to appear upon the Table.
He blows the spots of the Cards off and on, changes them to any pictures. From 1756 to 1781, Jacob Philadelphia performed feats of magic, sometimes under the guise of scientific exhibitions, throughout Europe and in Russia. A founding figure of modern entertainment magic was Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin a clockmaker, who opened a magic theatre in Paris in 1845, he transformed his art from one performed at fairs to a performance that the public paid to see at the theatre. His
Glossary of card game terms
The following is a glossary of terms used in card games. Besides the terms listed here, there are thousands of uncommon slang terms; this list does not encompass terms. A few games or families of games have enough of their own specific terminology to warrant their own glossaries: For bridge, the Glossary of contract bridge terms which covers contract bridge, duplicate bridge, auction bridge. For patience, the Glossary of patience terms. For poker, the Glossary of poker terms. Terms in this glossary should apply to a wide range of card games. Ace See rank, belowAcorns One of the four suits in a German pack of cards. Symbol: age Order of priority for leading, betting or bidding, starting from the player next to the dealer. See eldest and youngest. Alliance A temporary partnership that lasts only for the current deal or hand. Ante A mandatory stake made before the game begins - by all players, sometimes by the dealer only.auction The phase in some card games where players may bid to lead the game, or bid on a certain hand or privilege in that hand such as naming the trump suit.
The player with the highest bid wins the auction and plays his chosen game or exercises his privilege. Used in trick-taking games. Banker Also called the house, the person responsible for distributing chips, keeping track of the buy-ins, paying winners at the end of a banking game banking game A less-skilled card game of the gambling type in which one or more punters play against a banker, who controls the game. Bells One of the four suits in a German pack of cards. Symbol: bettel or bettler Bid or contract to win no tricks. Bid Spoken declaration to win a specified number of points. A hand with no court cards, i.e. only pip cards.bleeding When your cards are visible to other players.bluff to attempt to deceive one's opponent about the value of cards in one's handbuild to add cards to those on the table in order to extend a set or sequencebonus an extra score added to a player's regular score for holding or winning certain cards or for achieving certain goals, such as Schneider. Call In Bridge and certain other trick-taking games, the act of a player making his bidcard points In point-trick games, the score used to determine the winner of a hand, based on the value of individual cards won.
Not to be confused with game points.carte blanche A hand with no court cards, for example, in Piquet or Bezique. Clubs One of the four suits in a French pack of cards. Symbol: ♣compendium game A game in which a number of different contracts is played in succession e.g. Hearts, Barbu and Michigan Rummy.contract an agreement to play a certain type of game, to win a certain number of points or tricks in a hand, round or game.counter Object used to score. Card with a point value.court card One of the picture cards i.e. a King, Queen or Jack in a French deck. Face card or royal card.cut To divide the deck into two parts. Cards may be cut to determine who deals or which suit is trumps. Deal Verb: To distribute cards to players in accordance with the rules of the game being played. In many games, this involves taking all cards, shuffling them, redistributing them, but in other games it involves turning over the Waste to act as a new Stock. Noun: The play from the time the cards are dealt until they are redealt.
Referred to as a hand dealer The person whose turn and responsibility it is to deal the cards. Deck May refer either to the pack or the stockdeclarer In a contract game, the highest bidder who tries to achieve the announced contract.defenders The opponents of the declarer in games like Bridge or Skat. deuce Another name for the rank 2 cards Diamonds One of the four suits in a French pack of cards. Symbol: ♦ discard To remove cards from one's hand with the intention that such cards will no longer belong to oneself. Done with less desirable cards in an attempt to make room for more desirable cards, or when changing strategies for what cards one is attempting to collect.discard pile the pile of cards rejected by players.doubleton Only two cards of the same suit in the hand. Downcard A card, dealt face down. Facedown.draw a card To take a card from the stock. Eldest The first player to play in the round. Called forehand in many games; this is the player to the left of the dealer in games. Some family games will use youngest to refer to the players' actual ages.
Face card A face card depicts a person as opposed to pips.facedown A card placed face down on the table. Downcard.faceup A card positioned so that it reveals its suit and value. Upcard.face value The marked value of a card called the pip value. Court cards are take to have a value of 10, the Ace 1 or 11.fold To withdraw or surrender the current hand or game.follow suit To play a card of the led suit.force A compulsory round or deal in which all players must play and none may drop out. Game points In point-trick games, the score assigned to the various contracts, awarded to the winning player. Game points are accumulated (or dedu
Canasta is a card game of the rummy family of games believed to be a variant of 500 Rum. Although many variations exist for two, five or six players, it is most played by four in two partnerships with two standard decks of cards. Players attempt to make melds of seven cards of the same rank and "go out" by playing all cards in their hand, it is the only partnership member of the family of Rummy games to achieve the status of a classic. The game of Canasta was devised by Segundo Santos and Alberto Serrato in Montevideo, along with Dicy Louise Evans of Bonnyman, Kentucky, in 1939. In the 1940s the game spread in myriad variations to Chile, Peru and Argentina, where its rules were further refined before being introduced to the United States in 1948, where it was referred to as the Argentine Rummy game by Ottilie H. Reilly in 1949 and Michael Scully of Coronet magazine in 1953; the game became a card-craze boom in the 1950s providing a sales avalanche of card sets, card trays and books about the subject.
The classic game is for four players in two partnerships. Variations exist for two and three player games wherein each plays alone, for a six player game in two partnerships of three. If partners are chosen they must sit opposite each other. Canasta uses two complete decks of 52 playing cards plus the four Jokers. All the Jokers and twos are wild cards; the initial dealer is chosen by any common method, although it should be remembered that in Canasta there is no privilege or advantage to being the dealer. The deal rotates clockwise after every hand; the dealer shuffles the pack, the player to the dealer's right cuts, the dealer deals out a hand of 11 cards to each player. The remaining cards are left in a stack in the center of the table; the player to the dealer's left has the first turn, play proceeds clockwise. A turn begins either by drawing the first card from the stock into the player's hand or by picking up the entire discard pile. However, there are restrictions on when one can pick up the discard pile..
If the card drawn from the stock is a red three the player must table it as one would if melding, draw another card. The player may make as many legal melds as they wish from the cards in their hand. A turn ends. No player may "undo" a meld or laid card, or change their mind after drawing a card from the deck if they decide that they could have taken the discard pile; each player/team keeps separate melds of the various ranks of cards. A player may never play to an opponent's meld. A legal meld consists of at least three cards of the same rank. Suits are irrelevant except. Wild cards can be used as any rank except for threes. Threes may never be melded in ordinary play, although 3 or 4 black threes may be melded last in the process of a player going out. A meld must consist of at least two natural cards, can never have more wild cards than natural cards. Examples: 5-5-2 and 9-9-9-2-2-Joker are legal melds. 5-2-2 is not a legal meld. 9-9-2-2-2-Joker is not legal. A canasta is a meld of at least seven cards, whether mixed.
A natural canasta is one. A mixed canasta is one that comprises both wild cards. A "concealed" canasta is a canasta assembled in the player's hand and is played to the table complete, or requiring only the top card from the discard pile. A concealed canasta carries a bonus score of 100 points; each card has a specific value which determines both the score and the minimum points a player needs before laying down their first meld: During each hand the first time a team lays cards on the table the cards of the combined melds must equal a minimum meld requirement based on the values of each of the cards. At the beginning of a game, both teams have an initial meld requirement of 50 points; the total value of each card laid on the table cannot include the value of the cards a player could pick up from the discard pile but must come only from the cards in their hand. If the combined value of the cards of a player's hand does not meet the minimum value they cannot play the cards on the table nor pick up the discard pile.
After the first hand, the minimum meld requirement is based on a team's score before the hand starts. Example: If a player/team has a score of 1,600 and has not yet made any melds in a hand, an initial meld of 6-6-6, K-K-K-2 cannot be made as it scores only 65 points and the requirement is 90. A meld of 6-6-6, A-A-A-2 can be played. Note that both initial melds can be played if the team's total score is below 1500, that neither can be played if the team's total score is 3000 or higher; the minimum meld requirement for a team which has as negative score is 15. As any three cards are always worth at least 15 points it means any meld is sufficient for laying down the first meld. Once a teammate has laid down cards on the table, their partner is free to meld whatever cards are allowed meaning they do not have to meet the minimum meld requirement. At the beginning of their turn, a player may pick up the entire discard pile instead of drawing a card from the stock, they may only pick up the discard pile if they can use the top card, either in an existing meld or by making a new meld along with at least two o