Thomas Vincent Savini is an American actor, stunt performer, film director, prosthetic makeup artist. He is known for his makeup and special effects work on many films directed by George A. Romero, including Martin, Dawn of the Dead, Day of the Dead and Monkey Shines. Savini directed the 1990 remake of Romero's 1968 Night of the Living Dead; as an actor and stuntman, he has appeared in films such as Martin, Dawn of the Dead, From Dusk till Dawn, Planet Terror, Django Unchained and Machete Kills. Savini was born in Pittsburgh, is of Italian descent, he was graduated from Central Catholic High School. As a boy, his inspiration was actor Lon Chaney, Sr. and Savini attributes his earliest desires to create makeup effects to Chaney and the film Man of a Thousand Faces. Experimenting with whatever medium he could find, the young Savini practiced creating makeup effects on himself convincing his friends to let him practice his craft on them, he discovered another passion, acting. Combining his makeup applications and homemade costumes, he enjoyed scaring his friends.
Savini attended Point Park University for three years, before enlisting in the United States Army. After his tour in Vietnam, he attended Carnegie-Mellon University, as the first undergraduate to be awarded a full fellowship in the acting and directing program, he appeared in stage productions throughout college and continued on stage long after his tour of duty in Vietnam. Savini served as a combat photographer during the Vietnam War. In a 2002 interview, he told the Pittsburgh Post ``. My job was to shoot images of damage to people. Through my lens, I saw some hideous. To cope with it, I guess. Now, as an artist, I just think of creating the effect within the limitations we have to deal with." He continued to practice with makeup in Vietnam frightening indigenous peasants by appearing to transform into a "monster". Using the lens of his camera, Savini separated himself from the real life horrors of war. Savini said his wartime experiences influenced his eventual style of gory effects: "I hated that when I watched a war movie and someone dies.
Some people die with one eye open and one eye half-closed, sometimes people die with smiles on their faces because the jaw is always slack. I incorporated the feeling of the stuff I saw in Vietnam into my work." In 1970, while on guard duty, a flare was triggered in the jungle area Savini was watching. Against military protocol, Savini fired into the bush without informing his superiors. Other soldiers began firing until a duck wandered from the bush unharmed. Due to his failure to follow orders, Savini was taken off guard duty from his bunker on the following evening; that same evening, the bunker came under attack and several soldiers were wounded or killed. As a result of this incident, Savini earned the nickname "Duck Slayer" and to this day will not eat duck. Among the many talents Savini achieved as a young man was the art of fencing, he is a tournament fencer as well as an accomplished gymnast. Much of his stunt work and some of his characters reflect these graceful abilities. Many of his characters have been madmen who are hardened and eerily evil.
Savini is known for his groundbreaking work in the field of special make-up effects known as prosthetic makeup. His signature style and techniques bring vivid realism to genre films. Early in Savini's career, Dick Smith became an inspiration and a guide becoming an associate at Savini's Special Make-up Effects Program. Among other projects, Smith is known for his groundbreaking work in The Exorcist. Savini got his breakthrough working with Pittsburgh filmmaker George A. Romero, providing a convincing wrist-slashing effect in the opening scenes of Martin; the following year, working with a larger budget on Dawn of the Dead, Savini created his signature palette of severed limbs and bite-marks. In the 1980 slasher film Friday the 13th, Savini expanded his repertoire of gore, he continued to perfect those techniques in Maniac. Along with the 1981 films The Burning and The Prowler, Savini earned the nickname "The Sultan of Splatter". In 1982, he created more traditional horror effects in the film Creepshow directed by George A. Romero and written by Stephen King.
In 1984, he agreed to work on Friday the 13th: The Final Chapter, where he killed his creation Jason Voorhees. Returning to the zombie genre in 1985, Savini was nominated and won the 1985 Saturn Award for Best Makeup Effects for his work on the Romero's Day of the Dead. In 1986, Savini worked with director Tobe Hooper on the film The Texas Chainsaw Massacre 2. Savini has worked on films by Italian director Dario Argento, first in 1990 on the film Two Evil Eyes and again on the 1993 film Trauma. In the 1991 film Heartstopper, he created special effects for director John A. Russo. Although focusing more on his acting career in recent years, Savini has continued to be active with special makeup effects and in 2011 supervised the effects for the Australian film Redd Inc; as an actor, Savini has appeared in many of the same films. His first appearance w
An optical illusion is an illusion caused by the visual system and characterized by a visual percept that appears to differ from reality. Illusions come in a wide variety. According to that, there are three main classes: physical and cognitive illusions, in each class there are four kinds: Ambiguities, distortions and fictions. A classical example for a physical distortion would be the apparent bending of a stick half immerged in water. An example for a physiological fiction is an afterimage. Three typical cognitive distortions are the Ponzo, Müller-Lyer illusion. Physical illusions are caused by e.g. by the optical properties of water. Physiological illusions arise in the eye or the visual pathway, e.g. from the effects of excessive stimulation of a specific receptor type. Cognitive visual illusions are the result of unconscious inferences and are those most known. Pathological visual illusions arise from pathological changes in the physiological visual perception mechanisms causing the aforementioned types of illusions.
A familiar phenomenon an example for a physical visual illusion are when mountains appear to be much nearer in clear weather with low humidity than they are. This is; the classical example of a physical illusion is when a stick, half immersed in water appears bent. This phenomenon has been discussed by Ptolemy and was a prototypical example for an illusion. Physiological illusions, such as the afterimages following bright lights, or adapting stimuli of excessively longer alternating patterns, are presumed to be the effects on the eyes or brain of excessive stimulation or interaction with contextual or competing stimuli of a specific type—brightness, position, size, etc; the theory is that a stimulus follows its individual dedicated neural path in the early stages of visual processing and that intense or repetitive activity in that or interaction with active adjoining channels causes a physiological imbalance that alters perception. The Hermann grid illusion and Mach bands are two illusions that are best explained using a biological approach.
Lateral inhibition, where in the receptive field of the retina light and dark receptors compete with one another to become active, has been used to explain why we see bands of increased brightness at the edge of a color difference when viewing Mach bands. Once a receptor is active, it inhibits adjacent receptors; this inhibition creates contrast. In the Hermann grid illusion the gray spots appear at the intersection because of the inhibitory response which occurs as a result of the increased dark surround. Lateral inhibition has been used to explain the Hermann grid illusion, but this has been disproved. More recent empirical approaches to optical illusions have had some success in explaining optical phenomena with which theories based on lateral inhibition have struggled. Cognitive illusions are assumed to arise by interaction with assumptions about the world, leading to "unconscious inferences", an idea first suggested in the 19th century by the German physicist and physician Hermann Helmholtz.
Cognitive illusions are divided into ambiguous illusions, distorting illusions, paradox illusions, or fiction illusions. Ambiguous illusions are pictures or objects that elicit a perceptual "switch" between the alternative interpretations; the Necker cube is a well-known example. Distorting or geometrical-optical illusions are characterized by distortions of size, position or curvature. A striking example is the Café wall illusion. Other examples are the famous Müller-Lyer illusion and Ponzo illusion. Paradox illusions are generated by objects that are paradoxical or impossible, such as the Penrose triangle or impossible staircase seen, for example, in M. C. Escher's Descending and Waterfall; the triangle is an illusion dependent on a cognitive misunderstanding. Fictions are when a figure is perceived though it is not in the stimulus. To make sense of the world it is necessary to organize incoming sensations into information, meaningful. Gestalt psychologists believe one way this is done is by perceiving individual sensory stimuli as a meaningful whole.
Gestalt organization can be used to explain many illusions including the rabbit–duck illusion where the image as a whole switches back and forth from being a duck being a rabbit and why in the figure–ground illusion the figure and ground are reversible. In addition, Gestalt theory can be used to explain the illusory contours in the Kanizsa's Triangle. A floating white triangle, which does not exist, is seen; the brain has a need to see familiar simple objects and has a tendency to create a "whole" image from individual elements. Gestalt means "form" or "shape" in German. However, another explanation of the Kanizsa's Triangle is based in evolutionary psychology and the fact that in order to survive it was important to see form and edges; the use of perceptual organization to create meaning out of stimuli is the principle behind other well-known illusions including impossible objects. Our brain makes sense of shapes and symbols putting them together like a jigsaw puzzle, formulating that which isn't there to that whi
Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison. The conductor of an orchestra keeps the orchestra synchronized or in time. Systems that operate with all parts in synchrony are said to be synchronous or in sync—and those that are not are asynchronous. Today, time synchronization can occur between systems around the world through satellite navigation signals. Time-keeping and synchronization of clocks has been a critical problem in long-distance ocean navigation. Before radio navigation and satellite-based navigation, navigators required accurate time in conjunction with astronomical observations to determine how far east or west their vessel traveled; the invention of an accurate marine chronometer revolutionized marine navigation. By the end of the 19th century, important ports provided time signals in the form of a signal gun, flag, or dropping time ball so that mariners could check their chronometers for error. Synchronization was important in the operation of 19th century railways, these being the first major means of transport fast enough for differences in local time between adjacent towns to be noticeable.
Each line handled the problem by synchronizing all its stations to headquarters as a standard railroad time. In some territories, sharing of single railroad tracks was controlled by the timetable; the need for strict timekeeping led the companies to settle on one standard, civil authorities abandoned local mean solar time in favor of that standard. In electrical engineering terms, for digital logic and data transfer, a synchronous circuit requires a clock signal. However, the use of the word "clock" in this sense is different from the typical sense of a clock as a device that keeps track of time-of-day. In a different sense, electronic systems are sometimes synchronized to make events at points far apart appear simultaneous or near-simultaneous from a certain perspective. Timekeeping technologies such as the GPS satellites and Network Time Protocol provide real-time access to a close approximation to the UTC timescale and are used for many terrestrial synchronization applications of this kind.
Synchronization is an important concept in the following fields: Computer science Cryptography Multimedia Music Neuroscience Photography Physics Synthesizers Telecommunication Synchronization of multiple interacting dynamical systems can occur when the systems are autonomous oscillators. For instance, integrate-and-fire oscillators with either two-way or one-way coupling can synchronize when the strength of the coupling is greater than the differences among the free-running natural oscillator frequencies. Poincare phase oscillators are model systems that can interact and synchronize within random or regular networks. In the case of global synchronization of phase oscillators, an abrupt transition from unsynchronized to full synchronization takes place when the coupling strength exceeds a critical threshold; this is known as the Kuramoto model phase transition. Synchronization is an emergent property that occurs in a broad range of dynamical systems, including neural signaling, the beating of the heart and the synchronization of fire-fly light waves.
Synchronization of movement is defined as similar movements between two or more people who are temporally aligned. This is different to mimicry. Muscular bonding is the idea; this sparked some of the first research into movement synchronization and its effects on human emotion. In groups, synchronization of movement has been shown to increase conformity and trust however more research on group synchronization is needed to determine its effects on the group as a whole and on individuals within a group. In dyads, groups of two people, synchronization has been demonstrated to increase affiliation, self-esteem and altruistic behaviour and increase rapport. During arguments, synchrony between the arguing pair has been noted to decrease, however it is not clear whether this is due to the change in emotion or other factors. There is evidence to show that movement synchronization requires other people to cause its beneficial effects, as the effect on affiliation does not occur when one of the dyad is synchronizing their movements to something outside the dyad.
This is known as interpersonal synchrony. There has been dispute regarding the true effect of synchrony in these studies. Research in this area detailing the positive effects of synchrony, have attributed this to synchrony alone. Indeed, the Reinforcement of Cooperation Model suggests that perception of synchrony leads to reinforcement that cooperation is occurring, which leads to the pro-social effects of synchrony. More research is required to separate the effect of intentionality from the beneficial effect of synchrony. Film synchronization of image and sound in sound film. Synchronization is important in fields such as digital telephony and digital audio where streams of sam
An establishing shot in filmmaking and television production sets up, or establishes the context for a scene by showing the relationship between its important figures and objects. It is a long or extreme-long shot at the beginning of a scene indicating where, sometimes when, the remainder of the scene takes place. Establishing shots were more common during the classical era of filmmaking. Today's filmmakers tend to skip the establishing shot in order to move the scene along more or mention the setting in on-screen text. In addition, the expositional nature of the shot may be unsuitable to scenes in mysteries, where details are intentionally obscured or left out. Location Establishing shots may use famous landmarks to indicate the city where the action is taking place or has moved to, such as the following:Brandenburg Gate to identify Berlin Parliament House or Black Mountain Tower to identify Canberra Chicago "L" to identify Chicago Victoria Harbour to identify Hong Kong Las Vegas Strip to identify Las Vegas London Eye, Big Ben or Tower Bridge to identify London Hollywood Sign to indicate Los Angeles Empire State Building, the Statue of Liberty or the World Trade Center to identify New York City Eiffel Tower and/or the Arc de Triomphe to identify Paris Sydney Opera House or the Harbour Bridge to identify Sydney Shibuya Scramble Crossing to identify Tokyo CN Tower to identify TorontoTime of day Sometimes the viewer is guided in their understanding of the action.
For example, an exterior shot of a building at night followed by an interior shot of people talking implies that the conversation is taking place at night inside that building - the conversation may in fact have been filmed on a studio set far from the apparent location, because of budget, time limitations or convenience. In the series JAG, 24-hour Coordinated Universal Time was used for these scenes to reinforce the military setting of the series. Relationship An establishing shot might be a long shot of a room that shows all the characters from a particular scene. For example, a scene about a murder in a college lecture hall might begin with a shot that shows the entire room, including the lecturing professor and the students taking notes. A close-up shot can be used at the beginning of a scene to establish the setting. Concept An establishing shot may establish a concept, rather than a location. For example, opening with a martial arts drill visually establishes the theme of martial arts.
A shot of rain falling could be an establishing shot, followed by more and more detailed look at the rain, culminating with individual raindrops falling
A blindfold is a garment of cloth, tied to one's head to cover the eyes to disable the wearer's sight. While a properly fitted blindfold prevents sight if the eyes are open, a poorly tied or trick blindfold may let the wearer see around or through the blindfold. Blindfolds can be used in various applications: As a sleep mask: They block out light when sleeping during air travel, or for those who sleep during the day, given that shutting out light allows the user to achieve a deeper level of sleep, they can provide relief from claustrophobia for magnetic resonance imaging patients. People with glaucoma should avoid using these. In children's games, such as Pin the Tail on the Donkey and when hitting a piñata. During both martial arts and weight lifting, to encourage reliance on other senses, such as touch or hearing; as a sensory deprivation tool in meditation, to focus attention on oneself rather than outside imagery. As a way to keep a kidnapping victim, prisoner, etc. from being able to identify locations or people.
To cover the eyes of a blind person for health or cosmetic reasons. As a prop in magic tricks. One common trick involves a blindfolded performer doing a task that requires vision, such as driving; as an aid to simulate blindness during training of Orientation and Mobility Specialists, so that they develop empathetic understanding of blindness and learn how to rely on their other senses to get to know the environment and move around and independently. During executions, to relax and calm the accused will be unable to see their execution and thus less to panic. In carpool dares. Many highschool students who carpool use blindfolds to add excitement to games they play during the ride home from school for entertainment while waiting. Blindfolding is used in dares involving eating soup, ice cream, etc. Sexual activity may include blindfolding, they can be constructed with feathers and sold with handcuffs in novelty "bondage kits". Many impromptu items found in the bedroom lend themselves to such use without preparation or prior purchase of specialized equipment.
Use of a blindfold is said to enhance the remaining senses of the wearer, focusing attention on sound and physical contact. This increased awareness is said to allow for greater excitement and anticipation by eliminating visual cues, as one cannot see what to expect, it requires trust of the submissive, with all the emotional ramifications that entails. The blindfold has been a powerful symbol in mythology since the 15th century. In law, it is seen to represent objectivity and impartiality; the blindfold as a symbol is a common theme in tarot and other divination methods. It can represent themes of resistance to clarity, denial, or limited views, it is accompanied by underlying themes of integrity and truth at a cost. The icon of the blindfold can symbolize the dichotomy of the conscious and the unconscious, as wearing a blindfold represents a stasis or a lesser state of consciousness, whereas taking off one's blindfold represents a form of awakening or rebirth, it represents connection to feeling over senses, emphasizing the importance of emotion over perception.
Eyepatch Blinders: for horses Merriam-Webster entry Early use of the Sleeping Mask
The 30-degree rule is a basic film editing guideline that states the camera should move at least 30 degrees relative to the subject between successive shots of the same subject. If the camera moves less than 30 degrees, the transition between shots can look like a jump cut—which could jar the audience and take them out of the story; the audience might focus on the film technique rather than the narrative itself. The 30 degree change of angle makes two successive shots different enough to not look like a jump cut. However, camera movement should stay on one side of the subject to follow the 180-degree rule; when thinking about the 30 degree rule, it is important to change the shot distance at least 20 mm with each move you make on the axis. This would be moving 20 mm closer or farther from the subject in reference to the camera distance in the previous camera setup; the 30 degree rule is called the "20 mm/30 degree rule" for this reason. The axial cut incorporates the 20mm idea by moving the camera either closer or father away from the subject without moving on the axis.
This type of edit does not follow the 30 degree rule but deliberately breaks it to get a particular effect. Filmmakers sometimes break conventional film technique rules to achieve particular effects. French filmmaker George Méliès, producer of silent black-and-white film, made films before the 30 degree rule existed. Méliès inspired succeeding filmmakers to heed this rule of angle when cutting between similar or nearly identical clips; when Mèliés himself made his famous A Trip to the Moon, he edited together film clips of the same framing and with the same angle, after changing the scene between the shots, to make it look like there was no cut at all. It was the world's first attempt to make special effects, made up of jump cuts; as Timothy Corrigan and Patricia White suggest in The Film Experience, "The rule aims to emphasize the motivation for the cut by giving a different view of the action. The transition between two shots less than 30 degrees apart might be perceived as unnecessary or discontinuous--in short, visible."
There are some cases where jump cuts are used to show a passage of time or used to achieve an aesthetic style but filmmakers try to avoid them otherwise. The 30 degree rule is a special case of a more general dictum that states that the cut is jarring if two shots are so similar in angle and distance that it appears there is no reason for the cut. In his book In The Blink of an Eye, editor Walter Murch states: " have difficulty accepting the kind of displacements that are neither subtle nor total: Cutting from a full-figure master shot, for instance, to a tighter shot that frames the actors from the ankles up; the new shot in this case is different enough to signal that something has changed, but not different enough to make us re-evaluate its context." Film editing jump cut Continuity editing 180-degree rule George Méliès A Trip to the Moon Walter Murch axial cut "The 30-degree rule", an article explaining the 30-degree rule in depth
Dialogue is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange. As a narrative, philosophical or didactic device, it is chiefly associated in the West with the Socratic dialogue as developed by Plato, but antecedents are found in other traditions including Indian literature. In the 20th century, philosophical treatments of dialogue emerged from thinkers including Mikhail Bakhtin, Paulo Freire, Martin Buber, David Bohm. Although diverging in many details, these thinkers have articulated a holistic concept of dialogue as a multi-dimensional and context-dependent process of creating meaning. Educators such as Freire and Ramón Flecha have developed a body of theory and techniques for using egalitarian dialogue as a pedagogical tool; the term dialogue stems from the Greek διάλογος. The first extant author who uses the term is Plato, in whose works it is associated with the art of dialectic. Latin took over the word as dialogus.
Dialogue as a genre in the Middle East and Asia dates back to ancient works, such as Sumerian disputations preserved in copies from the late third millennium BC, Rigvedic dialogue hymns and the Mahabharata. In the East, In 13th century Japan, dialogue was used in important philosophical works. In the 1200s, Nichiren Daishonin wrote some of his important writings in dialogue form, describing a meeting between two characters in order to present his argument and theory, such as in "Conversation between a Sage and an Unenlightened Man", "On Establishing the Correct Teaching for the Peace of the Land", while in other writings he used a question and answer format, without the narrative scenario, such as in "Questions and Answers about Embracing the Lotus Sutra"; the sage or person answering the questions was understood as the author. In the West, Plato has been credited with the systematic use of dialogue as an independent literary form. Ancient sources indicate, that the Platonic dialogue had its foundations in the mime, which the Sicilian poets Sophron and Epicharmus had cultivated half a century earlier.
These works and imitated by Plato, have not survived and we have only the vaguest idea of how they may have been performed. The Mimes of Herodas, which were found in a papyrus in 1891, give some idea of their character. Plato further simplified the form and reduced it to pure argumentative conversation, while leaving intact the amusing element of character-drawing. By about 400 BC he had perfected the Socratic dialogue. All his extant writings, except the Apology and Epistles, use this form. Following Plato, the dialogue became a major literary genre in antiquity, several important works both in Latin and in Greek were written. Soon after Plato, Xenophon wrote his own Symposium. Two French writers of eminence borrowed the title of Lucian's most famous collection. Contemporaneously, in 1688, the French philosopher Nicolas Malebranche published his Dialogues on Metaphysics and Religion, thus contributing to the genre's revival in philosophic circles. In English non-dramatic literature the dialogue did not see extensive use until Berkeley employed it, in 1713, for his treatise, Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous.
His contemporary, the Scottish philosopher David Hume wrote Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. A prominent 19th-century example of literary dialogue was Landor's Imaginary Conversations. In Germany, Wieland adopted this form for several important satirical works published between 1780 and 1799. In Spanish literature, the Dialogues of Valdés and those on Painting by Vincenzo Carducci are celebrated. Italian writers of collections of dialogues, following Plato's model, include Torquato Tasso, Galiani, a host of others. In the 19th century, the French returned to the original application of dialogue; the inventions of "Gyp", of Henri Lavedan, of others, which tell a mundane anecdote wittily and maliciously in conversation, would present a close analogy to the lost mimes of the early Sicilian poets. English writers including Anstey Guthrie adopted the form, but these dialogues seem to have found less of a popular following among the English than their counterparts written by French authors; the Platonic dialogue, as a distinct genre which features Socrates as a speaker and one or more interlocutors discussing some philosophical question, experienced something of a rebirth in the 20th century.
Authors who have employed it include George Santayana, in his eminent Dialogues in Limbo. Edith Stein and Iris Murdoch used the dialogue form. Stein imagined a dialogue between Thomas Aquinas. Murdoch included not only Socrates and Alcibiades as interlocutors in her work Acastos: Two Platonic Dialogues, but featured a young Plato himself as well. More Timothy Williamson wrote Tetralogue, a philosophical exchange on a train between four people with radically different epistemological views. Martin Buber assigns dialogue a pivotal position in his theology, his most influential wor