Georgius Agricola was a universally educated German Humanist scholar and one of the leading experts on mineralogy and metallurgy of his time, born in the small town of Glauchau, in the Electorate of Saxony of the Holy Roman Empire. He is well known for his pioneering work De re metallica libri XII, published in 1556, one year after his death; this 12-volume work is a comprehensive and systematic study and methodical guide on all available factual and practical aspects, that are of concern for mining, the mining sciences and metallurgy and researched in its natural environment by means of direct observation. Unrivalled in its complexity and accuracy, it served as the standard reference work for two centuries. Agricola stated in the preface, that he will exclude all those things which I have not myself seen, or have not read or heard of.. That which I have neither seen, nor considered after reading or hearing of, I have not written about, he thereby refuses to rely on abstruse methods through philosophical considerations and instead submits his work to the strict principles of the modern scientific method, centuries before its time.
As a scholar of the Renaissance he was committed to a universal approach towards learning and research and published over 40 complete scholarly works during his professional life on a wide range of subjects and disciplines, such as pedagogy, metrology, pharmacy, geology and many more. His innovative and comprehensive scholarly work, based on new and precise methods of production and control is remarkable and has earned him international admiration to this day, he is although not universally referred to as "the Father of mineralogy" and the founder of geology as a scientific discipline. Poet Georg Fabricius has bestowed a brief honorary title on him in recognition of his legacy, that his fellow Saxons cite regularly: die ausgezeichnete Zierde des Vaterlandes, he was baptized with his birth name Georg Pawer. Pawer is a vernacular form of the modern German term Bauer, his teacher, the Leipzig professor Petrus Mosellanus convinced him to consider the common practice of name latinisation popular among Renaissance scholars, by which Georgius replaced Georg and Agricola replaced Pawer.
Agricola was born in 1494 as Georg Pawer, the second of seven children of a clothier and dyer in Glauchau. At the age of twelve he enrolled in the Latin school in Zwickau. From 1514 to 1518 he studied at the Leipzig University where, under the name Georgius Pawer de Glauchaw, he first inscribed to the summer semester for theology and philology under rector Nikolaus Apel and for ancient languages and Latin in particular, He received his first Latin lectures under Petrus Mosellanus, a celebrated humanist of the time and adherent of Erasmus of Rotterdam. Gifted with a precocious intellect and his freshly acquired title of Baccalaureus artium, Agricola early threw himself into the pursuit of the "new learning", with such effect that at the age of 24 he was appointed Rector extraordinarius of Ancient Greek at the 1519 established Zwickau Greek school, soon to be united with the Great School of Zwickau. In 1520 he published his first book, a Latin grammar manual with practical and methodical hints for teachers.
In 1522 he ended his appointment to again study at Leipzig for another year, where, as rector, he was supported by his former tutor and professor of classics, Peter Mosellanus, with whom he had always been in correspondence. He subscribed to the studies of medicine and chemistry. In 1523 he traveled to Italy and enrolled in the University of Bologna and Padua and completed his studies in medicine, it remains unclear. In 1524 he joined the Aldine Press, a prestigious printing office in Venice, established by Aldus Manutius, who had died in 1515. Manutius had established and maintained contacts and the friendship in a network among the many scholars, including the most celebrated, from all over Europe, whom he had encouraged to come to Venice and take care of the redaction of the numerous publications of the classics of antiquity. At the time of Agricola's visit, the business was run by his daughter Maria. Agricola participated in the edition of a work in several volumes on Galen until 1526, he returned to Zwickau in 1527 and to Chemnitz in autumn of the same year, where he married Anna Meyner, a widow from Schneeberg.
Upon his search for employment as town physician and pharmacist in the Ore Mountains, preferably at a place, where he can pursue his ardent longings for the studies on mining, he settled in the suitable little town Joachimsthal in the Bohemian Erzgebirge, where in 1516 significant silver ore deposits were found. The 15.000 inhabitants made Joachimsthal a busy, booming centre of mining and smelting works with hundreds of shafts for Agricola to investigate. His primary post proved to be not demanding and he lent all his spare time to his studies. Beginning in 1528 he immersed himself in comparisons and tests on what had been written about mineralogy and mining and his own observations of the local materials and the methods of their treatment, he constructed a logical system of the local conditions and sediments, the minerals and ores, explained the various terms of general and specific local territorial features. He combined this discourse on all natural aspects with a treatise on the actual mining, the methods and processes, local extraction variants, the differences and oddiities he had learnt from the miners.
For the first time, he tackled questions on the forma
Technical drawing, drafting or drawing, is the act and discipline of composing drawings that visually communicate how something functions or is constructed. Technical drawing is essential for communicating ideas in engineering. To make the drawings easier to understand, people use familiar symbols, units of measurement, notation systems, visual styles, page layout. Together, such conventions constitute a visual language and help to ensure that the drawing is unambiguous and easy to understand. Many of the symbols and principles of technical drawing are codified in an international standard called ISO 128; the need for precise communication in the preparation of a functional document distinguishes technical drawing from the expressive drawing of the visual arts. Artistic drawings are subjectively interpreted. Technical drawings are understood to have one intended meaning. A drafter, draftsperson, or draughtsman is a person. A professional drafter who makes technical drawings is sometimes called a drafting technician.
A sketch is a executed, freehand drawing, not intended as a finished work. In general, sketching is a quick way to record an idea for use. Architect's sketches serve as a way to try out different ideas and establish a composition before a more finished work when the finished work is expensive and time-consuming. Architectural sketches, for example, are a kind of diagrams; these sketches, like metaphors, are used by architects as a means of communication in aiding design collaboration. This tool helps architects to abstract attributes of hypothetical provisional design solutions and summarize their complex patterns, hereby enhancing the design process. Italic text The basic drafting procedure is to place a piece of paper on a smooth surface with right-angle corners and straight sides—typically a drawing board. A sliding straightedge known as a T-square is placed on one of the sides, allowing it to be slid across the side of the table, over the surface of the paper. "Parallel lines" can be drawn by moving the T-square and running a pencil or technical pen along the T-square's edge.
The T-square is used to hold other devices such as set triangles. In this case, the drafter places one or more triangles of known angles on the T-square—which is itself at right angles to the edge of the table—and can draw lines at any chosen angle to others on the page. Modern drafting tables come equipped with a drafting machine, supported on both sides of the table to slide over a large piece of paper; because it is secured on both sides, lines drawn along the edge are guaranteed to be parallel. In addition, the drafter uses several technical drawing tools to draw circles. Primary among these are the compasses, used for drawing simple arcs and circles, the French curve, for drawing curves. A spline is a rubber coated articulated metal. Drafting templates assist the drafter with creating recurring objects in a drawing without having to reproduce the object from scratch every time; this is useful when using common symbols. Templates are sold commercially by a number of vendors customized to a specific task, but it is not uncommon for a drafter to create his own templates.
This basic drafting system requires an accurate table and constant attention to the positioning of the tools. A common error is to allow the triangles to push the top of the T-square down thereby throwing off all angles. Tasks as simple as drawing two angled lines meeting at a point require a number of moves of the T-square and triangles, in general, drafting can be a time-consuming process. A solution to these problems was the introduction of the mechanical "drafting machine", an application of the pantograph which allowed the drafter to have an accurate right angle at any point on the page quite quickly; these machines included the ability to change the angle, thereby removing the need for the triangles as well. In addition to the mastery of the mechanics of drawing lines and circles onto a piece of paper—with respect to the detailing of physical objects—the drafting effort requires a thorough understanding of geometry and spatial comprehension, in all cases demands precision and accuracy, attention to detail of high order.
Although drafting is sometimes accomplished by a project engineer, architect, or shop personnel, skilled drafters accomplish the task, are always in demand to some degree. Today, the mechanics of the drafting task have been automated and accelerated through the use of computer-aided design systems. There are two types of computer-aided design systems used for the production of technical drawings" two dimensions and three dimensions. 2D CAD systems such as AutoCAD or MicroStation replace the paper drawing discipline. The lines, circles and curves are created within the software, it is down to the technical drawing skill of the user to produce the drawing. There is still much scope for error in the drawing when producing first and third angle orthographic projections, auxiliary projections and cross sections. A 2D CAD system is an electronic drawing board, its greatest strength over direct to paper technical drawing is in the making of revisions. Whereas in a conventional hand dr
Anamorphosis is a distorted projection or perspective requiring the viewer to occupy a specific vantage point, use special devices or both to view a recognizable image. Some of the media it is used in are painting, photography and installation, film special effects; the word "anamorphosis" is derived from the Greek prefix ana‑, meaning "back" or "again", the word morphe, meaning "shape" or "form". An optical anamorphism is the visualization of a mathematical operation called an affine transformation; the process of extreme anamorphosis has been used by artists to disguise caricatures and scatological scenes, other furtive images from a casual viewer, while revealing an undistorted image to the knowledgeable spectator. There are two main types of anamorphosis: mirror. More-complex anamorphoses can be devised using distorted lenses, mirrors, or other optical transformations. Examples of perspectival anamorphosis date to the early Renaissance; the first examples were related to religious themes. With mirror anamorphosis, a conical or cylindrical mirror is placed on the drawing or painting to transform a flat distorted image into an undistorted picture.
The deformed image is created by using the laws of the angles of the incidence of reflection. This reduces the length of the flat drawing's curves when the image is viewed in a curved mirror, so that the distortions resolve into a recognizable picture. Unlike perspective anamorphosis, catoptric images can be viewed from many angles.:131 The technique was developed in China during the Ming Dynasty. The first European manual on mirror anamorphosis was published around 1630 by the mathematician Vaulezard.:147, 161With Channel anamorphosis or turning pictures two different images are on different sides of a corrugated carrier. A straight frontal view shows an unclear mix of the images, while each image can be viewed from a certain angle; the prehistoric cave paintings at Lascaux may make use of anamorphic technique, because the oblique angles of the cave would otherwise result in distorted figures from a viewer's perspective. The ancient historians Pliny and Tzetzes both record a sculpture competition between Alcamenes and Phidias to create an image of Minerva.
Alcamenes' sculpture was beautiful. Yet once both had been mounted on pillars, the decelerated perspective made Phidias' Minerva beautiful and Alcamenes' ugly.:7-8 During the Renaissance, artists' experimentation with optics and perspective lead to more advanced development of anamorphic imagery. At this time, religious thought and science were important to the technique's growth in Europe.:70 The earliest known example, known as Leonardo's Eye, was executed by Leonardo da Vinci and is included in the Codex Atlanticus. He completed several large-scale anamorphic commissions for the King of France. Vignolo credited Tommasso Lauretti as the originator of a perspectival anamorphic technique in one of the earliest written descriptions in Two Rules, compiled between 1530 and 1540 but not published until 1583. Without access to Vignolo's work, many other descriptions and examples were created before 1583.:29-30,32-33The Ambassadors by Hans Holbein the Younger is well known for the prominent oblique anamorphic transformation in the painting.
In this artwork, a distorted shape lies diagonally across the bottom of the frame. Viewing this from an acute angle transforms it into the plastic image of a human skull; the painting is regarded as a vanitas - a meditation on the transience of life - with the skull a symbolic memento mori. The altered perspective required to see the image reflects the contemporary practice of painting skulls on the reverse of otherwise tranquil paintings. Four centuries the painting inspired the psychoanalyst Jaques Lacan to note in ‘Of the Gaze as Objet Petit a’ that the use of anamorphism in this painting, is one of the few methods for making viewers aware of their gaze. By the 17th century, a revival of fantastical anamorphic imagery occurred. Magical and religious connotations were abandoned, the images were understood as a scientific curiosity.:115 Two major works on perspective were published: Perspective by Salomon de Caus, Curious Perspective by Jean-Francois Niceron. Each contained extensive practical information on anamorphic imagery.
In Niceron's work, three types of large-scale anamorphism are explained:'optical'. A conical perspective is described.:26-28 Towards the end of the century, Charles Ozanam's Mathematical Recreations popularized the techniques for the creation of anamorphic images.:117Between 1669 and 1685, both perspective and mirror anamorphosis were introduced in China by the Jesuits to the Emperor K'ang-hi and monks at the Peking Mission.:157 However, Chinese production of anamorphic images were occurring on a large scale during the late Ming Dynasty. The images were created freehand, unlike the grid system used in the west; as Chinese anamorphoses focused on erotic themes, Jesuit influence is unlikely.:160-161 It is considered that Chinese catoptric techniques, which are technically unrelated to geometric anamorphosis, influenced European mirror anamorphosis, not the other way around.:164-165 Baroque trompe l'oeil murals used anamorphism to combine actual architectural elements with illusory painted elements to create a seamless effect when viewed from a specific location.
The dome and vault of the Church of St. Ignazio in Rome, painted by Andrea Pozzo, represented the pinnacle of illusion. Due to neighbo
Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers. The term refers to computer-generated image data created with the help of specialized graphical hardware and software, it is a vast and developed area of computer science. The phrase was coined in 1960, by computer graphics researchers Verne Hudson and William Fetter of Boeing, it is abbreviated as CG, though sometimes erroneously referred to as computer-generated imagery. Some topics in computer graphics include user interface design, sprite graphics, vector graphics, 3D modeling, shaders, GPU design, implicit surface visualization with ray tracing, computer vision, among others; the overall methodology depends on the underlying sciences of geometry and physics. Computer graphics is responsible for displaying art and image data and meaningfully to the consumer, it is used for processing image data received from the physical world. Computer graphics development has had a significant impact on many types of media and has revolutionized animation, advertising, video games, graphic design in general.
The term computer graphics has been used in a broad sense to describe "almost everything on computers, not text or sound". The term computer graphics refers to several different things: the representation and manipulation of image data by a computer the various technologies used to create and manipulate images the sub-field of computer science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content, see study of computer graphicsToday, computer graphics is widespread; such imagery is found in and on television, weather reports, in a variety of medical investigations and surgical procedures. A well-constructed graph can present complex statistics in a form, easier to understand and interpret. In the media "such graphs are used to illustrate papers, theses", other presentation material. Many tools have been developed to visualize data. Computer generated imagery can be categorized into several different types: two dimensional, three dimensional, animated graphics; as technology has improved, 3D computer graphics have become more common, but 2D computer graphics are still used.
Computer graphics has emerged as a sub-field of computer science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content. Over the past decade, other specialized fields have been developed like information visualization, scientific visualization more concerned with "the visualization of three dimensional phenomena, where the emphasis is on realistic renderings of volumes, illumination sources, so forth with a dynamic component"; the precursor sciences to the development of modern computer graphics were the advances in electrical engineering and television that took place during the first half of the twentieth century. Screens could display art since the Lumiere brothers' use of mattes to create special effects for the earliest films dating from 1895, but such displays were limited and not interactive; the first cathode ray tube, the Braun tube, was invented in 1897 – it in turn would permit the oscilloscope and the military control panel – the more direct precursors of the field, as they provided the first two-dimensional electronic displays that responded to programmatic or user input.
Computer graphics remained unknown as a discipline until the 1950s and the post-World War II period – during which time the discipline emerged from a combination of both pure university and laboratory academic research into more advanced computers and the United States military's further development of technologies like radar, advanced aviation, rocketry developed during the war. New kinds of displays were needed to process the wealth of information resulting from such projects, leading to the development of computer graphics as a discipline. Early projects like the Whirlwind and SAGE Projects introduced the CRT as a viable display and interaction interface and introduced the light pen as an input device. Douglas T. Ross of the Whirlwind SAGE system performed a personal experiment in which a small program he wrote captured the movement of his finger and displayed its vector on a display scope. One of the first interactive video games to feature recognizable, interactive graphics – Tennis for Two – was created for an oscilloscope by William Higinbotham to entertain visitors in 1958 at Brookhaven National Laboratory and simulated a tennis match.
In 1959, Douglas T. Ross innovated again while working at MIT on transforming mathematic statements into computer generated 3D machine tool vectors by taking the opportunity to create a display scope image of a Disney cartoon character. Electronics pioneer Hewlett-Packard went public in 1957 after incorporating the decade prior, established strong ties with Stanford University through its founders, who were alumni; this began the decades-long transformation of the southern San Francisco Bay Area into the world's leading computer technology hub - now known as Silicon Valley. The field of computer graphics developed with the emergence of computer graphics hardware. Further advances in computing led to greater advancements in interactive computer graphics. In 1959, the TX-2 computer was developed at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory; the TX-2 integrated a number of new man-machine interfaces. A light pen could be used to draw sketches on the computer using Ivan Sutherland's revolutionary Sketchpad software.
Using a light pen, Sketchpad allowed one to draw simple shapes on the computer screen, save them and recall them later. The light pen itself had a small photoelectric cell in its tip. T
Axonometric projection is a type of orthographic projection used for creating a pictorial drawing of an object, where the lines of sight are perpendicular to the plane of projection, the object is rotated around one or more of its axes to reveal multiple sides. "Axonometry" means "to measure along axes". In German literature, axonometry is based on Pohlke's theorem, so that the scope of axonometric projection encompasses every type of parallel projection, including not only oblique projection, but orthographic projection and therefore multiview projection. However, outside of German literature, the term "axonometric" is used to make an explicit distinction from multiview projection, because axonometric projection allows for the depiction of more than one "side" of an object, whereas a multiview projection allows for the depiction of only one "side" of an object: A multiview projection depicts an object from one of six primary views; because multiview projections are a fundamental facet of technical illustration, a depiction that results from another type of projection is called an "auxiliary" view.
In contrast, an axonometric projection may depict an object such that none of the principal axes of the object is perpendicular to the projection plane, thus more than one "side" of an object may be represented simultaneously. When it is possible to depict more than one side of an object, it may be said that the object is being viewed from a "skew" angle. Furthermore, in English literature, the term "axonometric projection" implies an orthographic projection, such as an isometric projection. With an axonometric projection, the scale of an object does not depend on its location along any particular axis; this distortion, the direct result of a presence or absence of foreshortening, is evident if the object is composed of rectangular features. Despite this limitation, axonometric projection can be useful for purposes of illustration because it allows for relaying precise measurements; the three types of axonometric projection are isometric projection, dimetric projection, trimetric projection, depending on the exact angle at which the view deviates from the orthogonal.
In axonometric drawing, as in other types of pictorials, one axis of space is shown as the vertical. In isometric projection, the most used form of axonometric projection in engineering drawing, the direction of viewing is such that the three axes of space appear foreshortened, there is a common angle of 120° between them; as the distortion caused by foreshortening is uniform, the proportionality between lengths is preserved, the axes share a common scale. Another advantage is that 120° angles are constructed using only a compass and straightedge. In dimetric projection, the direction of viewing is such that two of the three axes of space appear foreshortened, of which the attendant scale and angles of presentation are determined according to the angle of viewing. Dimensional approximations are common in dimetric drawings. In trimetric projection, the direction of viewing is such that all of the three axes of space appear unequally foreshortened; the scale along each of the three axes and the angles among them are determined separately as dictated by the angle of viewing.
Dimensional approximations in trimetric drawings are common, trimetric perspective is used in technical drawings. The concept of isometry had existed in a rough empirical form for centuries, well before Professor William Farish of Cambridge University was the first to provide detailed rules for isometric drawing. Farish published his ideas in the 1822 paper "On Isometrical Perspective", in which he recognized the "need for accurate technical working drawings free of optical distortion; this would lead him to formulate isometry. Isometry means "equal measures" because the same scale is used for height and depth". From the middle of the 19th century, according to Jan Krikke isometry became an "invaluable tool for engineers, soon thereafter axonometry and isometry were incorporated in the curriculum of architectural training courses in Europe and the U. S; the popular acceptance of axonometry came in the 1920s, when modernist architects from the Bauhaus and De Stijl embraced it". De Stijl architects like Theo van Doesburg used axonometry for their architectural designs, which caused a sensation when exhibited in Paris in 1923".
Since the 1920s axonometry, or parallel perspective, has provided an important graphic technique for artists and engineers. Like linear perspective, axonometry helps depict three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional picture plane, it comes as a standard feature of CAD systems and other visual computing tools. According to Jan Krikke, "axonometry originated in China, its function in Chinese art was similar to linear perspective in European art. Axonometry, the pic
A panorama is any wide-angle view or representation of a physical space, whether in painting, photography, seismic images or a three-dimensional model. The word was coined in the 18th century by the English painter Robert Barker to describe his panoramic paintings of Edinburgh and London; the motion-picture term panning is derived from panorama. A panoramic view is purposed for multi-media, cross-scale applications to an outline overview along and across repositories; this so-called "cognitive panorama" is a panoramic view over, a combination of, cognitive spaces used to capture the larger scale. The device of the panorama existed in painting in murals, as early as 20 A. D. in those found as a means of generating an immersive ` panoptic' experience of a vista. Cartographic experiments during the Enlightenment era preceded European panorama painting and contributed to a formative impulse toward panoramic vision and depiction; this novel perspective was conveyed to America by Benjamin Franklin, present for the first manned balloon flight by the Montgolfier brothers in 1783, by American born physician, John Jeffries who had joined French aeronaut Jean Pierre Blanchard on flights over England and the first aerial crossing of the English Channel in 1785.
In the mid-19th century, panoramic paintings and models became a popular way to represent landscapes, topographic views and historical events. Audiences of Europe in this period were thrilled by the aspect of illusion, immersed in a winding 360 degree panorama and given the impression of standing in a new environment; the panorama was a 360-degree visual medium patented under the title Apparatus for Exhibiting Pictures by the artist Robert Barker in 1787. The earliest that the word "panorama" appeared in print was on June 11, 1791 in the British newspaper The Morning Chronicle, referring to this visual spectacle. Barker created a painting, shown on a cylindrical surface and viewed from the inside, giving viewers a vantage point encompassing the entire circle of the horizon, rendering the original scene with high fidelity; the inaugural exhibition, a "View of Edinburgh", was first shown in that city in 1788 transported to London in 1789. By 1793, Barker had built "The Panorama" rotunda at the center of London's entertainment district in Leicester Square, where it remained until closed in 1863.
Inventor Sir Francis Ronalds developed a machine to remove errors in perspective that were created when a sequence of planar sketches was combined into a cylinder. It projected the cylindrical drawing onto the wall of the rotunda at much larger scale to enable its accurate painting; the apparatus was exhibited at the Royal Polytechnic Institution in the early 1840s. Large scale installations enhance the illusion for an audience of being surrounded with a real landscape; the Bourbaki Panorama in Lucerne, Switzerland was created by Edouard Castres in 1881. The painting measures about 10 metres in height with a circumference of 112 meters. In the same year of 1881, the Dutch marine painter Hendrik Willem Mesdag created and established the Panorama Mesdag of The Hague, Netherlands, a cylindrical painting more than 14 metres high and 40 meters in diameter. In the United States of America is the Atlanta Cyclorama, depicting the Civil War Battle of Atlanta, it was first displayed in 1887, is 42 feet high by 358 feet circumference.
On a gigantic scale, still extant, is the Racławice Panorama located in Wrocław, which measures 15 x 120 metres. In addition to these historical examples, there have been panoramas painted and installed in modern times. Panoramic photography soon came to displace painting as the most common method for creating wide views. Not long after the introduction of the Daguerreotype in 1839, photographers began assembling multiple images of a view into a single wide image. In the late 19th century, flexible film enabled the construction of panoramic cameras using curved film holders and clockwork drives to rotate the lens in an arc and thus scan an image encompassing 180 degrees. Pinhole cameras of a variety of constructions can be used to make panoramic images. A popular design is the "oatmeal box", a vertical cylindrical container in which the pinhole is made in one side and the film or photographic paper is wrapped around the inside wall opposite, extending right to the edge of, the pinhole; this generates an egg-shaped image with more than 180° view.