A cutscene or event scene is a sequence in a video game, not interactive, breaking up the gameplay. Such scenes could be used to show conversations between characters, set the mood, reward the player, introduce new gameplay elements, show the effects of a player's actions, create emotional connections, improve pacing or foreshadow future events. Cutscenes feature "on the fly" rendering, using the gameplay graphics to create scripted events. Cutscenes can be pre-rendered computer graphics streamed from a video file. Pre-made videos used in video games are referred to as "full motion videos" or "FMVs". Cutscenes can appear in other forms, such as a series of images or as plain text and audio; the term "cutscene" was coined by game designer Ron Gilbert to describe non-interactive plot sequences in the 1987 adventure game Maniac Mansion. The Sumerian Game, an early mainframe game, introduces its Sumerian setting with a slideshow synchronized to audio recording. Pac-Man is credited as the first game to feature cutscenes, in the form of brief comical interludes about Pac-Man and Blinky chasing each other, though Space Invaders Part II employed a similar technique in the same year.
In 1983, the laserdisc video game Bega's Battle introduced animated full-motion video cutscenes with voice acting to develop a story between the game's shooting stages, which became the standard approach to game storytelling years later. The games Karateka helped introduce the cutscene to home computers. Other early video games known to use cutscenes extensively include Portopia Renzoku Satsujin Jiken in 1983. Since cutscenes have been part of many video games in action-adventure and role-playing video games. Cutscenes became much more common with the rise of CD-ROM as the primary storage medium for video games, as its much greater storage space allowed developers to use more cinematically impressive media such as FMV and high-quality voice tracks. Live-action cutscenes have many similarities to films. For example, the cutscenes in Wing Commander IV used both constructed sets, well known actors such as Mark Hamill and Malcolm McDowell for the portrayal of characters; some movie tie-in games, such as Electronic Arts' The Lord of the Rings and Star Wars games, have extensively used film footage and other assets from the film production in their cutscenes.
Another movie tie-in, Enter the Matrix, used film footage shot concurrently with The Matrix Reloaded, directed by the film's directors, the Wachowskis. Pre-rendered cutscenes are animated and rendered by the game's developers, take advantage of the full array of techniques of CGI, cel animation or graphic novel-style panel art. Like live-action shoots, pre-rendered cutscenes are presented in full motion video. Real time cutscenes are rendered on-the-fly using the same game engine as the graphics during gameplay; this technique is known as Machinima. Real time cutscenes are of much lower detail and visual quality than pre-rendered cutscenes, but can adapt to the state of the game. For example, some games allow the player character to wear several different outfits, appear in cutscenes wearing the outfit the player has chosen, it is possible to give the player control over camera movement during real time cutscenes, as seen in Dungeon Siege, Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, Halo: Reach, Kane & Lynch: Dead Men.
Many games use both pre-rendered and real time cutscenes as the developer feels is appropriate for each scene. During the 1990s in particular, it was common for the techniques of live action, pre-rendering, real time rendering to be combined in a single cutscene. For example, popular games such as Myst, Wing Commander III, Phantasmagoria use film of live actors superimposed upon pre-rendered animated backgrounds for their cutscenes. Though Final Fantasy VII uses real-time cutscenes, it has several scenes in which real-time graphics are combined with pre-rendered full motion video. Though rarer than the other two possible combinations, the pairing of live action video with real time graphics is seen in games such as Killing Time. Interactive cutscenes involve the computer taking control of the player character while prompts appear onscreen, requiring the player to follow them in order to continue or succeed at the action; this gameplay mechanic called quick time events, has its origins in interactive movie laserdisc video games such as Dragon's Lair, Road Blaster, Space Ace.
Director Steven Spielberg, director Guillermo del Toro, game designer Ken Levine, all of whom are avid video gamers, criticized the use of cutscenes in games, calling them intrusive. Spielberg states that making the story flow into the gameplay is a challenge for future game developers. Hollywood writer Danny Bilson called cinematics the "last resort of game storytelling," as a person doesn't want to watch a movie when they are playing a video game. Game designer Raph Koster criticized cutscenes as being the part that has "the largest possibility for emotional engagement, for art dare we say," while being the bit that can be cut with no impact on the actual gameplay. Koster claims that because of this, many of the memorable peak emotional moments in video games are not given by the game itself at all, it is a common criticism that cutscenes belong to a different medium. Others see cutscenes as another tool designers can use to make engrossing vid
The Canadian Synchrotron Radiation Facility was Canada's national synchrotron facility from 1983–2005. Consisting of three beamlines at the Synchrotron Radiation Center at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, USA, it served the Canadian synchrotron community until the opening of the Canadian Light Source in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan ceasing operations in 2008. In 1972 Mike Bancroft, a chemistry professor at the University of Western Ontario took part in a workshop organised by Bill McGowan on the uses of synchrotron radiation. At the time there were no synchrotron users in Canada, but as a result of contact established with then-director Ed Rowe at the meeting, he began work at the Synchrotron Radiation Center in Madison, Wisconsin, in 1975. After several failed attempts were made to establish a synchrotron facility in Canada, Bancroft submitted a proposal to the National Research Council to build a Canadian beamline on the existing Tantalus synchrotron at SRC. Rowe had offered Bancroft 100% use of the beamline at no charge in perpetuity – Bancroft recalled that Rowe "had a soft spot for Canadians, he had some relatives from Canada, so he was helpful".
In 1978 the newly created NSERC awarded capital funding. This was not sufficient, further funding was obtained from the UWO Academic Development Fund and NSERC the following year to complete two endstations. Bancoft would say "We hoped to get more beamlines so we called it the Canadian Synchrotron Radiation Facility". Bancroft was appointed Scientific Director, with Norman Sherman of NRC, who were to own and manage the facility, as manager. Operating money was provided by UWO, Kim Tan was hired as the CSRF operations manager, to be based in Madison. A Grasshopper-type monochromator – so-called as its mechanical drive arm resembled a grasshopper's hind legs – was ordered from Baker Engineering; this type of monochromator had been designed for use with synchrotron radiation, had proven easy to use and dependable at the existing SRC ring, at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. The beamline was installed within a year, by late 1981 initial results showed the performance to be state of the art over the 50–500eV photon energy range.
Notable early work included X-ray microscopy on biological samples, gas-phase spectroscopy with a influential series of papers on noble gases. In the mid-1980s the number of publications increased, as did operating funding through NRC and NSERC. SRC was building a new synchrotron and again Rowe offered CSRF 100% use of their beamline at no change in perpetuity on the new machine. Aladdin was delayed, to the point where its funding was cut and future seemed uncertain. With the new machine's performance improving, the decision was made to transfer the beamline to Aladdin in January 1986, some months before Aladdin's funding was restored. Bancroft commented: "We were I think, the first beamline to transfer over, maybe we took a little bit of a risk because Aladdin's performance wasn't confirmed". On Aladdin, with the higher X-ray intensity, new areas of science were opened up and the number of users increased focused on X-ray absorption and photoemission spectroscopy of gases and solids. A photoemission spectrometer was donated by Ron Cavell of the University of Alberta and modifiied for high resolution gas-phase work.
The X-ray intensity from Aladdin was much higher than on Tantalus in the photon energy range up to 4000eV. These higher energies were available using higher energy monochromators than the Grasshopper. In 1987, with Bancroft now chair of the Chemistry department at UWO he planned for a new beamline to cover the 1500-400eV energy range. A successful application was made to the formed Ontario Centre for Materials Research, T. K. Sham was hired away from Brookhaven National Laboratory to design the beamline. A double crystal monochromator was selected, to be built by the Madison Physical Sciences Laboratory, using a cylindrical mirror with a novel bending mechanism to focus the X-ray beam after the monochromator. B. X. Yang from Brookhaven, was hired in 1988 to construct the beamline; the beamline was built in less than 18 months, was opened in 1990. The CSRF DCM beamline was regarded as notable by SRC as it was the only beamline at the facility to reach energies higher than 1500 eV. With two beamlines, use by the Canadian community increased, with more than 40 scientists from 10 Canadian institutions using the facility from 1990–1992.
Funding was now adequate, with no charges to users. The energy range from 300 to 1500 eV was still unavailable at CSRF, so in 1992 Bancroft applied to NSERC for a third beamline. Funding was obtained in 1994 and Brian Yates, Bancroft's first synchrotron PhD student, was hired to construct the beamline; the design chosen was a so-called Dragon-type spherical grating monochromator, with a single grating covering the range 240–700 eV, designed and manufactured by MacPherson Inc. The beamline was somewhat delayed, but was operational for users in 1998. Adam Hitchcock of McMaster University donated a photoemission spectrometer for coincidence measurements. For the last 10 years of its existence CSRF was managed by Walter Davidson of NRC, with T. K. Sham as Scientific Director. In 2004 the SGM beamline was decommissioned and taken to Canada for use on the new Canadian facility, while the remaining two beamlines, 30 and 15 years old, were still working well in 2007. Following a prolonged campaign by the Canadian sycnhrotron user community, the decision was made in 1999 to build a Canadian synchrotron in Saskatoon, Sas
Year 501 was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Pompeius; the denomination 501 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. Domangart Réti succeeds his father Fergus Mór, he becomes the new king of Dál Riata. King Gundobad regains his military power, he besieges his brother Godegisel at the city of Vienne, murders him in an Arian church along with the bishop. Dong Hun Hou is killed during a siege of the capital Jiankang, he is succeeded by his brother Qi He Di. Muryeong becomes king of Baekje. During his reign, the kingdom remains allied with Silla and expands its relationships with China and Japan; the Maya are peaking in economic prosperity. The civilization at Teotihuacan begins to decline and its people are migrating to the greatest Mayan city, bringing with them ideas about weaponry and new ritual practices. June 5 – Ahkal Mo' Naab' I comes to power in the Maya city of Palenque.
The Sushruta Samhita medical book becomes a classic of medicine in India. The book contains descriptions of surgery, medicinal plants, a detailed study on anatomy. Pope Symmachus, accused of various crimes by secular authorities who support an ecclesiastical opponent, asserts that the secular ruler has no jurisdiction over him. A synod held in 502 will confirm that view. Lou Zhaojun, empress dowager of Northern Qi Xiao Tong, crown prince of the Liang Dynasty April 25 – Rusticus, archbishop of Lyon Dongseong, king of Baekje Fergus Mór, king of Dál Riata Godegisel, king of the Burgundians Pan Yunu, concubine of Xiao Baojuan Ravina II, Jewish Talmudist and rabbi Su Xiaoxiao, Chinese courtesan and poet Xiao Baojuan, emperor of Southern Qi
The First Baptist Church and Society is an historic Baptist church on Baptist Street in Swansea, Massachusetts. The congregation, founded in 1663, is the oldest Baptist congregation in Massachusetts and one of the oldest in the United States; the congregation was founded in 1663 by John Myles as the first Baptist congregation in Massachusetts, Myles brought the Ilston Book with him from Swansea in Wales. The congregation in Swansea, Massachusetts was located nearby the First Baptist Church in America in Providence; the current Greek Revival meeting house was constructed in 1848 and is the fifth building occupied by the congregation. The adjacent cemetery dates to 1731; the building and cemetery were added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1990. National Register of Historic Places listings in Bristol County, Massachusetts Baptists in the United States Official website Rev. John Myles and the founding of the first Baptist church in Massachusetts
Gustav Ratzenhofer was an Austrian officer and was known as a sociologist. He wrote under the pseudonym Gustav Renehr. Ratzenhofer was a watchmaker and joined in 1859 by the master watchmaker examination in the Austrian army, in which he made a brilliant career: second lieutenant, member of the General Staff, director of the Army Archives as Feldmarschall - lieutenant president of the Military High Court. In 1901 Ratzenhofer left the army and devoted himself to his private study of philosophy and sociology, where he was influenced by active contacts with Ludwig Gumplowicz, he died in 1904 on his way home from a study stay in the US. In 1959, in Vienna, Floridsdorf was named the Ratzenhofergasse after him. Ratzenhofer understood sociology based on Herbert Spencer, Charles Darwin and Auguste Comte as part of a comprehensive philosophy, which he described as "positive monism", he represented an evolutionary model of social development. Drive all social activity is by Ratzenhofer the "elemental force".
"Jealousy" and "blood love" since time immemorial dominate the social events. The primitive society is governed by the "law of absolute hostility". Conflicts and subjugation change "Peculiar State" to "Culture State" and ends in civilization, in the peaceful reconciliation of interests enables a creative and free life. Ratzenhofer tried to explain all the laws of human coexistence by scientific methods, emphasized the unity of Weltgesetzlichkeit, his work is considered an important contribution to the sociological interests and evolutionary theory. In the US, he was received as one of the founding fathers of policy sociology. A. Grausgruber: Ratzenhofer, Gustav, in Wilhelm Bernsdorf / Horst bud: International sociologist Encyclopedia, Vol 1, Stuttgart 1988, S. 347th Dirk Kaesler: Ratzenhofer, Gustav. In: New German Biography. Volume 21, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-428-11202-4, S. 188 f. Florian Oberhuber: The "double original essence of State authority". Modern State, sociological authority and political pluralism Gustav Ratzenhofers, in: Sociologia Internationalis, Vol 40, 2002, H. 1, S. 85-115.
Florian Oberhuber: The problem of politics in the Habsburg monarchy. History of ideas studies to Gustav Ratzenhofer, 1842–1904. Diss. Vienna 2002. Florian Oberhuber: From the general cultural history to political science sociologically founded: Gustav Ratzenhofer. In: Karl Acham: "History of the Austrian Human Sciences", Vol 6.2, "Philosophy and Religion.. God Is and Ought "Passagen Verlag, Vienna 2006. Ch Tepperberg. Ratzenhofer Gustav. In: Austrian Biographical Encyclopaedia 1815–1950. Volume 8, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, 1983, ISBN 3-7001-0187-2, S. 434 f
Lady Lazarus is the first novel by O. Henry Award-winning writer Andrew Foster Altschul, published by Harcourt in 2008. Drawing its title from the poem of the same name by Sylvia Plath, Lady Lazarus deals with themes similar to the poem, namely issues of exhibitionism and the public's hunger for tragedy and spectacle. Described by Publishers Weekly as a "gleeful, difficult debut" with "razor-sharp cultural observations" and "some thrilling high dives", the novel's central story is that of Calliope Bird Morath, a young, renowned confessional poet "beloved to deconstructionists and culture theorists and fifteen year old girls alike." As an adult, Calliope has become one of the best-known poets in America. But she has been famous since birth, she is the daughter of rock stars Brandt Morath and Penny Power, whose resemblance to Kurt Cobain and Courtney Love is underscored by Brandt's suicide at the height of his fame, while his daughter was still a small child. Unlike the real-life Frances Bean Cobain, Calliope is a presumed eyewitness to her father's death, an event that traumatizes her into not speaking for several years.
When she does regain her voice, it is as a poet, as the book's co-narrator. The novel is written as a literary pastiche of various forms of media, incorporating purported magazine interviews, academic articles, scripts from unaired television shows and transcripts from psychoanalysis sessions. In the words of critic Kel Munger, this inventiveness is one of the book's key strengths: "Altschul skewers everything from the contemporary graduate poetry workshop to the way that the media and academia jump on the fame bandwagon. In between, there are delicious parodies of magnificent poems, including some by Sylvia Plath, Sexton, T. S. Eliot, Dylan Thomas, Charles Baudelaire, Frederico García Lorca … While it doesn’t take a graduate degree in English to follow, recognizing the allusions no doubt adds to the fun." Another critic, Patrick Schabe, has asserted that the book's playfully discursive nature makes reviewing it problematic: "Lady Lazarus presents the critic with a challenge: How to unpack and analyze the text that deconstructs itself?
The feedback loop is total, each gesture revealed to be recursive—every critique anticipated and incorporated into the work itself." Writing in Pop Matters, Shabe makes the observation that Altschul anticipates that readers will note the similarity between the name "Andrew Foster Altschul" and that of David Foster Wallace. As Shabe concludes: "Altschul plays both sides of the fence, pulling off tricks and revealing the phoniness of the illusion with a wry smile. Rather than being all-too-academic, Lady Lazarus toys with these conventions in a commentary on the issue of their worth, manages to reaffirm the role of story in the process." Andrew Foster Altschul's Website Andrew Foster Altschul discusses Lady Lazarus A reading from Lady Lazarus on YouTube