United States Coast Guard Cutter
United States Coast Guard Cutter is the term used by the U. S. Coast Guard for its commissioned vessels, they are 65 feet or greater in length and have a permanently assigned crew with accommodations aboard. They carry the ship prefix USCGC; the Revenue Marine and the Revenue Cutter Service, as it was known variously throughout the late 18th and the 19th centuries, referred to its ships as cutters. The term is English in origin and refers to a specific type of vessel, namely, "a small, decked ship with one mast and bowsprit, with a gaff mainsail on a boom, a square yard and topsail, two jibs or a jib and a staysail." With general usage, that term came to define any vessel of the United Kingdom's HM Customs and Excise and the term was adopted by the U. S. Treasury Department at the creation of what would become the Revenue Marine. Since that time, no matter what the vessel type, the service has referred to its vessels with permanently assigned crews as cutters. In 1790, Congress authorized the Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, to create a maritime service to enforce customs laws.
Alternatively known as the system of cutters, Revenue Service, Revenue-Marine this service was named the Revenue Cutter Service in 1863. This service was placed under the control of the Treasury Department; the first ten cutters were: USRC Vigilant USRC Active USRC General Green USRC Massachusetts USRC Scammel USRC Argus USRC Virginia USRC Diligence USRC South Carolina USRC Eagle 420' Icebreaker Healy 418' National Security Cutter 399' Polar-class icebreaker 378' High endurance cutter 295' USCGC Eagle 282' Medium Endurance Cutter 270' Medium Endurance Cutter 240' USCGC Mackinaw 230' Medium Endurance Cutter 225' Seagoing buoy tender 213' Medium Endurance Cutter 210' Medium Endurance Cutter 179-foot Cyclone-class coastal patrol ships 175' Keeper-class cutter 160' Inland Construction Tender 154' Sentinel-class cutter 140' Bay-class icebreaking tug 110' Island-class patrol boat 100' Inland Buoy Tender 100' Inland Construction Tender 87' Marine Protector-class coastal patrol boat 75' River Buoy Tender 75' Inland Construction Tender 65' River Buoy Tender 65' Inland Buoy Tender 65' Small Harbor Tug 327' Treasury-class cutter 311' Casco-class cutter 306' Edsall-class cutter 269' Wind-class icebreaker 255' Owasco-class cutter 250' Lake-class cutter 240' Tampa-class cutter 213' Diver-class rescue and salvage ship 205' Cherokee-class fleet tug, converted to cutter, redesignated 180' Seagoing buoy tender 180' Oceanographic vessel 165' Thetis-class patrol boat 165' Algonquin-class patrol boat 165' Tallapoosa-class boat 157' Red-class coastal buoy tender 133' White-class coastal buoy tender 125' Active-class patrol boat 123' Patrol boat 110' Calumet-class harbor tug 110' Apalachee-class harbor tug 110' Manitou-class harbor tug 95' Cape-class cutter 82' Point-class cutter
Pewter is a malleable metal alloy. It is traditionally composed of 85–99% tin, mixed with copper, antimony and sometimes silver or lead, although the use of lead is less common today. Copper and antimony act as hardeners while lead is more common in the lower grades of pewter, which have a bluish tint. Pewter has a low melting point, around 170–230 °C, depending on the exact mixture of metals; the word pewter is a variation of the word spelter, a term for zinc alloys. Pewter was first used around the beginning of the Bronze Age in the Near East; the earliest piece of pewter found is from an Egyptian tomb from 1450 BC. The constituents of pewter were first controlled in the 12th century by town guilds in France. By the 15th century, the Worshipful Company of Pewterers controlled pewter constituents in England; this company had two grades of pewter, but in the 16th century a third grade was added. The first type, known as "fine metal", was used for tableware, it consisted of tin with as much copper as it could absorb, about 1%.
The second type, known as "trifling metal" or "trifle", was used for holloware and is made up of fine metal with 4% lead. The last type of pewter, known as "lay" or "ley" metal, was used for items that were not in contact with food or drink, it consisted of tin with 15% lead. These three alloys were used with little variation until the 20th century. Older pewters with higher lead content are heavier, tarnish faster, oxidation gives them a darker silver-gray color. Pewters containing lead are no longer used in items that will come in contact with the human body due to health concerns stemming from the lead content. Modern pewters are available that are free of lead, although many pewters containing lead are still being produced for other purposes. A typical European casting alloy contains 94% tin, 1% copper, 5% antimony. A European pewter sheet would contain 92% tin, 2% copper, 6% antimony. Asian pewter, produced in Malaysia and Thailand, contains a higher percentage of tin 97.5% tin, 1% copper, 1.5% antimony.
This makes the alloy softer. So-called "Mexican pewter" is an alloy of aluminum and silica. Pewter was used for decorative metal items and tableware in the Ancient World by the Egyptians and the Romans, came into extensive use in Europe from the Middle Ages until the various developments in pottery and glass-making during the 18th and 19th centuries. Pewter was the chief material for producing plates and bowls until the making of porcelain. Mass production of pottery and glass products has seen pewter universally replaced in daily life. Pewter artifacts continue to be produced as decorative or specialty items. Pewter was used around East Asia. Although some items still exist, Ancient Roman pewter is rare."Unlidded" mugs and lidded tankards may be the most familiar pewter artifacts from the late 17th and 18th centuries, although the metal was used for many other items including porringers, dishes, spoons, flagons, communion cups, sugar bowls, beer steins, cream jugs. In the early 19th century, changes in fashion caused a decline in the use of pewter flatware.
At the same time, production increased of both cast and spun pewter tea sets, whale-oil lamps, so on. In the century, pewter alloys were used as a base metal for silver-plated objects. In the late 19th century, pewter came back into fashion with the revival of medieval objects for decoration. New replicas of medieval pewter objects were created, collected for decoration. Today, pewter is used in decorative objects collectible statuettes and figurines, game figures and other models, pendants, plated jewellery and so on. Certain athletic contests, such as the United States Figure Skating Championships, award pewter medals to fourth-place finishers. Britannia metal English pewter Royal Selangor Spin casting PewterBank "Pewter". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Badges of the United States Coast Guard
Badges of the United States Coast Guard are issued by the Department of Homeland Security to members of the United States Coast Guard to denote certain qualifications and postings to certain assignments. Prior to 2002, the issuance of such badges was under the authority of the United States Department of Transportation. In addition to the U. S. Coast Guard badges listed below, uniform regulations authorize the wear of some specific U. S. Navy insignia as well as some Department of Defense and Executive Branch Identification badges; the following are the current U. S. Coast Guard and U. S. Coast Guard Auxiliary badges authorized for wear on the Coast Guard uniform: Military badges of the United States Identification badges of the United States military Obsolete badges of the United States military
United States Coast Guard Auxiliary
The United States Coast Guard Auxiliary is the uniformed auxiliary service of the United States Coast Guard. Congress established the USCG Aux on June 1939, as the United States Coast Guard Reserve. On February 19, 1941, the organization was re-designated as the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary; the Auxiliary exists to support all USCG missions except roles that require "direct" law enforcement or military engagement. As of 2018, there were 24,000 members of the U. S. Coast Guard Auxiliary. Collectively the Auxiliary contributes over 4.5 million hours of service each year and completed nearly 500,000 missions in service to support the Coast Guard. Every year Auxiliarists help to save 500 lives, assist 15,000 distressed boaters, conduct over 150,000 safety examinations of recreational vessels, provide boater safety instruction to over 500,000 students. In total the Coast Guard Auxiliary saves taxpayers hundreds of millions of dollars each year; the development of the single-operator motorboat, the outboard engine, during the early 20th century increased the number of recreational boaters operating on United States federal waters.
By 1939 there were more than 300,000 personal watercraft in operation. The previous year the Coast Guard had received 14,000 calls for assistance and had responded to 8,600 "in-peril" cases; the Coast Guard Reserve Act of 1939 was passed by the United States Congress creating a civilian reserve force for the United States Coast Guard that would have four specified responsibilities. They were charged with promoting safety at sea, increasing boater efficiency for American citizens, assisting them with laws and compliance, supporting Active Duty members of the Coast Guard; this encompassed boat owners being organized into flotillas within Coast Guard districts around the United States. They conducted safety and security patrols and helped enforce the 1940 Federal Boating and Espionage Acts. In 1941 Congress passed a law to restructure the Coast Guard Reserve, created just two years earlier; the Coast Guard would hence forth have two reserve forces. The existing civilian organization would be renamed the Coast Guard Auxiliary.
In addition, the Coast Guard Reserve was created that year and would have military and law enforcement responsibilities. During World War II many Auxiliarists became temporary members of the Coast Guard Reserve. Coast Guard Headquarters issued policies allowing some of those boats to be equipped with machine guns and they could carry pistols and rifles on patrols. In 1941 the Coast Guard, Coast Guard Reserve, Coast Guard Auxiliary were transferred from the United States Treasury Department to the United States Department of the Navy and in 1942 the Coast Guard Auxiliary was authorized to wear military uniforms. During the war Auxiliarists would help the Coast Guard with recruiting and training active duty personnel. Beginning in 1942, in response to the growing German U-Boat threat to the United States, the U. S. Navy ordered the acquisition of the "maximum practical number of civilian craft in any way capable of going to sea in good weather for a period of at least 48 hours." A large number of vessels and piloted by Auxiliarists with crews made-up of Coast Guard reservists, made-up the bulk of the American coastal anti-submarine warfare capability during the early months of World War II.
As newly constructed warships took over the load, the Coast Guard abandoned the concept. None of the two thousand civilian craft, armed with depth charges stowed on their decks sank a submarine, though they did rescue several hundred survivors of torpedoed merchant ships. From 1942 through the rest of the war Auxiliarists and Coast Guard reservists served on local Port Security Forces to protect the shipping industry. In 1950 National Commodore Bert Pouncey was elected and the National Board for the Coast Guard Auxiliary was established. In 1955 Auiliarists started to participate in programs to support the recruitment of potential candidates for the United States Coast Guard Academy; the North American Boating Campaign was known as "Safe Boating Week," observed by the Coast Guard Auxiliary as a courtesy examination weekend in Amesbury, Massachusetts in June 1952. This tradition continued until 1957 when an official National Safe Boating Week observation took place sponsored by the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary in various parts of the country.
As a result, the U. S. Coast Guard prepared a Resolution, on June 4, 1958, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed PL 85-445, to establish National Safe Boating Week as the first week starting on the first Sunday in June. Early in 1973, budget cuts forced the closing of seven Coast Guard stations on the Great Lakes. At the request of the affected communities, Congress ordered the stations to be re-opened and operated by the Auxiliary; the local division captains took responsibility for manning them and ensuring that Auxiliarists' boats were always available to assist distressed vessels. The Auxiliary took over seven more stations on the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. In 1976 the Coast Guard commissioned a study of the Auxiliary by a private research firm, University Sciences Forum of Washington. After interviewing key personnel in the Coast Guard and the Auxiliary and analyzing questionnaires filled out by about two thousand Auxiliarists, the researchers concluded that the Auxiliary was in good health.
"In summary," they wrote, "we consider the Auxiliary the greatest economical resource available to the COGARD. It performs in an outstanding manner and its personnel are among the most professional group of volunteers in the nation." Under Congressional legislation passed in 1996, the Auxiliary's role was expanded to allow members to assist in any Coas
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is the coastal defense and maritime law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, multi-mission service unique among the U. S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, can be transferred to the U. S. Department of the Navy by the U. S. President at any time, or by the U. S. Congress during times of war; this has happened twice: in 1917, during World War I, in 1941, during World War II. Created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue-Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States; as Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue-Marine, whose original purpose was collecting customs duties in the nation's seaports. By the 1860s, the service was known as the U.
S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue-Marine fell into disuse; the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury; as one of the country's five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. The Coast Guard has 40,992 men and women on active duty, 7,000 reservists, 31,000 auxiliarists, 8,577 full-time civilian employees, for a total workforce of 87,569; the Coast Guard maintains an extensive fleet of 243 coastal and ocean-going patrol ships, tenders and icebreakers called "cutters", 1650 smaller boats, as well as an extensive aviation division consisting of 201 helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. While the U. S. Coast Guard is the smallest of the U. S. military service branches in terms of membership, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the world's 12th largest naval force; the Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions.
The three roles are: Maritime safety Maritime security Maritime stewardshipWith a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself." The eleven statutory missions as defined by law are divided into homeland security missions and non-homeland security missions: Ice operations, including the International Ice Patrol Living marine resources Marine environmental protection Marine safety Aids to navigation Search and rescue Defense readiness Maritime law enforcement Migrant interdiction Ports and coastal security Drug interdiction See National Search and Rescue Committee See Joint Rescue Coordination CentersWhile the U.
S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue is not the oldest search and rescue organization in the world, it is one of the Coast Guard's best-known operations; the National Search and Rescue Plan designates the Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue; the two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators. Located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center is the sole U. S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, radiological and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories.
In addition to gathering and distributing spill/incident information for Federal On Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution and safety incidents in the nation's ports. The National Maritime Center is the merchant mariner credentialing authority for the USCG under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. To ensure a safe and environmentally sound marine transportation system, the mission of the NMC is to issue credentials to qualified mariners in the United States maritime jurisdiction.
The five uniformed services that make up the U. S. Armed Forces are defined in Title 10 of the U. S. Code: The term "armed forces" means the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard; the Coast Guard is further defined by Title 14 of the United States Code: The Coast Guar