Palomar Mountain is a mountain ridge in the Peninsular Ranges in northern San Diego County. It is famous as the location of the Palomar Observatory and Hale Telescope, known for the Palomar Mountain State Park; the Luiseno Indian name for Palomar Mountain was "Paauw" and High Point was called "Wikyo."The Spanish name "Palomar", in English meaning "pigeon roost," comes from the Spanish colonial era in Alta California when Palomar Mountain was known as the home of band-tailed pigeons. During the 1890s, the human population was sufficient to support three public schools, it was a popular summer resort for Southern California, with three hotels in operation part of the time, a tent city in Doane Valley each summer. Palomar Mountain is most famous as the home of the Hale Telescope; the 200-inch telescope was the world's largest and most important telescope from 1949 until 1992. The observatory consists of three large telescopes, it uses. Palomar Mountain is the location of a California State Park. There are campgrounds for vacationers, a campground for local school children until the San Diego Unified School District was forced to close it due to state budget cuts.
The park averages 70,000 visitors annually. The campgrounds in the park were temporarily due to state budget cuts; the park was among 70 California State Parks threatened by budget cuts in fiscal years 2011-2012 and 2012-2013, but the park and the campgrounds remain open. Palomar Mountain in the state park area, is densely wooded with abundant oak and conifer tree species. Ferns are abundant everywhere in the shady forest; the forest is supported by annual precipitation totals in excess of 30 inches. Beginning in the 1920s a lookout tower has been present on Boucher Hill on Palomar Mountain; the tower had been active until it was abandoned in 1983 and was reactivated when the FFLA began manning it in 2012. Boucher Hill sees more than 11,000 visitors a season; the tower closes in early December. During this period the tower is staffed 7 days a week from 9am -5pm. Doane Valley, located within the State Park, is home to the Camp Palomar Outdoor School for 6th grade students in the San Diego Unified School District.
At the base of Palomar Mountain on highway S6 is Oak Knoll Campground known as Palomar Gardens. In the 1950s and 1960s, Palomar Gardens was made famous by its owner and resident, UFO contactee George Adamski. Adamski had a self-built, wooden observatory at Palomar Gardens and photographed objects in the night sky that he claimed were UFOs. Adamski co-authored the bestselling Flying Saucers Have Landed in 1953, about his alleged alien encounter experiences, in particular his meetings with a friendly "Space Brother" from Venus named Orthon; the 1977 film The Crater Lake Monster had many scenes filmed on Palomar Mountain, including scenes shot at the summit restaurant, but not the scenes of the monster in a lake. High Point, is in the Cleveland National Forest, in the Palomar Mountain range is one of the highest peaks in San Diego County, at 6,140 feet, surpassed by Cuyamaca Peak and Hot Springs Mountain, they are dwarfed by the higher 11,500 feet San Bernardino Mountains a short distance to the north, in San Bernardino County and Riverside County and the 14,500 feet high Mount Whitney some 250 mi farther north.
High Point is located two miles east of the observatory. However, it is not accessible by the public from that direction as the observatory itself, adjacent land are private property, the road to High Point from the observatory is blocked by a permanently closed gate, it may be reached via Palomar Divide Truck Trail, a dirt road that starts off highway 79 near Warner Springs, California. The trip is 13 miles one way with 3000 ft of elevation gain via Palomar Divide Truck Trail. There is an operational USFS fire lookout on High Point, built in 1964, it is 70' tall fire tower in California. It was brought back into service in 2009 and is staffed by the FFLA. Other local peaks include: Birch Hill Boucher Hill. South Grade Road, the stretch of San Diego County Route S6 going from State Route 76 to the summit, is popular among motorcycle riders and sports car drivers due to its challenging nature. According to fire department records, there have been 26 reported motorcycle injury accidents on the mountain in 2005.
In 2004, the figure was 23. In 2003 there were 26. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Palomar Mountain has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps. Annual precipitation on the mountain averages about 30 inches falling between October and March. Snow falls during cold winter storms. Summers are dry, except for occasional thunderstorms in late July to early September; the humid climate supports woods of oak, pine and cedar on large swaths of the mountain. The upper elevations of the Palomar Mountain Range have notably different habitats than its lower elevation foothills; the lower regions are in the California montane chaparral and woodlands sub-ecoregion, adapted to the xeric/dry Mediterranean climate with chaparral and woodlands flora. The higher regions are in the California mixed evergreen forest sub-ecoregion, with California black oaks, closed-
Cleveland National Forest
Cleveland National Forest encompasses 460,000 acres of chaparral, with a few riparian areas. A warm dry mediterranean climate prevails over the Forest, it is the southernmost National forest of California. It is administered by the United States Forest Service, a government agency within the United States Department of Agriculture, it is divided into the Descanso and Trabuco Ranger Districts and is located in the counties of San Diego and Orange. Cleveland National Forest was created on July 1, 1908 with the consolidation of Trabuco Canyon National Reserve and San Jacinto National Reserve by President Theodore Roosevelt and named after former president Grover Cleveland, it is headquartered in San Diego. The Cleveland National Forest was the site of both of the largest wildfires in California history, the 2003 Cedar Fire, the Santiago Canyon Fire of 1889. Both fires consumed many sections of the area, endangered many animal species as well. Trabuco Ranger District – the northernmost area Consists of most of the Santa Ana Mountains and is bisected by the Ortega Highway, which runs from San Juan Capistrano to Lake Elsinore.
Its northern border is Corona. Palomar Ranger District – near the cities of Escondido and Ramona Includes the "Highway to the Stars" from State Route 76 to the top of Palomar Mountain. Descanso Ranger District – east of AlpineIncludes Sunrise Highway, a National Scenic Byway. A National Forest Adventure Pass is required for parking in designated areas of the Cleveland National Forest as well as other National Forests in Southern California, may be obtained from local merchants, visitor centers, or online. Available on the Cleveland National Forest Official Site under Current Conditions are road, picnic area, trail closures. "Law Enforcement Activities" are a common reason given for closures in the southern portion of the forest. These closures are implemented to limit back road access in hopes of circumnavigating US Border Patrol checkpoints. Bear Valley Road coming up from Buckman Springs, Kitchen Creek Road and Thing Valley Road are among routes that are restricted. Popular activities include picnic areas, hiking through the mountains on foot, exploring on horseback, trail mountain biking, camping overnight or driving on the Sunrise Scenic Highway.
The Forest includes Corral Canyon and Wildomar Off-Highway Vehicle Areas. Besides climbers and wildlife advocates, the Forest accommodates the needs of telecommunications companies, campers, off-road-vehicle enthusiasts, horse riders and others. Campgrounds – The Cleveland National Forest has campgrounds available at the Descanso and Trabuco Ranger District. Sites serve 6-8 persons and 2 vehicles. Group camping – Group campgrounds are available. Remote camping – Visitor's permits are required. Sunset Trail - Sunset Trail is a 4.6 mile loop trail accessible from Meadows Trailhead off Sunrise Highway, mile marker 19.1. The trail, which offers several connection options, winds through pine forest leading one to open meadows and small lakes, a popular lookout to the Pacific Ocean; the surrounding habitat supports numerous flora and fauna including native black oaks, Engelmann oaks, giant Jeffrey pines, Acorn Woodpeckers and turkey vultures. Dogs are not allowed off leash. Mount Laguna Observatory There are two operational fire lookout towers in the Cleveland National Forest.
High Point Lookout, Cleveland National Forest, Palomar Mountain Los Pinos Lookout, Cleveland National Forest, near Lake Morena Boucher Hill Lookout: While this fire lookout tower is on Palomar Mountain, it sits inside the Palomar Mountain State Park and not the Cleveland National Forest. It is an operational tower and works in conjunction with the USFS but is owned by the State of California and is an historic building. There are four official wilderness areas in Cleveland National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. One of them extends into land, managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Agua Tibia Wilderness Hauser Wilderness Pine Creek Wilderness San Mateo Canyon Wilderness California chaparral and woodlands California montane chaparral and woodlands California oak woodlands Cleveland National Forest Official Site In-depth article by the San Diego Historical Society Southern California Trails at Local Hikes The Nature Conservancy: Santa Ana Mountains Santa Ana Mountains Wild Heritage Project Center For Biological Diversity Santa Ana Mountains Natural History Association
A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism; these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode through the action of rivers, weather conditions, glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level; these colder climates affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing; the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m. There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a mountain is defined as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, whilst the official UK government's definition of a mountain, for the purposes of access, is a summit of 600 metres or higher. In addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 or 500 feet. At one time the U.
S. Board on Geographic Names defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, but has abandoned the definition since the 1970s. Any similar landform lower. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US; the UN Environmental Programme's definition of "mountainous environment" includes any of the following: Elevation of at least 2,500 m. Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, 14% of Africa; as a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. There are three main types of mountains: volcanic and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth's crust move and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features; the height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, forms magma that reaches the surface; when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines; the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US. Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust "floats" on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle, thus the continental crust is much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may be recumbent and overturned folds; the Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane; when rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block horsts; the intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley; these areas occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion which wear the uplifted area down. Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Glacial processes produce characteristic landforms, such as pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, bowl-shaped cirques that can contai
North Fortuna Mountain
North Fortuna Mountain is a 1,291-foot mountain located in Mission Trails Regional Park in San Diego, California. The mountain is the northern most of the five peaks that dominate the center of Mission Trails Regional Park. Due to the surrounding lower mesa topography, North Fortuna is visible to those traveling on nearby Interstate 15 through Marine Corps Air Station Miramar and those on State Route 52 over the Mission Trails Summit between San Diego and Santee, California. There are several routes to the summit of North Fortuna Mountain. More popular routes being those that leave from the area around the Old Mission Dam and proceed up the saddle between North Fortuna and its smaller neighbor South Fortuna before turning to the north up the summit ridge to the North Fortuna Summit; the summit affords those that make it to the top 360-degree views of San Diego, Santee, MCAS Miramar as well as other landmarks such as Cowles Mountain to the immediate south and the Cuyamaca Peak and the Cuyamaca Mountains to the east
Lyons Peak is a prominent mountain located in San Diego County. The top of the mountain is enclosed in an rectangular patch of the Cleveland National Forest. An old fire lookout is located on the top. There is no easy access to the summit, it is surrounded by private property