Cyanogen is the chemical compound with the formula 2. It is a toxic gas with a pungent odor; the molecule is a pseudohalogen. Cyanogen molecules consist of two CN groups – analogous to diatomic halogen molecules, such as Cl2, but far less oxidizing; the two cyano groups are bonded together at their carbon atoms: N≡C−C≡N, although other isomers have been detected. The name is used for the CN radical, hence is used for compounds such as cyanogen bromide. Cyanogen is the anhydride of oxamide: H2NCCNH2 → NCCN + 2 H2Oalthough oxamide is manufactured from cyanogen by hydrolysis: NCCN + 2 H2O → H2NCCNH2 Cyanogen is generated from cyanide compounds. One laboratory method entails thermal decomposition of mercuric cyanide: 2 Hg2 → 2 + Hg22Alternatively, one can combine solutions of copper salts with cyanides, an unstable copper cyanide is formed which decomposes into copper cyanide and cyanogen. 2 CuSO4 + 4 KCN → 2 + 2 CuCN + 2 K2SO4Industrially, it is created by the oxidation of hydrogen cyanide using chlorine over an activated silicon dioxide catalyst or nitrogen dioxide over a copper salt.
It is formed when nitrogen and acetylene are reacted by an electrical spark or discharge. Cyanogen is NCCN. There are less stable isomers. Isocyanogen is NCNC, diisocyanogen is CNNC, diazodicarbon is CCNN. Paracyanogen is a polymer of cyanogen, it can be best prepared by heating mercuric cyanide. It can be prepared by heating silver cyanide, silver cyanate, cyanogen iodide or cyanuric iodide, it can be prepared by the polymerization of cyanogen at 300 to 500 °C in the presence of trace impurities. Paracyanogen can be converted back to cyanogen by heating to 800 °C. Based on experimental evidence, the structure of this polymeric material is thought to be rather irregular, with most of the carbon atoms being of sp2 type and localized domains of π conjugation. Cyanogen was first synthesized in 1815 by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, who determined its empirical formula and named it. Gay-Lussac coined the word "cyanogène" from the Greek words κυανός and γεννάω, because cyanide was first isolated by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele from the pigment "Prussian blue".
By the 1850s, cyanogen soap was used by photographers to remove silver stains from their hands. It attained importance with the growth of the fertilizer industry in the late 19th century and remains an important intermediate in the production of many fertilizers, it is used as a stabilizer in the production of nitrocellulose. In 1910 a spectroscopic analysis of Halley's Comet found cyanogen in the comet's tail, which led to public fear that the Earth would be poisoned as it passed through the tail; because of the diffuse nature of the tail, there was no effect when the planet passed through it. Like other cyanides, cyanogen is toxic, as it undergoes reduction to cyanide, which poisons the cytochrome c oxidase complex, thus interrupting the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. Cyanogen gas is an irritant to the eyes and respiratory system. Inhalation can lead to headache, rapid pulse, vomiting, loss of consciousness and death, depending on exposure. Lethal dose through inhalation ranges from 100 to 150 milligrams.
Inhalation of 900 ppm over a period of 10 minutes is considered lethal. Cyanogen produces the second-hottest-known natural flame with a temperature of over 4,525 °C when it burns in oxygen. Pseudohalogen National Pollutant Inventory - Cyanide compounds fact sheet PhysOrg.com CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards
Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency is a regulatory body of the Brazilian government, created in 1999 during President Fernando Henrique Cardoso's term of office. It is responsible for the regulation and approval of pharmaceutical drugs, sanitary standards and regulation of the food industry; the agency bills itself as "an independently financially autonomous" regulatory body. It is administered by a five-member collegiate board of directors, who oversee five thematic directorates, assisted by a five-tier oversight structure. Since September 2018 the agency is headed by William Dib. Brazil is the world's largest consumer of pesticides; these pesticides are used in the production of soy and corn. The number of approved pesticides increased "rapidly" between 2015 and 2019. RT reported in 2019 that ANVISA had relaxed pesticide regulations and that the approval process had been accelerated as within the first seven months of the year 262 new pesticides were approved, 82 of them classified as "extremely toxic".
Teresa Cristina, the agriculture minister, noted that "there is no general liberation" of new pesticide registrations and no reason for concern when pesticides are used as instructed. Regulation of therapeutic goods Epidemic Intelligence Service World Health Organization
The Eight Great Yakṣa Generals, or the Eight Yakṣa Generals are guardian deities in Buddhism. They are guardian of the north and king of the yakṣas. In East Asia, they are variously known as the Eight Great Yakṣas, the Eight Great Heavenly Kings, the Eight Brothers of Vaiśravaṇa; the term yakṣarākṣasa has been used as a general term to denote the many classes of spirits in Indian mythology, combining the words yakṣa and rākṣasa. According to Buddhist mythology, Vaiśravaṇa is the chief of these beings, long ago dwelt together with them in the realm of darkness; when Vaiśravaṇa converted to Buddhism, the many demonic spirits under his jurisdiction assumed the role of devotees to the Buddha. Malevolent beings, their conversion led to their deification as benevolent guardian deities. Among the many yakṣas under Vaiśravaṇa's rule, the Eight Great Yakṣa Generals are ranked at the top of the hierarchy. Always at Vaiśravaṇa's command, these deities command 36,000 yakṣas that serve their king and are said to protect those who venerate them.
Beyond the Sunset is a Blackmore's Night compilation album released in 2004 through Steamhammer. It is named after the song "Beyond the Sunset" by Blackmore’s Night from their 1999 album Under a Violet Moon; this compilation was derived from their four studio albums released at that point except for one unreleased track. The album won the New Age Reporter Lifestyle Music Award as the Best Vocal Album. Songs are except where noted. "Once in a Million Years" – 4:33 "Be Mine Tonight" – 2:55 "Wish You Were Here" – 5:06 "Waiting Just for You" – 3:18 "Durch den Wald zum Bach Haus" – 2:35 "Ghost of a Rose" – 5:43 "Spirit of the Sea" – 4:53 "I Still Remember" – 5:42 "Castles and Dreams" – 3:36 "Beyond the Sunset" – 3:47 "Again Someday" – 1:43 "Diamonds and Rust" – 4:54 "Now and Then" – 3:15 "All Because of You" – 3:34 "Written in the Stars" – 4:49 "Morning Star" – 4:41 "Play Minstrel Play" – 3:59 "Minstrel Hall" – 2:36 "Under a Violet Moon" – 4:23Disc 1. Disc 1. Disc 1. Disc 1. Disc 1.
Japanese Best Dirt Horse is a title awarded annually by the Japan Racing Association. Since 1987 the honor has been part of the JRA Awards. Most successful horse: Wing Arrow – 1998, 2000 Admire Don – 2003, 2004 Kane Hekili – 2005, 2008 Espoir City – 2009, 2010Leading trainer: Katsumi Minai – Wing Arrow Hiroyoshi Matsuda – Admire Don Sei Ishizaka – Alondite, Vermilion Katsuhiko Sumii - Kane Hekili Akio Adachi – Espoir City Kunihide Matsuda – Kurofune, Belshazzar Leading owner: Makoto Kaneko – Wing Arrow, Kane Hekili Horse racing in Japan: JRA Awards
Mazhar Zaidi is a British Pakistani Communications Specialist, CVE activist, digital content and film producer, journalist and documentary director. He has produced several issue based campaigns, he has developed and delivered large international projects on CVE and produced digital campaigns on rights based issues for leading international non-governmental organisations including UKAid, IRC, CWS, creative Associates and Asia Foundation. He has written extensively on extremist groups in the sub-continent, he is best known for producing the 2013 Pakistani film Zinda Bhaag, which earned him international recognition and accolades and became the country's first entry to Academy Awards after a gap of over 50 years. The film won many international awards. One of his films Gardaab, set in extremist violence prone neighbourhoods of Karachi, screened at London Indian Film Festival in June 2017 and Jeewan Hathi was screened at Locarno Film Festival in Switzerland in August 2017, he along with his partners Meenu Gaur and Farjad Nabi recently curated an art exhibition titled Art SabKa focussing on contemporary art inspired by Pakistani Cinema.
Before starting to make feature films, Zaidi was a well known journalist and producer at BBC Urdu UK. Zaidi has been working as a filmmaker/journalist for over 25 years, he served as a senior producer at BBC World in London for over 11 years and produced and directed many documentaries and programs for leading international TV networks including BBC, German TV channel, ARD, ZDF, Sky News and other independent media houses. In 2006, he launched a project with BBC Urdu online and a group of community based filmmakers working with the NGO Interactive Resource Center in Pakistan; the successful project produced more than 16 short documentaries and directed by young filmmakers from small towns across Pakistan. As a filmmaker and independent documentary maker Zaidi has been involved in a number of documentary projects that screened at international film festivals awhile his projects were broadcast by international channels including, BBC Four, ARD and ZDF, his documentary Nar Narman about an Urdu language Pakistani gay-poet, gave him critical acclaim when it was screened at London's BFI L&G Film Festival in 2007.
Zaidi started his career with producing number of documentaries and videos, at different channels and platforms. But established himself as a recognised producer after producing 2013 Pakistani film Zinda Bhaag, Under his own film production Matteela Films which earned him an critical acclaimed and recognition in film world. Zinda Bhaag became one of the highest-grossing of Pakistan and has won many accolades and recognition including an official selection for Best Foreign Language Film at 86th Academy Awards however was out of the competition for the final race. Zinda Bhaag was only the third Pakistani film in 50 years to get recognition at the Oscars, after 1959's The Day Shall Dawn and 1963's The Veil. Zaidi worked independently contributing a chapter to West and the Muslim World a publication by Transnational Institute, Germany he exhibited as a Communication Consultant in non-governmental sector and served as a director, short video documentary for the British Council where his work was developing and producing a short video for the International Inspiration, London 2012's international sports legacy program.
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