"Real life" is a phrase used in literature to distinguish between the real world and fictional or idealized worlds, in acting to distinguish between performers and the characters they portray. More it has become a popular term on the Internet to describe events, people and interactions occurring offline, it is used as a metaphor to distinguish life in a vocational setting as opposed to an academic one. When used to distinguish from fictional worlds or universes against the consensus reality of the reader, the term has a long history: Authors, as a rule, attempt to select and portray types met with in their entirety, but these types are more real than real life itself. In her 1788 work, Original Stories from Real Life; as phrased by Gary Kelly, writing about the work, "The phrase ‘real life’ strengthens ‘original’, excluding both the artificial and the fictional or imaginary."Similarly, the phrase can be used to distinguish an actor from a character, e.g. "In real life, he has a British accent" or "In real life, he lives in Los Angeles."
There is a related but distinct usage among role-players and historical reenactors, to distinguish the fantasy or historical context from the actual world and the role-player or actor from the character, e.g. "What do you do in real life?" or "Where do you live in real life?" On the Internet, "real life" refers to life offline. Online, the initialism "IRL" stands for "in real life", with the meaning "not on the Internet". For example, while Internet users may speak of having "met" someone that they have contacted via online chat or in an online gaming context, to say that they met someone "in real life" is to say that they encountered them at a physical location. Some, arguing that the Internet is part of real life, prefer to use "away from the keyboard", e.g. the documentary TPB AFK. Some sociologists engaged in the study of the Internet have predicted that someday, a distinction between online and offline worlds may seem "quaint", noting that certain types of online activity, such as sexual intrigues, have made a full transition to complete legitimacy and "reality".
The initialism "RL" stands for "real life" and "IRL" for "in real life." For example, one can speak of "meeting IRL" someone whom one has met online, such as in "LMIRL". It may be used to express an inability to use the Internet for a time due to "RL problems"; some internet users use the idioms "face time", "meatspace", or "meat world", which contrast with the term "cyberspace". "Meatspace" has appeared in science fiction literature. Some early uses of the term include a post to the Usenet newsgroup austin.public-net in 1993 and an article in The Seattle Times about John Perry Barlow in 1995. The term entered the Oxford English Dictionary in 2000; the phrase is used to distinguish academic life from work in other sectors, in a manner similar to the term "real world". A person with experience in "real life" or the "real world" has experience beyond book-learning, it may be used pejoratively, to distinguish other insular subcultures, work environments, or lifestyles from more traditional social and professional activities.
The terms "real life" and "the real world" may be used to describe adulthood and the adult world as distinct from childhood and adolescence. Meatspace from the Jargon File. Meatspace from Oxford Dictionaries Online "Origin of the term meatspace?". Retrieved 2008-04-02. "Word Spy - meatspace". Retrieved 2008-04-02
In computing, an avatar is the graphical representation of the user or the user's alter ego or character. An icon or figure representing a particular person in a video game, Internet forum, etc, it may take either a three-dimensional form, as in games or virtual worlds, or a two-dimensional form as an icon in Internet forums and other online communities. Avatar images have been referred to as "picons" in the past, though the usage of this term is uncommon now, it can refer to a text construct found on early systems such as MUDs. The term "avatar" can refer to the personality connected with the screen name, or handle, of an Internet user; the word avatar originates in Hinduism, where it stands for the "descent" of a deity in a terrestrial form. The earliest use of the word avatar in a computer game was the 1979 PLATO role-playing game Avatar; the use of the term avatar for the on-screen representation of the user was coined in 1985 by Richard Garriott for the computer game Ultima IV: Quest of the Avatar.
In this game, Garriott desired the player's character to be his earth self manifested into the virtual world. Garriott did this because he wanted the real player to be responsible for the character's in game actions due to the ethical parables he designed into the story. Only if you were playing "yourself" Garriott felt, could you be judged based on your character's actions; because of its ethically-nuanced, story-driven approach, he took the Hindu word associated with a deity's manifestation on earth in physical form, applied it to a player manifesting in the game world. The term avatar was used in 1986 by Chip Morningstar in Lucasfilm's online role-playing game Habitat. Another early use of the term was in the paper role-playing game Shadowrun. In Norman Spinrad's novel Songs from the Stars, the term avatar is used in a description of a computer generated virtual experience. In the story, humans receive messages from an alien galactic network that wishes to share knowledge and experience with other advanced civilizations through "songs".
The humans build a "galactic receiver" that describes itself: The galactic receiver is programmed to derive species specific full sensory input data from standard galactic meaning code equations. By controlling your sensorium input along species specific parameters galactic songs astral back-project you into approximation of total involvement in artistically recreated broadcast realities... From the last page of the chapter titled "The Galactic Way" in a description of an experience, being relayed via the galactic receiver to the main characters: You stand in a throng of multifleshed being, mind avatared in all its matter, on a broad avenue winding through a city of blue trees with bright red foliage and living buildings growing from the soil in a multitude of forms; the use of avatar to mean online virtual bodies was popularised by Neal Stephenson in his cyberpunk novel Snow Crash. In Snow Crash, the term avatar was used to describe the virtual simulation of the human form in the Metaverse, a fictional virtual-reality application on the Internet.
Social status within the Metaverse was based on the quality of a user's avatar, as a detailed avatar showed that the user was a skilled hacker and programmer while the less talented would buy off-the-shelf models in the same manner a beginner would today. Stephenson wrote in the "Acknowledgments" to Snow Crash: The idea of a "virtual reality" such as the Metaverse is by now widespread in the computer-graphics community and is being used in a number of different ways; the particular vision of the Metaverse as expressed in this novel originated from idle discussion between me and Jaime Taaffe... The words avatar and Metaverse are my inventions, which I came up with when I decided that existing words were too awkward to use... after the first publication of Snow Crash, I learned that the term avatar has been in use for a number of years as part of a virtual reality system called Habitat...in addition to avatars, Habitat includes many of the basic features of the Metaverse as described in this book.
Despite the widespread use of avatars, it is unknown which Internet forums were the first to use them. Avatars on Internet forums serve the purpose of representing users and their actions, personalizing their contributions to the forum, may represent different parts of their persona, interests or social status in the forum; the traditional avatar system used on most Internet forums is a small square-shaped area close to the user's forum post, where the avatar is placed in order for other users to identify who has written the post without having to read their username. Some forums allow the user to upload an avatar image that may have been designed by the user or acquired from elsewhere. Other forums allow the user to select an avatar from a preset list or use an auto-discovery algorithm to extract one from the user's homepage; some avatars are animated. In such animated avatars, the number of images as well as the time in which they are replayed vary considerably. Other avatar systems exist, such as on Gaia Online, WeeWorld, Frenzoo or Meez, where a pixelized representation of a person or creature is used, which can be customized to the user's wishes.
There are avatar systems where a representation is created using a person's face with customi
Cybersex is the fourth studio album by American hip hop recording artist Blackbear, released on November 27, 2017, by Beartrap, Alamo Records, Interscope Records. It was preceded by two official singles. Blackbear released his fifth extended play, Salt on April 2, 2017, he released his third solo studio album Digital Druglord on April 20 to critical acclaim, charting at No. 19 on the Canadian Albums Chart and at No. 14 on the U. S. Billboard 200. While touring as a supporting act on American rock band Fall Out Boy's The Mania Tour in North America, Blackbear began writing and recording his next musical project. Blackbear first revealed Cybersex on his soundcloud bio during July which many people did not see until his official reveal on August 13, 2017; the first single, "Playboy Shit", featuring American rapper Lil Aaron, was released on October 6, 2017 on PornHub. "Playboy Shit" was released for digital download and streaming on October 13. "Up In This", with American singer Tinashe was released as the second single on October 26.
The first promotional single, "Bright Pink Tims", featuring American rapper Cam'ron, was released on October 20. On November 13, he released the second promotional single, "Gucci Linen", featuring American rapper 2 Chainz. Credits were adapted from Tidal. Notes ^ signifies a co-producer. For example, "Playboy Shit" is stylized as "playboy shit". Credits were adapted from Tidal
Instant messaging technology is a type of online chat that offers real-time text transmission over the Internet. A LAN messenger operates in a similar way over a local area network. Short messages are transmitted between two parties, when each user chooses to complete a thought and select "send"; some IM applications can use push technology to provide real-time text, which transmits messages character by character, as they are composed. More advanced instant messaging can add file transfer, clickable hyperlinks, Voice over IP, or video chat. Non-IM types of chat include multicast transmission referred to as "chat rooms", where participants might be anonymous or might be known to each other. Instant messaging systems tend to facilitate connections between specified known users. Depending on the IM protocol, the technical architecture can be client-server. By 2010, instant messaging over the Web was in sharp decline, in favor of messaging features on social networks; the most popular IM platforms, such as AIM, closed in 2017, Windows Live Messenger was merged into Skype.
Today, most instant messaging takes place on messaging apps which by 2014 had more users than social networks. Instant messaging is a set of communication technologies used for text-based communication between two or more participants over the Internet or other types of networks. IM–chat happens in real-time. Of importance is that online chat and instant messaging differ from other technologies such as email due to the perceived quasi-synchrony of the communications by the users; some systems permit messages to be sent to users not then'logged on', thus removing some differences between IM and email. IM allows effective and efficient communication, allowing immediate receipt of acknowledgment or reply; however IM is not supported by transaction control. In many cases, instant messaging includes added features which can make it more popular. For example, users may see each other via webcams, or talk directly for free over the Internet using a microphone and headphones or loudspeakers. Many applications allow file transfers, although they are limited in the permissible file-size.
It is possible to save a text conversation for reference. Instant messages are logged in a local message history, making it similar to the persistent nature of emails. Though the term dates from the 1990s, instant messaging predates the Internet, first appearing on multi-user operating systems like Compatible Time-Sharing System and Multiplexed Information and Computing Service in the mid-1960s; some of these systems were used as notification systems for services like printing, but were used to facilitate communication with other users logged into the same machine. As networks developed, the protocols spread with the networks; some of these used a peer-to-peer protocol. The Zephyr Notification Service was invented at MIT's Project Athena in the 1980s to allow service providers to locate and send messages to users. Parallel to instant messaging were early online chat facilities, the earliest of, Talkomatic on the PLATO system, which allowed 5 people to chat on a 512x512 plasma display. During the bulletin board system phenomenon that peaked during the 1980s, some systems incorporated chat features which were similar to instant messaging.
The first such general-availability commercial online chat service was the CompuServe CB Simulator in 1980, created by CompuServe executive Alexander "Sandy" Trevor in Columbus, Ohio. Early instant messaging programs were real-time text, where characters appeared as they were typed; this includes the Unix "talk" command line program, popular in the 1980s and early 1990s. Some BBS chat programs used a similar interface. Modern implementations of real-time text exist in instant messengers, such as AOL's Real-Time IM as an optional feature. In the latter half of the 1980s and into the early 1990s, the Quantum Link online service for Commodore 64 computers offered user-to-user messages between concurrently connected customers, which they called "On-Line Messages", "FlashMail." (Quantum Link became America Online and made AOL Instant Messenger. While the Quantum Link client software ran on a Commodore 64, using only the Commodore's PETSCII text-graphics, the screen was visually divided into sections and OLMs would appear as a yellow bar saying "Message From:" and the name of the sender along with the message across the top of whatever the user was doing, presented a list of options for responding.
As such, it could be considered a type of graphical user interface, albeit much more primitive than the Unix and Macintosh based GUI IM software. OLMs were what Q-Link called "Plus Services" meaning they charged an extra per-minute fee on top of the monthly Q-Link access costs. Modern, Internet-wide, GUI-based messaging clients as they are known today, began to take off in the mid-1990s with PowWow, ICQ, AOL Instant Messenger. Similar functionalit
A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams its image in real time to or through a computer to a computer network. When "captured" by the computer, the video stream may be saved, viewed or sent on to other networks travelling through systems such as the internet, e-mailed as an attachment; when sent to a remote location, the video stream may be viewed or on sent there. Unlike an IP camera, a webcam is connected by a USB cable, or similar cable, or built into computer hardware, such as laptops; the term "webcam" may be used in its original sense of a video camera connected to the Web continuously for an indefinite time, rather than for a particular session supplying a view for anyone who visits its web page over the Internet. Some of them, for example, those used as online traffic cameras, are expensive, rugged professional video cameras. Webcams are known for their low manufacturing cost and their high flexibility, making them the lowest-cost form of videotelephony. Despite the low cost, the resolution offered at present is rather impressive, with low-end webcams offering resolutions of 320×240, medium webcams offering 640×480 resolution, high-end webcams offering 1280×720 or 1920×1080 resolution.
They have become a source of security and privacy issues, as some built-in webcams can be remotely activated by spyware. The most popular use of webcams is the establishment of video links, permitting computers to act as videophones or videoconference stations. Other popular uses include security surveillance, computer vision, video broadcasting, for recording social videos; the video streams provided by webcams can be used for a number of purposes, each using appropriate software: Most modern webcams are capable of capturing arterial pulse rate by the use of a simple algorithmic trick. Researchers claim. Webcams may be installed at places such as childcare centres, offices and private areas to monitor security and general activity. Webcams have been used for augmented reality experiences online. One such function has the webcam act as a "magic mirror" to allow an online shopper to view a virtual item on themselves; the Webcam Social Shopper is one example of software. Webcam can be added to instant messaging, text chat services such as AOL Instant Messenger, VoIP services such as Skype, one-to-one live video communication over the Internet has now reached millions of mainstream PC users worldwide.
Improved video quality has helped webcams encroach on traditional video conferencing systems. New features such as automatic lighting controls, real-time enhancements, automatic face tracking and autofocus, assist users by providing substantial ease-of-use, further increasing the popularity of webcams. Webcam features and performance can vary by program, computer operating system, by the computer's processor capabilities. Video calling support has been added to several popular instant messaging programs. Webcams can be used as security cameras. Software is available to allow PC-connected cameras to watch for movement and sound, recording both when they are detected; these recordings can be saved to the computer, e-mailed, or uploaded to the Internet. In one well-publicised case, a computer e-mailed images of the burglar during the theft of the computer, enabling the owner to give police a clear picture of the burglar's face after the computer had been stolen. Unauthorized access of webcams can present significant privacy issues.
In December 2011, Russia announced that 290,000 Webcams would be installed in 90,000 polling stations to monitor the Russian presidential election, 2012. Webcams can be used to take video clips and still pictures. Various software tools in wide use can be employed for this, such as PicMaster, Photo Booth, or Cheese. For a more complete list see Comparison of webcam software. Special software can use the video stream from a webcam to assist or enhance a user's control of applications and games. Video features, including faces, shapes and colors can be observed and tracked to produce a corresponding form of control. For example, the position of a single light source can be tracked and used to emulate a mouse pointer, a head-mounted light would enable hands-free computing and would improve computer accessibility; this can be applied to games, providing additional control, improved interactivity and immersiveness. FreeTrack is a free webcam motion-tracking application for Microsoft Windows that can track a special head-mounted model in up to six degrees of freedom and output data to mouse, keyboard and FreeTrack-supported games.
By removing the IR filter of the webcam, IR LEDs can be used, which has the advantage of being invisible to the naked eye, removing a distraction from the user. TrackIR is a commercial version of this technology; the EyeToy for the PlayStation 2, PlayStation Eye for the PlayStation 3, the Xbox Live Vision camera and Kinect motion sensor for the Xbox 360 and are color digital cameras that have been used as control input devices by some games. Small webcam-based PC games are available as either standalone executables or inside web browser windows using Adobe Flash. With very-low-light capability, a few specific models of webcams are popular to photograph the night sky by astronomers and astro photographers; these are manual-focus cameras and contain an old CCD array instead of comparatively newer CMOS array. The lenses of the cameras are removed and these are attached to telescopes to record images
Mizuko Itō or Mizuko Ito or Mimi Ito is a Japanese cultural anthropologist, a Professor in Residence at the Humanities Research Institute at the University of California, Irvine. Her main professional interest is young people's use of media technology, she has explored the ways in which digital media are changing relationships and communities. Mizuko Ito grew up between the United States and Japan. In Japan, she attended the American School in Japan, she did her undergraduate work at Harvard University, graduating in 1990 with a degree in East Asian studies: her thesis was "Zen and Tea Ritual: A Comparative Analysis."Ito did her graduate work at Stanford University. In 1991, she received a Masters of Arts degree in anthropology. In 1998, she received a Ph. D. from the Department of Education for her dissertation: "Interactive Media for Play: Kids, Computer Games and the Productions of Everyday Life." In 2003, she received a Ph. D. from the Department of Anthropology for her dissertation: "Engineering Play: Children’s Software and the Productions of Everyday Life."Ito lives in Southern California with her husband, Scott Fisher, a virtual reality researcher, their two children.
She keeps a Bento Moblog, a visual record of the school lunches she prepares for her kids. Ito's brother is Joi Director of the MIT Media Lab. With her brother, she hosts Chanpon.org. Ito's main professional interest are connected learning and young people's use of media technology, she has explored the ways in which digital media are changing relationships and communities. With Misa Matsuda and Daisuke Okabe, Ito edited Personal, Pedestrian: Mobile Phones in Japanese Life, she investigated otaku fan culture with collaborators Daisuke Okabe and Izumi Tsuji, which resulted in the book Fandom Unbound: Otaku Culture in a Connected World. Ito is the Research Director of the Digital Media and Learning Hub, a Professor in Residence at University of California, Irvine's Department of Anthropology, Department of Education, Department of Informatics, School of Education, she is the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Chair in Digital Media and Learning. In 2006, Ito received a MacArthur Foundation grant to "observe children's interactions with digital media to get a sense of how they're using the technology."
This work led to creation of the Digital Media and Learning Research Hub and the publication of two books: Hanging Out, Messing Around, Geeking Out and Engineering Play: A Cultural History of Children's Software. Ito is CEO of Connected Camps, a benefit corporation that provides online learning programs in coding and the digital arts. In January 2013, Ito and her collaborators, who include Kris Gutierrez, Sonia Livingstone, Bill Penuel, Jean Rhodes, Katie Salen, Juliet Schor, Julian Sefton-Green, S. Craig Watkins, released Connected Learning: An Agenda for Research and Design, a synthesis report of the Connected Learning Research Network. Mizuko Ito contributed to several books: Ito, Mizuko. "Virtually Embodied: The Reality of Fantasy in a Multi-User Dungeon" in Internet Culture, edited by David Porter. Routledge, 1997. Ito, Daisuke Okabe, Misa Matsuda, Eds. Personal Portable Pedestrian: Mobile Phones in Japanese Life. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2005. Ito, Mizuko. "Introduction." In Networked Publics, edited by Kazys Varnelis, 1-14.
Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2008. Ito, Heather A. Horst, Matteo Bittanti, danah boyd, Becky Herr Stephenson, Patricia G. Lange, C. J. Pascoe, Laura Robinson. Living and Learning with New Media: Summary of Findings from the Digital Youth Project In The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2008. Ito, Mizuko. Engineering Play: A Cultural History of Children's Software. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2009. Ito, Daisuke Okabe, Izumi Tsuji, Eds. Fandom Unbound: Otaku Culture in a Connected World. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012. Ito, Kris Gutiérrez, Sonia Livingstone, Bill Penuel, Jean Rhodes, Katie Salen, Juliet Schor, Julian Sefton-Green, S. Craig Watkins. 2013. Connected Learning: An Agenda for Research and Design. Irvine, CA: Digital Media and Learning Research Hub. Ito, Sonja Baumer, Matteo Bittanti, danah boyd, Rachel Cody, Becky Herr, Heather A. Horst, Patricia G. Lange, Dilan Mahendran, Katynka Martinez et al. Hanging Out, Messing Around, Geeking Out: Kids Living and Learning with New Media.
Cambridge: MIT Press, 2013. ISBN 9780262518543. Digital anthropology Connected learning Ito Faculty Profile, The Bren School of Information and Computer Sciences, University of California Irvine Mizuko "Mimi" Ito's Personal/Professional Site
Julian Dibbell is an American author and technology journalist with a focus on social systems within online communities. Dibbell was born in New York City, he grew up in Claremont and resides in Chicago, Illinois. His uncle is rock critic Robert Christgau, Dibbell has published music criticism, he is a non-resident fellow of the Stanford Center for Internet and Society and he served as George A. Miller Visiting Professor of Media at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, he is a founder of the academic gaming research blog Terra Nova. His 1993 article "A Rape in Cyberspace" detailed attempts of LambdaMOO, an online community, to quantify and deal with lawbreaking in its midst; the article was included in his first book, My Tiny Life: Crime and Passion in a Virtual World. Dibbell has written about Chinese gold farmers for The New York Times Magazine and about griefer culture for "Wired" Magazine, he chronicled his attempt to make a living playing MMORPGs in his second book, Play Money: or, How I Quit My Day Job and Made Millions Trading Virtual Loot.
Dibbell graduated from Yale University, summa cum laude, in 1986. He graduated from University of Chicago Law School in 2014. Dibbell now practices law as an associate in the Business and Technology Sourcing practice of the global law firm Mayer Brown. Dibbell, Julian. My Tiny Life: Crime and Passion in a Virtual World. Owl Books, 1999. ISBN 0-8050-3626-1 Dibbell, Julian. Play Money: or, How I Quit My Day Job and Made Millions Trading Virtual Loot. Basic Books, 2006. ISBN 0-465-01535-2 Dibbell and Clarisse Thorn. Violation: Rape In Gaming. Amazon CreateSpace, 2012. ISBN 1480077453 Official site