Use of force
The use of force, in the context of law enforcement, may be defined as the "amount of effort required by police to compel compliance by an unwilling subject". Use of force doctrines can be employed by law enforcement officers and military personnel on guard duty; the aim of such doctrines is to balance the needs of security with ethical concerns for the rights and well-being of intruders or suspects. Injuries to civilians tend to focus attention on self-defense as a justification and, in the event of death, the notion of justifiable homicide. U. S. military personnel on guard duty are given a "use of force briefing" by the sergeant of the guard before being assigned to their post. For the English law on the use of force in crime prevention, see Self-defence in English law; the Australian position on the use of troops for civil policing is set out by Michael Hood in Calling Out the Troops: Disturbing Trends and Unanswered Questions. Use of force dates back to the beginning of established law enforcement, with a fear that officers would abuse their power.
In today's society this fear still exists and one of the ways to fix this problem is to require police to wear body cameras and to have them turned on during all interactions with civilians. The use of force may be standardized by a use of force continuum, which presents guidelines as to the degree of force appropriate in a given situation. One source identifies five generalized steps, increasing from least use of force to greatest, it is only one side of the model, as it does not give the levels of subject resistance that merit the corresponding increases in force. Each successive level of force is meant to describe an escalating series of actions an officer may take to resolve a situation, the level of force used rises only when a lower level of force would be ineffective in dealing with the situation. Any style of a use of force continuum will start with officer presence, end with the use of deadly force. Presence Verbalization Empty hand control Intermediate weapons Deadly Force Use of force continuums can be further broken down.
On November 12, 1984 Graham, a diabetic, felt an insulin reaction coming on and rushed to the store with a friend to get some orange juice. When the store was too crowded, he and his friend proceeded to go to another friend's house. In the midst of all this, he was being watched by Officer Connor, of the Charlotte City Police Department police department. While on their way to the friend's house, the officer called for backup. After several other officers arrived, one of them handcuffed Graham; when Connor learned that nothing had happened in the convenience store, the officers drove Graham home and released him. Over the course of the encounter, Graham sustained a broken foot, cuts on his wrists, a bruised forehead and an injured shoulder; the Supreme Court held that it was irrelevant whether Connor acted in good faith, because the use of force must be judged based on its objective reasonableness. On October 3, 1974, Officers Elton Hymon and Leslie Wright of the Memphis Police Department were called to respond to a possible burglary.
When they arrived to the scene, a woman standing on the porch began to tell them that she heard glass breaking and that she believed the house next door was being broken into. Officer Hymon went to check, where he saw Edward Garner, fleeing the scene; as Garner was climbing over the gate, Hymon called out "police, halt", when Garner failed to do so, Hymon fatally shot Garner in the back of the head, despite being "reasonably sure" that Garner was unarmed. The Supreme Court held deadly force may be used to prevent the escape of a fleeing felon only if the officer has probable cause to believe that the suspect poses a serious risk to the officer or to others. On April 16, 2004, what was supposed to be known as the "biggest party in history" took place at the annual UC Davis picnic. Due to the large number of participants at this party, people began to illegally park their cars. Sgt. John Wilson demanded. Tickets were issued to the underage drinkers. Wilson called the owner of the apartment complex because of the disturbances.
Wilson was consented by the complex apartment owner to have non-residents to leave the complex. 30 to 40 officers were rounded up with riot gear - including pepper ball guns - to try to disperse the crowd of 1,000 attendees. The officers gathered in front of the complex where 15 to 20 students, including Timothy C. Nelson, were attempting to leave. Officers began to fire pepper-balls, he collapsed and was taken to the hospital much on, where he suffered multiple injuries including temporary blindness and a permanent loss of visual acuity. He endured multiple surgeries to try to repair the injury. Nelson was forced to withdraw from UC Davis; the officers were unable to find any criminal charges against Nelson. The Ninth Circuit held that the use of force was unreasonable and the officers were not entitled to qualified immunity. On July 18, 2014, a West Memphis police officer stopped Donald Rickard for a broken headlight; as the off
Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information. Spies help agencies uncover secret information. Any individual or spy ring, in the service of a government, company or independent operation, can commit espionage; the practice is clandestine, as it is by definition unwelcome and in many cases illegal and punishable by law. Espionage is a method of intelligence gathering which includes information gathering from public sources. Espionage is part of an institutional effort by a government or commercial concern. However, the term tends to be associated with state spying on potential or actual enemies for military purposes. Spying involving corporations is known as industrial espionage. One of the most effective ways to gather data and information about the enemy is by infiltrating the enemy's ranks; this is the job of the spy. Spies can return information concerning the strength of enemy forces, they can find dissidents within the enemy's forces and influence them to defect.
In times of crisis, spies sabotage the enemy in various ways. Counterintelligence is the practice of thwarting enemy intelligence-gathering. All nations have strict laws concerning espionage and the penalty for being caught is severe. However, the benefits gained through espionage are so great that most governments and many large corporations make use of it. Information collection techniques used in the conduct of clandestine human intelligence include operational techniques, asset recruiting, tradecraft. Today, espionage agencies target terrorists as well as state actors. Since 2008, the United States has charged at least 57 defendants for attempting to spy for China. Intelligence services value certain intelligence collection techniques over others; the former Soviet Union, for example, preferred human sources over research in open sources, while the United States has tended to emphasize technological methods such as SIGINT and IMINT. In the Soviet Union, both political and military intelligence officers were judged by the number of agents they recruited.
Espionage agents are trained experts in a targeted field so they can differentiate mundane information from targets of value to their own organizational development. Correct identification of the target at its execution is the sole purpose of the espionage operation. Broad areas of espionage targeting expertise include: Natural resources: strategic production identification and assessment. Agents are found among bureaucrats who administer these resources in their own countries Popular sentiment towards domestic and foreign policies. Agents recruited from field journalistic crews, exchange postgraduate students and sociology researchers Strategic economic strengths. Agents recruited from science and technology academia, commercial enterprises, more from among military technologists Military capability intelligence. Agents are trained by military espionage education facilities, posted to an area of operation with covert identities to minimize prosecution Counterintelligence operations targeting opponents' intelligence services themselves, such as breaching confidentiality of communications, recruiting defectors or moles Although the news media may speak of "spy satellites" and the like, espionage is not a synonym for all intelligence-gathering disciplines.
It is a specific form of human source intelligence. Codebreaking, aircraft or satellite photography, research in open publications are all intelligence gathering disciplines, but none of them is considered espionage. Many HUMINT activities, such as prisoner interrogation, reports from military reconnaissance patrols and from diplomats, etc. are not considered espionage. Espionage is the disclosure of sensitive information to people who are not cleared for that information or access to that sensitive information. Unlike other forms of intelligence collection disciplines, espionage involves accessing the place where the desired information is stored or accessing the people who know the information and will divulge it through some kind of subterfuge. There are exceptions to physical meetings, such as the Oslo Report, or the insistence of Robert Hanssen in never meeting the people who bought his information; the US defines espionage towards itself as "The act of obtaining, transmitting, communicating, or receiving information about the national defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the information may be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation".
Black's Law Dictionary defines espionage as: "... gathering, transmitting, or losing... information related to the national defense". Espionage is a violation of United States law, 18 U. S. C. §§ 792–798 and Article 106a of the Uniform Code of Military Justice". The United States, like most nations, conducts espionage against other nations, under the control of the National Clandestine Service. Britain's espionage activities are controlled by the Secret Intelligence Service. A spy is a person employed to seek out top secret information from a source. Within the United States Intelligence Community, "asset" is a more common usage. A case officer or Special Agent, who may have diplomatic status and directs the human collector. Cutouts are couriers who do not know the case officer but transfer messages. A
Ashlee Vance is an American business columnist and author. He is well known for his biography about Elon Musk entitled Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, the Quest for a Fantastic Future; the book was released on May 19, 2015. Vance was known for writing for The Register from March 2003 to August 2008, but moved to The New York Times in September 2008 and to Bloomberg Businessweek in January 2011. Vance covered companies such as IBM, HP, Dell, writes about a wide range of technology topics, including robots, Segway scooters, the R programming language. In 2007, Vance wrote a book, called Geek Silicon Valley, on the history of the Silicon Valley. In 2015 he published a biography of Elon Musk His writing also appears in such publications as The Economist, Chicago Tribune, CNN.com, The Globe and Mail, the International Herald Tribune, CNET. Vance hosted an audio podcast called Semi-Coherent Computing from 2007–2008, in which he discussed enterprise computing topics such as Datacenter cooling and blade servers, interviewed guests including chip pioneer David Ditzel of Transmeta, Sun Microsystems, Bell Labs.
In 2015, Vance started writing and hosting the "Hello World" video series for Bloomberg, focusing on the tech scene in various countries. In the same year, he published his biography about Elon Musk, the founder of Tesla, SpaceX, PayPal and other tech companies. Vance, Ashlee. Geek Silicon Valley: The Inside Guide To Palo Alto, Menlo Park, Mountain View, Santa Clara, San Jose, San Francisco. Globe Pequot. ISBN 978-0762742394. Vance, Ashlee. Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, the Quest for a Fantastic Future. Harper. ISBN 978-0062301239. Julian Guthrie, another journalist who wrote a book on a tech billionaire and a space project Vance's web site
Open-source software is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. Open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration. Open-source software development generates an more diverse scope of design perspective than any company is capable of developing and sustaining long term. A 2008 report by the Standish Group stated that adoption of open-source software models have resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year for consumers. In the early days of computing and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve the field of computing; the open-source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years 1970-1980. However, academics still developed software collaboratively. For example Donald Knuth in 1979 with the TeX typesetting system or Richard Stallman in 1983 with the GNU operating system.
In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free-software principles. The paper received significant attention in early 1998, was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software; this source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey, Mozilla Firefox and KompoZer. Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundation's free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry, they concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code. The new term they chose was "open source", soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, others; the Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles.
While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves threatened by the concept of distributed software and universal access to an application's source code. A Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that "open source is an intellectual property destroyer. I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business." However, while Free and open-source software has played a role outside of the mainstream of private software development, companies as large as Microsoft have begun to develop official open-source presences on the Internet. IBM, Oracle and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today's competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS; the free-software movement was launched in 1983. In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open-source software as an expression, less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world.
Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition; the most prominent and popular example is the GNU General Public License, which "allows free distribution under the condition that further developments and applications are put under the same licence", thus free. The open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, 1998 in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator. A group of individuals at the session included Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, Tom Paquin, Jamie Zawinski, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Sameer Parekh, Eric Allman, Greg Olson, Paul Vixie, John Ousterhout, Guido van Rossum, Philip Zimmermann, John Gilmore and Eric S. Raymond, they used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the word "free" in English.
Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, since 1969, started the open-source movement, while others do not distinguish between open-source and free software movements. The Free Software Foun
A rootkit is a collection of computer software malicious, designed to enable access to a computer or an area of its software, not otherwise allowed and masks its existence or the existence of other software. The term rootkit is a concatenation of "root" and the word "kit"; the term "rootkit" has negative connotations through its association with malware. Rootkit installation can be automated, or an attacker can install it after having obtained root or Administrator access. Obtaining this access is a result of direct attack on a system, i.e. exploiting a known vulnerability or a password. Once installed, it becomes possible to hide the intrusion as well as to maintain privileged access; the key is the administrator access. Full control over a system means that existing software can be modified, including software that might otherwise be used to detect or circumvent it. Rootkit detection is difficult because a rootkit may be able to subvert the software, intended to find it. Detection methods include using an alternative and trusted operating system, behavioral-based methods, signature scanning, difference scanning, memory dump analysis.
Removal can be complicated or impossible in cases where the rootkit resides in the kernel. When dealing with firmware rootkits, removal may require hardware replacement, or specialized equipment; the term rootkit or root kit referred to a maliciously modified set of administrative tools for a Unix-like operating system that granted "root" access. If an intruder could replace the standard administrative tools on a system with a rootkit, the intruder could obtain root access over the system whilst concealing these activities from the legitimate system administrator; these first-generation rootkits were trivial to detect by using tools such as Tripwire that had not been compromised to access the same information. Lane Davis and Steven Dake wrote the earliest known rootkit in 1990 for Sun Microsystems' SunOS UNIX operating system. In the lecture he gave upon receiving the Turing award in 1983, Ken Thompson of Bell Labs, one of the creators of Unix, theorized about subverting the C compiler in a Unix distribution and discussed the exploit.
The modified compiler would detect attempts to compile the Unix login command and generate altered code that would accept not only the user's correct password, but an additional "backdoor" password known to the attacker. Additionally, the compiler would detect attempts to compile a new version of the compiler, would insert the same exploits into the new compiler. A review of the source code for the login command or the updated compiler would not reveal any malicious code; this exploit. The first documented computer virus to target the personal computer, discovered in 1986, used cloaking techniques to hide itself: the Brain virus intercepted attempts to read the boot sector, redirected these to elsewhere on the disk, where a copy of the original boot sector was kept. Over time, DOS-virus cloaking methods became more sophisticated, with advanced techniques including the hooking of low-level disk INT 13H BIOS interrupt calls to hide unauthorized modifications to files; the first malicious rootkit for the Windows NT operating system appeared in 1999: a trojan called NTRootkit created by Greg Hoglund.
It was followed by HackerDefender in 2003. The first rootkit targeting Mac OS X appeared in 2009, while the Stuxnet worm was the first to target programmable logic controllers. In 2005, Sony BMG published CDs with copy protection and digital rights management software called Extended Copy Protection, created by software company First 4 Internet; the software included a music player but silently installed a rootkit which limited the user's ability to access the CD. Software engineer Mark Russinovich, who created the rootkit detection tool RootkitRevealer, discovered the rootkit on one of his computers; the ensuing scandal raised the public's awareness of rootkits. To cloak itself, the rootkit hid from the user any file starting with "$sys$". Soon after Russinovich's report, malware appeared which took advantage of that vulnerability of affected systems. One BBC analyst called it a "public relations nightmare." Sony BMG released patches to uninstall the rootkit, but it exposed users to an more serious vulnerability.
The company recalled the CDs. In the United States, a class-action lawsuit was brought against Sony BMG; the Greek wiretapping case of 2004-05 referred to as Greek Watergate, involved the illegal telephone tapping of more than 100 mobile phones on the Vodafone Greece network belonging to members of the Greek government and top-ranking civil servants. The taps began sometime near the beginning of August 2004 and were removed in March 2005 without discovering the identity of the perpetrators; the intruders installed a rootkit targeting Ericsson's AXE telephone exchange. According to IEEE Spectrum, this was "the first time a rootkit has been observed on a special-purpose system, in this case an Ericsson telephone switch." The rootkit was designed to patch the memory of the exchange while it was running, enable wiretapping while disabling audit logs, patch the commands that list active processes and active data blocks, modify the data block checksum verification command. A "backdoor" allowed an operator with sysadmin status to deactivate the exchange's transaction log and access commands r
WikiLeaks is an international non-profit organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, classified media provided by anonymous sources. Its website, initiated in 2006 in Iceland by the organisation Sunshine Press, claims a database of 10 million documents in 10 years since its launch. Julian Assange, an Australian Internet activist, is described as its founder and director. Since September 2018, Kristinn Hrafnsson has served as its editor-in-chief; the group has released a number of prominent document dumps. Early releases included documentation of equipment expenditures and holdings in the Afghanistan war and a report informing a corruption investigation in Kenya. In April 2010, WikiLeaks released the Collateral Murder footage from the 12 July 2007 Baghdad airstrike in which Iraqi journalists were among those killed. Other releases in 2010 included the Afghan War Diary and the "Iraq War Logs"; the latter allowed the mapping of 109,032 deaths in "significant" attacks by insurgents in Iraq, reported to Multi-National Force – Iraq, including about 15,000 that had not been published.
In 2010, WikiLeaks released the US State Department diplomatic "cables", classified cables, sent to the US State Department. In April 2011, WikiLeaks began publishing 779 secret files relating to prisoners detained in the Guantanamo Bay detention camp. During the 2016 US presidential election campaign, WikiLeaks released emails and other documents from the Democratic National Committee and from Hillary Clinton's campaign manager, John Podesta; these releases caused significant harm to the Clinton campaign, have been attributed as a potential contributing factor to her loss. The U. S. intelligence community expressed "high confidence" that the leaked emails had been hacked by Russia and supplied to WikiLeaks, while WikiLeaks denied their source was Russia or any other state. During the campaign, WikiLeaks promoted conspiracy theories about Hillary Clinton and the Democratic Party. In private conversations from November 2015 that were leaked, Julian Assange expressed a preference for a GOP victory in the 2016 election, explaining that "Dems+Media+liberals woudl form a block to reign in their worst qualities.
With Hillary in charge, GOP will be pushing for her worst qualities, dems+media+neoliberals will be mute." In private correspondence with the Trump campaign on election day, WikiLeaks encouraged the Trump campaign to contest the election results in case they lost. WikiLeaks has drawn criticism for its absence of whistleblowing on or criticism of Russia, for criticising the Panama Papers' exposé of businesses and individuals with offshore bank accounts. WikiLeaks has been criticised for inadequately curating its content and violating the personal privacy of individuals. WikiLeaks has, for instance, revealed Social Security numbers, medical information, credit card numbers and details of suicide attempts; the wikileaks.org domain name was registered on 4 October 2006. The website was established and published its first document in December 2006. WikiLeaks is represented in public by Julian Assange, described as "the heart and soul of this organisation, its founder, spokesperson, original coder, organiser and all the rest".
Sarah Harrison, Kristinn Hrafnsson and Joseph Farrell are the only other publicly known and acknowledged associates of Assange who are living. Harrison is a member of Sunshine Press Productions along with Assange and Ingi Ragnar Ingason. Gavin MacFadyen was acknowledged by Assange as a ″beloved director of WikiLeaks″ shortly after his death in 2016. WikiLeaks was established with a "wiki" communal publication method, terminated by May 2010. Original volunteers and founders were once described as a mixture of Asian dissidents, journalists and start-up company technologists from the United States, Europe and South Africa; as of June 2009, the website had more than 1,200 registered volunteers. Despite some popular confusion, related to the fact both sites use the "wiki" name and website design template, WikiLeaks and Wikipedia are not affiliated. Wikia, a for-profit corporation affiliated loosely with the Wikimedia Foundation, purchased several WikiLeaks-related domain names as a "protective brand measure" in 2007.
On 26 September 2018, it was announced that Julian Assange had appointed Kristinn Hrafnsson as editor-in-chief of WikiLeaks while the organisation's statement said Assange was remaining as its publisher. His access to the internet had been ended by his hosts in the Ecuadorian embassy in March 2019 as he had broken a commitment "not to issue messages that might interfere with other states". According to the WikiLeaks website, its goal is "to bring important news and information to the public... One of our most important activities is to publish original source material alongside our news stories so readers and historians alike can see evidence of the truth." Another of the organisation's goals is to ensure that journalists and whistleblowers are not prosecuted for emailing sensitive or classified documents. The online "drop box" is described by the WikiLeaks website as "an innovative and anonymous way for sources to leak information to journalists"; some describe WikiLeaks as journalistic organisation.
For example, in a 2013 resolution, the International Federation of Journalists, a trade union of journalists, called WikiLeaks a "new breed of media organisation" that "offers important opportunities for media organisations". Harvard professor Yochai Benkler praised WikiLeaks as a new form of journalistic enterprise, testifying at the court-martial of Chelsea Manning that "WikiLeaks did serve a
Vault 7 is a series of documents that WikiLeaks began to publish on 7 March 2017, that detail activities and capabilities of the United States Central Intelligence Agency to perform electronic surveillance and cyber warfare. The files, dated from 2013–2016, include details on the agency's software capabilities, such as the ability to compromise cars, smart TVs, web browsers, the operating systems of most smartphones, as well as other operating systems such as Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux. In February 2017, WikiLeaks began teasing the release of "Vault 7" with a series of cryptic messages on Twitter, according to media reports. On in February, WikiLeaks released classified documents describing how the CIA monitored the 2012 French presidential election; the press release for the leak stated that it was published "as context for its forthcoming CIA Vault 7 series."In March 2017, US intelligence and law enforcement officials said to the international wire agency Reuters that they have been aware of the CIA security breach, which led to Vault 7, since late-2016.
Two officials said. In 2017, federal law enforcement identified CIA software engineer Joshua Adam Schulte as a suspected source of Vault 7; the first batch of documents named "Year Zero" was published by WikiLeaks on 7 March 2017, consisting of 7,818 web pages with 943 attachments, purportedly from the Center for Cyber Intelligence, which contains more pages than former NSA contractor and leaker, Edward Snowden's NSA release. WikiLeaks did not name the source, but said that the files had "circulated among former U. S. government hackers and contractors in an unauthorized manner, one of whom has provided WikiLeaks with portions of the archive." According to WikiLeaks, the source "wishes to initiate a public debate about the security, use and democratic control of cyberweapons" since these tools raise questions that "urgently need to be debated in public, including whether the C. I. A.'s hacking capabilities exceed its mandated powers and the problem of public oversight of the agency."WikiLeaks redacted names and other identifying information from the documents before their release, while attempting to allow for connections between people to be drawn via unique identifiers generated by WikiLeaks.
It said that it would postpone releasing the source code for the cyber weapons, several hundred million lines long, "until a consensus emerges on the technical and political nature of the C. I. A.'s program and how such'weapons' should be analyzed and published." WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange claimed. The CIA released a statement saying, "The American public should be troubled by any WikiLeaks disclosure designed to damage the Intelligence Community's ability to protect America against terrorists or other adversaries; such disclosures not only jeopardize US personnel and operations, but equip our adversaries with tools and information to do us harm."Assange held a press conference on 9 March to offer to share unpublished data from Vault 7 with technology companies to enable them to fix vulnerabilities detailed therein. He stated that only 1% of the total leak has been released and that much of the remainder of the leak included unpatched vulnerabilities but that he was working with Microsoft and Google to get these vulnerabilities patched as he would not release information which would put the public at risk, as fixes were released by manufacturers he would release details of vulnerabilities.
As such, none of the vulnerabilities released are zero-day exploits. In this press release Assange read an official statement by Microsoft which stated Microsoft's desire for the "next Geneva Convention" which would protect people from government cyber weapons the same way the previous Geneva Conventions have protected noncombatants from warfare. In a statement issued on 19 March 2017, Assange said the technology companies, contacted had not agreed, disagreed or questioned what he termed as WikiLeaks' standard industry disclosure plan; the standard disclosure time for a vulnerability is 90 days after the company responsible for patching the software is given full details of the flaw. According to WikiLeaks, only Mozilla had been provided with information on the vulnerabilities, while "Google and some other companies" only confirmed receiving the initial notification. WikiLeaks stated: "Most of these lagging companies have conflicts of interest due to their classified work with US government agencies.
In practice such associations limit industry staff with US security clearances from fixing holes based on leaked information from the CIA. Should such companies choose to not secure their users against CIA or NSA attacks users may prefer organizations such as Mozilla or European companies that prioritize their users over government contracts". On 23 March 2017 WikiLeaks published Vault 7 part 2 "Dark Matter"; that publication Macs. On 31 March 2017 WikiLeaks published Vault 7 part 3 "Marble", it contained 676 source code files for the CIA's Marble Framework. It is used to obfuscate, or scramble, malware code in an attempt to make it so that anti-virus firms or investigators cannot understand the code or attribute its source. According to WikiLeaks, the code included a de-obfuscator to reverse the obfuscation effects. On 7 April 2017 WikiLeaks published Vault 7 part 4 dubbed "Grasshopper"; the publication contains 27 documents from the CIA's Grasshopper framework, used by the CIA to build customized and persist