Sodium cyclamate is an artificial sweetener. It is 30–50 times sweeter than sucrose, making it the least potent of the commercially used artificial sweeteners, it is used with other artificial sweeteners saccharin. It is less expensive than most sweeteners, including sucralose, is stable under heating. Safety concerns have led to cyclamates being banned in the United States and other countries, though the European Union recognizes them as safe. Cyclamate is the sodium or calcium salt of cyclamic acid, which itself is prepared by the sulfonation of cyclohexylamine; this can be accomplished by reacting cyclohexylamine with either sulfamic sulfur trioxide. Prior to 1973, Abbott Laboratories produced sodium cyclamate by a mixture of ingredients including the addition of pure sodium with cyclohexylamine and filtered through a high speed centrifugal separator, dried and micro-pulverised for powder or tablet usage. Cyclamate was discovered in 1937 at the University of Illinois by graduate student Michael Sveda.
Sveda was working in the lab on the synthesis of anti-fever medication. He put his cigarette down on the lab bench, when he put it back in his mouth, he discovered the sweet taste of cyclamate; the patent for cyclamate was purchased by DuPont but sold to Abbott Laboratories, which undertook the necessary studies and submitted a New Drug Application in 1950. Abbott intended to use cyclamate to mask the bitterness of certain drugs such as antibiotics and pentobarbital. In 1958, it was designated GRAS by Drug Administration. Cyclamate was marketed in tablet form for use by diabetics as an alternative tabletop sweetener, as well as in a liquid form; as cyclamate is stable to heat, it is marketed as suitable for use in cooking and baking. In 1966, a study reported that some intestinal bacteria could desulfonate cyclamate to produce cyclohexylamine, a compound suspected to have some chronic toxicity in animals. Further research resulted in a 1969 study that found the common 10:1 cyclamate:saccharin mixture to increase the incidence of bladder cancer in rats.
The released study was showing that eight out of 240 rats fed a mixture of saccharin and cyclamates, at levels equivalent to humans ingesting 550 cans of diet soda per day, developed bladder tumors. Sales continued to expand, in 1969, annual sales of cyclamate had reached $1 billion, which increased pressure from public safety watchdogs to restrict the usage of cyclamate. In October 1969, Department of Health, Education & Welfare Secretary Robert Finch, bypassing Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Herbert L. Ley, Jr. removed the GRAS designation from cyclamate and banned its use in general-purpose foods, though it remained available for restricted use in dietary products with additional labeling. Abbott Laboratories claimed that its own studies were unable to reproduce the 1969 study's results, and, in 1973, Abbott petitioned the FDA to lift the ban on cyclamate; this petition was denied in 1980 by FDA Commissioner Jere Goyan. Abbott Labs, together with the Calorie Control Council, filed a second petition in 1982.
Although the FDA has stated that a review of all available evidence does not implicate cyclamate as a carcinogen in mice or rats, cyclamate remains banned from food products in the United States. The petition is now held in abeyance, though not considered, it is unclear whether this is at the request of Abbott Labs or because the petition is considered to be insufficient by the FDA. In 2000, a paper was published describing the results of a 24-year-long experiment in which 16 monkeys were fed a normal diet and 21 monkeys were fed either 100 or 500 mg/kg cyclamate per day. Two of the high-dosed monkeys and one of the lower-dosed monkeys were found to have malignant cancer, each with a different kind of cancer, three benign tumors were found; the authors concluded that the study failed to demonstrate that cyclamate was carcinogenic because the cancers were all different and there was no way to link cyclamate to each of them. The substance did not show any DNA-damaging properties in DNA repair assays.
Cyclamate is approved as a sweetener in at least 130 countries. In the late 1960s cyclamate was banned in the United Kingdom but was approved after being re-evaluated by the European Union in 1996. In the Philippines, cyclamate was banned until the Philippine Food and Drug Administration lifted the ban in 2013, declaring it safe for consumption. Cyclamate remains banned in the United States. Cyclamate was banned in South Korea in 1969. Sweeteners produced by Sweet'n Low and Sugar Twin for Canada contain cyclamate, though not those produced for the United States. Assugrin Cap Cangkir Chuker - Merisant Company 2, SARL Cologran Hermesetas Huxol in liquid form Novasweet Rio Sucaryl Sugar Twin Suitli Sweet'n Low European Commission Revised Opinion On Cyclamic Acid FDA Commissioner's Decision on Cyclamate, 45 FR 61474
The Jmol applet, among other abilities, offers an alternative to the Chime plug-in, no longer under active development. While Jmol has many features that Chime lacks, it does not claim to reproduce all Chime functions, most notably, the Sculpt mode. Chime requires plug-in installation and Internet Explorer 6.0 or Firefox 2.0 on Microsoft Windows, or Netscape Communicator 4.8 on Mac OS 9. Jmol operates on a wide variety of platforms. For example, Jmol is functional in Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Safari. Chemistry Development Kit Comparison of software for molecular mechanics modeling Jmol extension for MediaWiki List of molecular graphics systems Molecular graphics Molecule editor Proteopedia PyMOL SAMSON Official website Wiki with listings of websites and moodles Willighagen, Egon. "Fast and Scriptable Molecular Graphics in Web Browsers without Java3D". Doi:10.1038/npre.2007.50.1
A sugar substitute is a food additive that provides a sweet taste like that of sugar while containing less food energy than sugar-based sweeteners, making it a zero-calorie or low-calorie sweetener. Artificial sweeteners may be derived through manufacturing of plant extracts or processed by chemical synthesis. Sugar alcohols such as erythritol and sorbitol are derived from sugars. In 2017, sucralose was the most common sugar substitute used in the manufacture of foods and beverages. In 1969, cyclamate was banned for sale in the US by the Drug Administration; as of 2018, there is no strong evidence that non-sugar sweeteners are either unsafe or result in improved health outcomes. When these sweeteners are provided for restaurant customers to add to beverages such as tea and coffee, they are provided in small colored paper packets; these sweeteners are a fundamental ingredient to diet drinks to sweeten them without adding calories. High-intensity sweeteners – one type of sugar substitute – are compounds with many times the sweetness of sucrose, common table sugar.
As a result, much less sweetener is required and energy contribution is negligible. The sensation of sweetness caused by these compounds is sometimes notably different from sucrose, so they are used in complex mixtures that achieve the most intense sweet sensation. If the sucrose, replaced has contributed to the texture of the product a bulking agent is also needed; this may be seen in soft drinks or sweet teas that are labeled as "diet" or "light" that contain artificial sweeteners and have notably different mouthfeel, or in table sugar replacements that mix maltodextrins with an intense sweetener to achieve satisfactory texture sensation. In the United States, six high-intensity sugar substitutes have been approved for use: aspartame, neotame, acesulfame potassium and advantame. Food additives must be approved by the FDA, sweeteners must be proven as safe via submission by a manufacturer of a GRAS document; the conclusions about GRAS are based on a detailed review of a large body of information, including rigorous toxicological and clinical studies.
GRAS notices exist for two plant-based, high-intensity sweeteners: steviol glycosides obtained from stevia leaves and extracts from Siraitia grosvenorii called luo han guo or monk fruit. Cyclamates are used outside the United States, but are prohibited from manufacturing as a sweetener within the United States; the majority of sugar substitutes approved for food use are artificially synthesized compounds. However, some bulk plant-derived sugar substitutes are known, including sorbitol and lactitol; as it is not commercially viable to extract these products from fruits and vegetables, they are produced by catalytic hydrogenation of the appropriate reducing sugar. For example, xylose is converted to xylitol, lactose to lactitol, glucose to sorbitol. Sorbitol and lactitol are examples of sugar alcohols; these are, in general, less sweet than sucrose but have similar bulk properties and can be used in a wide range of food products. Sometimes the sweetness profile is fine-tuned by mixing with high-intensity sweeteners.
Acesulfame potassium is 200 times sweeter than sucrose, as sweet as aspartame, about two thirds as sweet as saccharin, one third as sweet as sucralose. Like saccharin, it has a bitter aftertaste at high concentrations. Kraft Foods has patented the use of sodium ferulate to mask acesulfame's aftertaste. Acesulfame potassium is blended with other sweeteners, which give a more sucrose-like taste, whereby each sweetener masks the other's aftertaste and exhibits a synergistic effect in which the blend is sweeter than its components. Unlike aspartame, acesulfame potassium is stable under heat under moderately acidic or basic conditions, allowing it to be used as a food additive in baking or in products that require a long shelf life. In carbonated drinks, it is always used in conjunction with another sweetener, such as aspartame or sucralose, it is used as a sweetener in protein shakes and pharmaceutical products chewable and liquid medications, where it can make the active ingredients more palatable.
Aspartame was discovered in 1965 by James M. Schlatter at the G. D. Searle company, he accidentally spilled some aspartame on his hand. When he licked his finger, he noticed. Torunn Atteraas Garin oversaw the development of aspartame as an artificial sweetener, it is an odorless, white crystalline powder, derived from the two amino acids aspartic acid and phenylalanine. It is about 200 times as sweet as sugar and can be used as a tabletop sweetener or in frozen desserts, gelatins and chewing gum; when cooked or stored at high temperatures, aspartame breaks down into its constituent amino acids. This makes aspartame undesirable as a baking sweetener, it is more stable in somewhat acidic conditions, such as in soft drinks. Though it does not have a bitter aftertaste like saccharin, it may not taste like sugar; when eaten, aspartame is metabolized into its original amino acids. Because it is so intensely sweet little of it is needed to sweeten a food product, is thus useful for reducing the number of calories in a product.
The safety of aspartame has been
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA. The "E" stands for "Europe". Found on food labels, their safety assessment and approval are the responsibility of the European Food Safety Authority. Having a single unified list for food additives was first agreed upon in 1962 with food colouring. In 1964, the directives for preservatives were added, 1970 for antioxidants and 1974 for the emulsifiers, stabilisers and gelling agents; the numbering scheme follows that of the International Numbering System as determined by the Codex Alimentarius committee, though only a subset of the INS additives are approved for use in the European Union as food additives. Outside the European continent plus Russia, E numbers are encountered on food labelling in other jurisdictions, including the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf, South Africa, New Zealand and Israel, they are though still found on North American packaging on imported European products.
In some European countries, "E number" is sometimes used informally as a pejorative term for artificial food additives, products may promote themselves as "free of E numbers". This is incorrect, because many components of natural foods have assigned E numbers, e.g. vitamin C and lycopene, found in carrots. NB: Not all examples of a class fall into the given numeric range. Moreover, many chemicals in the E400–499 range, have a variety of purposes; the list shows all components that had an E-number assigned. Not all additives listed are still allowed in the EU, but are listed as they used to have an E-number. For an overview of allowed additives see information provided by the Food Standards Agency of the UK. Food Chemicals Codex List of food additives List of food additives, Codex Alimentarius Codex Alimentarius, the international foods standards, established by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization in 1963 See their document "Class Names and the International Numbering System for Food Additives" Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives publications at the World Health Organization Food Additive Index, JECFA, Food and Agriculture Organization E-codes and ingredients search engine with details/suggestions for Muslims Current EU approved additives and their E Numbers Food Additives in the European Union Food Additives, Food Safety, website of the European Union.
Includes Lists of authorised food additives Food additives database The Food Additives and Ingredients Association, FAIA website, UK
European Chemicals Agency
The European Chemicals Agency is an agency of the European Union which manages the technical and administrative aspects of the implementation of the European Union regulation called Registration, Evaluation and Restriction of Chemicals. ECHA is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's chemicals legislation. ECHA helps companies to comply with the legislation, advances the safe use of chemicals, provides information on chemicals and addresses chemicals of concern, it is located in Finland. The agency headed by Executive Director Bjorn Hansen, started working on 1 June 2007; the REACH Regulation requires companies to provide information on the hazards and safe use of chemical substances that they manufacture or import. Companies register this information with ECHA and it is freely available on their website. So far, thousands of the most hazardous and the most used substances have been registered; the information is technical but gives detail on the impact of each chemical on people and the environment.
This gives European consumers the right to ask retailers whether the goods they buy contain dangerous substances. The Classification and Packaging Regulation introduces a globally harmonised system for classifying and labelling chemicals into the EU; this worldwide system makes it easier for workers and consumers to know the effects of chemicals and how to use products safely because the labels on products are now the same throughout the world. Companies need to notify ECHA of the labelling of their chemicals. So far, ECHA has received over 5 million notifications for more than 100 000 substances; the information is available on their website. Consumers can check chemicals in the products. Biocidal products include, for example, insect disinfectants used in hospitals; the Biocidal Products Regulation ensures that there is enough information about these products so that consumers can use them safely. ECHA is responsible for implementing the regulation; the law on Prior Informed Consent sets guidelines for the import of hazardous chemicals.
Through this mechanism, countries due to receive hazardous chemicals are informed in advance and have the possibility of rejecting their import. Substances that may have serious effects on human health and the environment are identified as Substances of Very High Concern 1; these are substances which cause cancer, mutation or are toxic to reproduction as well as substances which persist in the body or the environment and do not break down. Other substances considered. Companies manufacturing or importing articles containing these substances in a concentration above 0,1% weight of the article, have legal obligations, they are required to inform users about the presence of the substance and therefore how to use it safely. Consumers have the right to ask the retailer whether these substances are present in the products they buy. Once a substance has been identified in the EU as being of high concern, it will be added to a list; this list is available on ECHA's website and shows consumers and industry which chemicals are identified as SVHCs.
Substances placed on the Candidate List can move to another list. This means that, after a given date, companies will not be allowed to place the substance on the market or to use it, unless they have been given prior authorisation to do so by ECHA. One of the main aims of this listing process is to phase out SVHCs where possible. In its 2018 substance evaluation progress report, ECHA said chemical companies failed to provide “important safety information” in nearly three quarters of cases checked that year. "The numbers show a similar picture to previous years" the report said. The agency noted that member states need to develop risk management measures to control unsafe commercial use of chemicals in 71% of the substances checked. Executive Director Bjorn Hansen called non-compliance with REACH a "worry". Industry group CEFIC acknowledged the problem; the European Environmental Bureau called for faster enforcement to minimise chemical exposure. European Chemicals Bureau Official website
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds. A chemical element bonded to an identical chemical element is not a chemical compound since only one element, not two different elements, is involved. There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together: molecules held together by covalent bonds ionic compounds held together by ionic bonds intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved. For example, water is composed of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom: the chemical formula is H2O. Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service: its CAS number.
A compound can be converted to a different chemical composition by interaction with a second chemical compound via a chemical reaction. In this process, bonds between atoms are broken in both of the interacting compounds, bonds are reformed so that new associations are made between atoms. Any substance consisting of two or more different types of atoms in a fixed stoichiometric proportion can be termed a chemical compound, it follows from their being composed of fixed proportions of two or more types of atoms that chemical compounds can be converted, via chemical reaction, into compounds or substances each having fewer atoms. The ratio of each element in the compound is expressed in a ratio in its chemical formula. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved. For example, water is composed of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom: the chemical formula is H2O.
In the case of non-stoichiometric compounds, the proportions may be reproducible with regard to their preparation, give fixed proportions of their component elements, but proportions that are not integral. Chemical compounds have a unique and defined chemical structure held together in a defined spatial arrangement by chemical bonds. Chemical compounds can be molecular compounds held together by covalent bonds, salts held together by ionic bonds, intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds, or the subset of chemical complexes that are held together by coordinate covalent bonds. Pure chemical elements are not considered chemical compounds, failing the two or more atom requirement, though they consist of molecules composed of multiple atoms. Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service: its CAS number. There is varying and sometimes inconsistent nomenclature differentiating substances, which include non-stoichiometric examples, from chemical compounds, which require the fixed ratios.
Many solid chemical substances—for example many silicate minerals—are chemical substances, but do not have simple formulae reflecting chemically bonding of elements to one another in fixed ratios. It may be argued that they are related to, rather than being chemical compounds, insofar as the variability in their compositions is due to either the presence of foreign elements trapped within the crystal structure of an otherwise known true chemical compound, or due to perturbations in structure relative to the known compound that arise because of an excess of deficit of the constituent elements at places in its structure. Other compounds regarded as chemically identical may have varying amounts of heavy or light isotopes of the constituent elements, which changes the ratio of elements by mass slightly. Compounds are held together through a variety of different types of bonding and forces; the differences in the types of bonds in compounds differ based on the types of elements present in the compound.
London dispersion forces are the weakest force of all intermolecular forces. They are temporary attractive forces that form when the electrons in two adjacent atoms are positioned so that they create a temporary dipole. Additionally, London dispersion forces are responsible for condensing non polar substances to liquids, to further freeze to a solid state dependent on how low the temperature of the environment is. A covalent bond known as a molecular bond, involves the sharing of electrons between two atoms; this type of bond occurs between elements that fall close to each other on the periodic table of elements, yet it is observed between some metals and nonmetals. This is due to the mechanism of this type of bond. Elements that fall close to each other on the periodic table tend to have similar electronegativities, which means they have a similar affinity for electrons. Since neither element has a stronger affinity to donate or gain electrons, it causes the elements to share electrons so both elements have a more stable octet.
Ionic bonding occurs when valence electrons are transferred between elements. Opposite to covalent bonding, this chemical bond creates two oppositely charged ions; the metals in ionic bonding
Simplified molecular-input line-entry system
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system is a specification in the form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules; the original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been extended. In 2007, an open standard called. Other linear notations include the Wiswesser line notation, ROSDAL, SYBYL Line Notation; the original SMILES specification was initiated by David Weininger at the USEPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division Laboratory in Duluth in the 1980s. Acknowledged for their parts in the early development were "Gilman Veith and Rose Russo and Albert Leo and Corwin Hansch for supporting the work, Arthur Weininger and Jeremy Scofield for assistance in programming the system." The Environmental Protection Agency funded the initial project to develop SMILES. It has since been modified and extended by others, most notably by Daylight Chemical Information Systems.
In 2007, an open standard called "OpenSMILES" was developed by the Blue Obelisk open-source chemistry community. Other'linear' notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation, ROSDAL and SLN. In July 2006, the IUPAC introduced the InChI as a standard for formula representation. SMILES is considered to have the advantage of being more human-readable than InChI; the term SMILES refers to a line notation for encoding molecular structures and specific instances should be called SMILES strings. However, the term SMILES is commonly used to refer to both a single SMILES string and a number of SMILES strings; the terms "canonical" and "isomeric" can lead to some confusion when applied to SMILES. The terms are not mutually exclusive. A number of valid SMILES strings can be written for a molecule. For example, CCO, OCC and CC all specify the structure of ethanol. Algorithms have been developed to generate the same SMILES string for a given molecule; this SMILES is unique for each structure, although dependent on the canonicalization algorithm used to generate it, is termed the canonical SMILES.
These algorithms first convert the SMILES to an internal representation of the molecular structure. Various algorithms for generating canonical SMILES have been developed and include those by Daylight Chemical Information Systems, OpenEye Scientific Software, MEDIT, Chemical Computing Group, MolSoft LLC, the Chemistry Development Kit. A common application of canonical SMILES is indexing and ensuring uniqueness of molecules in a database; the original paper that described the CANGEN algorithm claimed to generate unique SMILES strings for graphs representing molecules, but the algorithm fails for a number of simple cases and cannot be considered a correct method for representing a graph canonically. There is no systematic comparison across commercial software to test if such flaws exist in those packages. SMILES notation allows the specification of configuration at tetrahedral centers, double bond geometry; these are structural features that cannot be specified by connectivity alone and SMILES which encode this information are termed isomeric SMILES.
A notable feature of these rules is. The term isomeric SMILES is applied to SMILES in which isotopes are specified. In terms of a graph-based computational procedure, SMILES is a string obtained by printing the symbol nodes encountered in a depth-first tree traversal of a chemical graph; the chemical graph is first trimmed to remove hydrogen atoms and cycles are broken to turn it into a spanning tree. Where cycles have been broken, numeric suffix labels are included to indicate the connected nodes. Parentheses are used to indicate points of branching on the tree; the resultant SMILES form depends on the choices: of the bonds chosen to break cycles, of the starting atom used for the depth-first traversal, of the order in which branches are listed when encountered. Atoms are represented by the standard abbreviation of the chemical elements, in square brackets, such as for gold. Brackets may be omitted in the common case of atoms which: are in the "organic subset" of B, C, N, O, P, S, F, Cl, Br, or I, have no formal charge, have the number of hydrogens attached implied by the SMILES valence model, are the normal isotopes, are not chiral centers.
All other elements must be enclosed in brackets, have charges and hydrogens shown explicitly. For instance, the SMILES for water may be written as either O or. Hydrogen may be written as a separate atom; when brackets are used, the symbol H is added if the atom in brackets is bonded to one or more hydrogen, followed by the number of hydrogen atoms if greater than 1 by the sign + for a positive charge or by - for a negative charge. For example, for ammonium. If there is more than one charge, it is written as digit.