Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate is a second messenger important in many biological processes. CAMP is a derivative of adenosine triphosphate and used for intracellular signal transduction in many different organisms, conveying the cAMP-dependent pathway, it should not be confused with 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase. Earl Sutherland of Vanderbilt University won a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1971 "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones" epinephrine, via second messengers. Cyclic AMP is synthesized from ATP by adenylate cyclase located on the inner side of the plasma membrane and anchored at various locations in the interior of the cell. Adenylate cyclase is activated by a range of signaling molecules through the activation of adenylate cyclase stimulatory G -protein-coupled receptors. Adenylate cyclase is inhibited by agonists of adenylate cyclase inhibitory G -protein-coupled receptors. Liver adenylate cyclase responds more to glucagon, muscle adenylate cyclase responds more to adrenaline.

CAMP decomposition into AMP is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphodiesterase. CAMP is a second messenger, used for intracellular signal transduction, such as transferring into cells the effects of hormones like glucagon and adrenaline, which cannot pass through the plasma membrane, it is involved in the activation of protein kinases. In addition, cAMP binds to and regulates the function of ion channels such as the HCN channels and a few other cyclic nucleotide-binding proteins such as Epac1 and RAPGEF2. CAMP is associated with kinases function in several biochemical processes, including the regulation of glycogen and lipid metabolism. In eukaryotes, cyclic AMP works by activating protein kinase A. PKA is inactive as a tetrameric holoenzyme, consisting of two catalytic and two regulatory units, with the regulatory units blocking the catalytic centers of the catalytic units. Cyclic AMP binds to specific locations on the regulatory units of the protein kinase, causes dissociation between the regulatory and catalytic subunits, thus enabling those catalytic units to phosphorylate substrate proteins.

The active subunits catalyze the transfer of phosphate from ATP to specific serine or threonine residues of protein substrates. The phosphorylated proteins may act directly on the cell's ion channels, or may become activated or inhibited enzymes. Protein kinase A can phosphorylate specific proteins that bind to promoter regions of DNA, causing increases in transcription. Not all protein kinases respond to cAMP. Several classes of protein kinases, including protein kinase C, are not cAMP-dependent. Further effects depend on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which vary based on the type of cell. Still, there are some minor PKA-independent functions of cAMP, e.g. activation of calcium channels, providing a minor pathway by which growth hormone-releasing hormone causes a release of growth hormone. However, the view that the majority of the effects of cAMP are controlled by PKA is an outdated one. In 1998 a family of cAMP-sensitive proteins with guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity was discovered.

These are termed Exchange proteins activated by cAMP and the family comprises Epac1 and Epac2. The mechanism of activation is similar to that of PKA: the GEF domain is masked by the N-terminal region containing the cAMP binding domain; when cAMP binds, the domain dissociates and exposes the now-active GEF domain, allowing Epac to activate small Ras-like GTPase proteins, such as Rap1. In the species Dictyostelium discoideum, cAMP acts outside the cell as a secreted signal; the chemotactic aggregation of cells is organized by periodic waves of cAMP that propagate between cells over distances as large as several centimetres. The waves are the result of a regulated production and secretion of extracellular cAMP and a spontaneous biological oscillator that initiates the waves at centers of territories. In bacteria, the level of cAMP varies depending on the medium used for growth. In particular, cAMP is low; this occurs through inhibition of the cAMP-producing enzyme, adenylate cyclase, as a side-effect of glucose transport into the cell.

The transcription factor cAMP receptor protein called CAP forms a complex with cAMP and thereby is activated to bind to DNA. CRP-cAMP increases expression of a large number of genes, including some encoding enzymes that can supply energy independent of glucose. CAMP, for example, is involved in the positive regulation of the lac operon. In an environment with a low glucose concentration, cAMP accumulates and binds to the allosteric site on CRP, a transcription activator protein; the protein assumes its active shape and binds to a specific site upstream of the lac promoter, making it easier for RNA polymerase to bind to the adjacent promoter to start transcription of the lac operon, increasing the rate of lac operon transcription. With a high glucose concentration, the cAMP concentration decreases, the CRP disengages from the lac operon. Since cyclic AMP is a second messenger and plays vital role in cell signalling, it has been implicated in various disorders but not restricted to the roles given below: Some research has suggested that a deregulation of cAMP pathways and an aberrant activation of cAMP-controlled genes is linked to the growth of some cancers.

Recent research suggests that cAMP affects the function of higher-order thinking in the prefrontal cortex through its regulation of ion channels called hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucl

Mister Saturday Night

Mister Saturday Night is a recurring party based in Brooklyn, New York. It is DJed by Eamon Harkin and Justin Carter; the duo runs an associated Sunday afternoon party called Mister Sunday. They have been referred to as "one of the city’s most accomplished DJ duos" by The Guardian; the party started in Santos Party House, a traditional Manhattan club, in early 2009, but left the club in May of that year and began hosting its events in non-traditional venues such as 12-turn-13. Mister Saturday Night offers an alternative nightlife experience, "just as interested in constructing an engaging journey as they are in dropping good tunes." The party gives back to the community, announcing an initiative to donate ten percent of its annual net profits in 2014 to the Robin Hood Foundation, a poverty-fighting organization in New York. Mister Saturday Night Records is the independent record label associated with Mister Saturday Night, it was founded by Justin Carter and Eamon Harkin in 2012. The label started as a home for the artists that were regulars at the party, but it has featured artists from outside of New York as well.

The first eleven releases were hand-stamped, vinyl-only EPs, it is releasing a full-length album on featuring all the artists from the label on June 23. Mister Saturday Night Records was voted Label to watch in 2014 by FACT Magazine. Anthony Naples Alex Burkat Archie Pelago Dark Sky Hank Jackson Lumigraph Boya General Ludd Gunnar Haslam Keita Sano Nathan Melja Harkin was born in Northern Ireland and moved to New York in 2004, he created ‘Calling All Kids’, a party which played homage to New York legend Arthur Russell and the history of downtown New York. He hosted a residency at FUN, at the now-gone Brooklyn club, Studio B. There he brought a variety of talent to the venue, he now produces DJs with his partner Carter. As a producer, Harkin has released edits and original productions, on his own and with former partner Steve Raney. Carter moved from North Carolina to New York in 1999. In 2004 he started DJing and producing secret parties at Asterisk, a pioneering DIY venue in Bushwick that led the way for many other living-spaces-turned-party-places and carved a new path for underground parties in Brooklyn.

That year he became a member of the Nublu family, where he launched the club’s record label and performed and DJed regularly. Carter has sung in the chorus of avant-garde composer Butch Morris and co-written and is working on an album of solo material. Mister Saturday Night Real Scenes: New York, - Resident Advisor, April, 2013. What's Happened to New York? - ROUGH AROUND THE EDGES, - Red Bull Music, June, 2013

NAS Award for Chemistry in Service to Society

The NAS Award for Chemistry in Service to Society is awarded by the U. S. National Academy of Sciences "for contributions to chemistry, either in fundamental science or its application, that satisfy a societal need." It has been awarded every two years since its inception in 1991. Source: NAS John C. Martin For his contributions to the development of antiviral medications used to treat the most refractory of the deadly diseases, including HIV/AIDS, HCV, HBV, CMV, flu, impacting hundreds of millions of individuals around the world and for his tireless efforts to ensure all of humanity and poor alike, benefit. Leroy E. Hood For his invention, commercialization and development of multiple chemical tools that address biological complexity, including the automated DNA sequencer that spearheaded the human genome project. Bruce D. Roth For his discovery and commercial development of atorvastatin, the most successful cholesterol lowering medicine in history. Edward C. Taylor For his contributions to heterocyclic chemistry, in particular the discovery of the new-generation antifolate pemetrexed, approved for the treatment of mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer and under clinical investigation for treatment of a variety of other solid tumors.

Paul J. Reider For his contributions to the discovery and development of numerous approved drugs, including those for treating asthma and for treating AIDS. John D. Roberts For seminal contributions in physical organic chemistry, in particular the introduction of NMR spectroscopy to the chemistry community. Arthur A. Patchett For innovative contributions in discoveries of Mevacor, the first statin that lowers cholesterol levels, of Vasotec and Prinivil for treating hypertension and congestive heart failure. Marvin H. Caruthers For his invention and development of chemical reagents and methods used for the automated synthesis of DNA oligonucleotides. Paul S. Anderson For his scientific leadership in two drugs approved for the treatment of AIDS and for his cited basic research related to the glutamate receptor. Paul C. Lauterbur For his research on nuclear magnetic resonance and its applications in chemistry and medicine, his contributions to the development of magnetic resonance imaging in medicine.

Grant Willson For his fundamental contribution to the chemistry of materials that produce micropatterns in semiconductors, for its widespread application in the microelectronics industry for the benefit of society. Ernest L. Eliel For his seminal and far-reaching contributions in organic stereochemistry and for his wise and energetic leadership in professional societies that represent the interests of chemists and of society, both in the United States and abroad. P. Roy Vagelos For his fundamental contributions to the understanding of fatty acid biosynthesis, cholesterol metabolism, phospholipid metabolism, for his leadership at Merck that led to the discovery of a number of important therapeutic and preventive agents. Harold S. Johnston For his pioneering efforts to point out that man-made emissions could affect the chemistry of the stratosphere, in particular, the danger of the depletion by nitrogen oxide of the earth's critical and fragile ozone layer. Vladimir Haensel For his outstanding research in the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons, that has enhanced the economic value of our petroleum natural resources.

List of chemistry awards