Michel Rousseau (cyclist)
Michel Rousseau was a French amateur track cyclist. He won gold medals in the individual sprint at the 1956 Summer Olympics and 1956–1958 world championships, finishing second in 1959 and 1961
Leandro Faggin was an Italian racing cyclist, Olympic champion and world champion in track cycling. He won a gold medal in the 1000 m time trial at the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, he was a member of the Italian team that won a gold medal in team pursuit at the 1956 Olympics. He is three times gold winner in individual pursuit in the UCI Track World Championships, from 1963, 1965 and 1966, has three silver medals and three bronze medals. Faggin died of cancer aged just 37 years in 1970. In the 2000s, his name was included into a list of cases under investigation for possible use of doping in cycling. Italian men gold medalist at the Olympics and World Championships
Melbourne Sports and Entertainment Precinct
The Melbourne Sports and Entertainment Precinct is a series of sports stadiums and venues, located in Melbourne, Victoria, in Australia. The precinct is situated around 3 km east of the Melbourne city centre, located in suburbs of Melbourne and Jolimont, near East Melbourne and Richmond, it is considered to be Australia's "premier sports precinct" and hosts some of the biggest domestic and international sporting events, including the AFL Grand Final, Australian Open and Boxing Day Test. The venues have previously hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and 2006 Commonwealth Games; the precinct comprises three areas: Melbourne Park and Yarra Park. Of the three Park precincts; the precinct is bordered to the north by Wellington Parade, to the east by Punt Road, to the south by the Yarra River, to the west by Batman Avenue. AAMI Park, the premier purpose-built venue for rectangular field sports, used for large outdoor stadium concerts. Holden Centre, a training facility used by the Collingwood Football Club, but a 7,000 capacity stadium used for swimming later for basketball.
Olympic Park Oval, a public playing field & running track, now used for training purposes by the Collingwood Football Club. Gosch's Paddock, a public playing field used for training by the Collingwood Football Club, now used by the Melbourne Football Club, Melbourne Storm Rugby League Club and Melbourne Victory FC for training and administrative purposes. Eastern Sportsground, stadium that hosted the preliminary rounds of the field hockey competition at the 1956 Olympics. Afterwards it was used for greyhound racing demolished for the first Collingwood training ground in the precinct and became the site of AAMI Park. Motordrome, a former speedway and Australian rules football ground. Demolished in 1951 and replaced by Olympic Park Stadium. Olympic Park Stadium the premier venue for track and field and rectangular field sports; the stadium was superseded for rectangular field sports by AAMI Park in 2011, was demolished in 2011/12. Velodrome, a 333 metre long velodrome, used for the track cycling events at the 1956 Olympics.
This venue was located on the northern/Swan Street side of the Olympic Park. Rod Laver Arena, the premier venue for large indoor stadium concerts, centre court for tennis in Melbourne Park. Used in the past for basketball. Melbourne Arena, the premier venue for basketball and netball, the second largest court for tennis in Melbourne Park, a venue for indoor stadium concerts. Can be converted to a velodrome for major track cycling events. Margaret Court Arena, the third-largest capacity tennis court in Melbourne Park. Used for netball, basketball and other types of events. Melbourne Park Tennis Complex/National Tennis Centre. Melbourne Cricket Ground, the premier venue for cricket and Australian rules football, for other high-drawing field sports events. Punt Road Oval, training facility for the Richmond Football Club, but used for VFL/AFL Australian rules football matches and premier grade cricket. National Sports Museum, located at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. East Melbourne Cricket Ground, located in the north-western corner of Yarra Park, used for Australian rules football and premier grade cricket.
Demolished 1922 to make way for the Jolimont railyards. For the 1956 Summer Olympics, several venues hosted Olympic events; the track cycling, field hockey and the aquatic events. The precinct is located adjacent to both the Jolimont railway stations; the precinct is serviced by three tram routes from the city centre. Three footbridges are provided to cross the railway lines which divide the northern and southern halves of the precinct; the area in Yarra Park surrounding the Melbourne Cricket Ground is made available for ticketed car parking during major events in the precinct. Media related to Melbourne Sports and Entertainment Precinct at Wikimedia Commons Melbourne & Olympic Parks official website Yarra Park official website Sports Precinct - Tourism Victoria website
Jean Graczyk was a professional road bicycle racer who won two points classifications in the Tour de France and has won several stages each at the Tour de France and Vuelta a España. Before turning professional, Graczyk won an Olympic silver medal in the team pursuit for France, his nickname in the sport was Popof. The American-French journalist René de Latour jokingly said in the British monthly Sporting Cyclist that it was because of his habit of attacking alone, or "popping off". De Latour, depended too on his readers' understanding of French slang, because Popof is a semi-derogatory term in French for someone of Polish background; the "popping off" suggestion, however, is still believed and appears from time to time in histories of the sport. 1955: La Perle-Hutchinson 1956: Individual 1957–1958: Helyett-Potin 1959: Helyett-Fynsec 1960: Helyett-Fynsec-Leroux 1961: Helyett-Fynsec-Hutchinson 1962: Saint-Raphael-Helyett 1963–1964: Margnat-Paloma 1965: Ford France-Gitane 1966: Ford France-Geminiani 1967–1968: Bic 1969–1970: Sonolor-Lejeune 1970–1972: Individual Jean Graczyk at Cycling Archives Official Tour de France results for Jean Graczyk
1956 Summer Olympics
The 1956 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, held in Melbourne, Australia, from 22 November to 8 December 1956, with the exception of the equestrian events, which were held in Stockholm, Sweden, in June 1956. These Games were the first to be staged in the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania, as well as the first to be held outside Europe and North America. Melbourne is the most southerly city to host the Olympics. Due to the Southern Hemisphere's seasons being different from those in the Northern Hemisphere, the 1956 Games did not take place at the usual time of year, because of the need to hold the events during the warmer weather of the host's spring/summer; the Olympic equestrian events could not be held in Melbourne due to Australia's strict quarantine regulations, so they were held in Stockholm five months earlier. This was the second time that the Olympics were not held in one country, the first being the 1920 Summer Olympics, which were held in Antwerp, with some events taking place in Amsterdam and Ostend.
Despite uncertainties and various complications encountered during the preparations, the 1956 Games went ahead in Melbourne as planned and turned out to be a success. The enduring tradition of national teams parading as one during the closing ceremony was started at these Olympics. Several teams boycotted the Games in protest of the IOC’s rejection to suspend the USSR after their invasion of Hungary. Melbourne was selected as the host city over bids from Buenos Aires, Mexico City and six American cities on 28 April 1949, at the 43rd IOC Session in Rome, Italy. Many members of the IOC were sceptical about Melbourne as an appropriate site, its location in the Southern Hemisphere was a major concern, since the reversal of seasons would mean the Games must be held during the northern winter. The November–December schedule was thought to inconvenience athletes from the Northern Hemisphere, who were accustomed to resting during their winter. Notwithstanding these concerns, the field of candidates narrowed to two Southern Hemisphere cities, these being Melbourne and Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Melbourne was selected, in 1949. The first sign of trouble was the revelation that Australian equine quarantine would prevent the country from hosting the equestrian events. Stockholm was selected as the alternative site, so equestrian competition began on 10 June, five and a half months before the rest of the Olympic Games were to open; the above problems of the Melbourne Games were compounded by bickering over financing among Australian politicians. Faced with a housing shortage, the Premier of Victoria refused to allocate money for the Olympic Village, the country's Prime Minister barred the use of federal funds. At one point, IOC President Avery Brundage suggested that Rome, to host the 1960 Games, was so far ahead of Melbourne in preparations that it might be ready as a replacement site in 1956; as late as April 1955, Brundage was still doubtful about Melbourne, was not satisfied by an inspection trip to the city. Construction was well under way by thanks to a $4.5 million federal loan to Victoria, but it was behind schedule.
He still held out the possibility. By the beginning of 1956, though, it was obvious. Egypt and Lebanon announced that they would not participate in the Olympics in response to the Suez Crisis when Egypt was invaded by Israel, the United Kingdom, France after Egypt nationalised the Suez Canal. Meanwhile, in 1956 the Soviet Union crushed the Hungarian Revolution, the Soviet presence at the Games led to the withdrawal of the Netherlands, Cambodia and Switzerland. Less than two weeks before the 22 November opening ceremony, the People's Republic of China chose to boycott the event because the Republic of China had been allowed to compete. Although the number of countries participating was the same as in 1952, the number of athletes competing dropped from 4,925 to 3,342. Once underway, the Games progressed smoothly, came to be known as the "Friendly Games". Betty Cuthbert, an 18-year-old from Sydney, won the 100 and 200 metre sprint races and ran an exceptional final leg in the 4 x 100 metre relay to overcome Great Britain's lead and claim her third gold medal.
The veteran Shirley Strickland repeated her 1952 win in the 80 metre hurdles and was part of the winning 4 x 100 metre relay team, bringing her career Olympic medal total to seven: three golds, a silver, three bronze medals. Australia triumphed in swimming, they won all of the freestyle races, men's and women's, collected a total of eight gold, four silver and two bronze medals. Murray Rose became the first male swimmer to win two freestyle events since Johnny Weissmuller in 1924, while Dawn Fraser won gold medals in the 100 metre freestyle and as the leadoff swimmer in the 4 x 100 metre relay team; the men's track and field events were dominated by the United States. They not only won 15 of the 24 events, they swept four of them and took first and second place in five others. Bobby Morrow led the way with gold medals in the 100 and 200 metre sprints and the 4 x 100 metre relay. Tom Courtney overtook Great Britain's Derek Johnson in the 800 metre run collapsed from the exertion and needed medical attention.
Ireland's Ronnie Delany ran an outstanding 53.8 over the last 400 metres to win the 1,500 metre run, in
Thomas Simpson was one of Britain's most successful professional cyclists. He was born in Haswell, County Durham and moved to Harworth, Nottinghamshire. Simpson began road cycling as a teenager before taking up track cycling, specialising in pursuit races, he won a bronze medal for track cycling at the 1956 Summer Olympics and a silver at the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games. In 1959, at age 21, Simpson was signed by the French professional road-racing team Saint-Raphaël–R. Geminiani–Dunlop, he advanced to their first team the following year, won the 1961 Tour of Flanders. Simpson joined Gitane–Leroux–Dunlop–R. Geminiani. In 1963 Simpson moved to Peugeot–BP–Englebert, winning Bordeaux–Paris that year and the 1964 Milan–San Remo. In 1965 he won the Giro di Lombardia. Injuries hampered much of Simpson's 1966 season, he won two stages of the 1967 Vuelta a España before he won the general classification of Paris–Nice that year. In the thirteenth stage of the 1967 Tour de France, Simpson collapsed and died during the ascent of Mont Ventoux.
He was 29 years old. The post-mortem examination found. A memorial near where he died has become a place of pilgrimage for many cyclists. Simpson was known to have taken performance-enhancing drugs during his career, when no doping controls existed, he is held in high esteem by many cyclists for his will to win. Simpson was born on 30 November 1937 in Haswell, County Durham, the youngest of six children of coal miner Tom Simpson and his wife Alice, his father had been a semi-professional sprinter in athletics. The family lived modestly in a small terraced house until 1943, when his parents took charge of the village's working men's club and lived above it. In 1950 the Simpsons moved to Harworth on the Nottinghamshire–Yorkshire border, where young Simpson's maternal aunt lived. Simpson rode his first bike, his brother-in-law's, at age 12, sharing it with Harry and two cousins for time trials around Harworth. Following Harry, Tom joined Harworth & District CC aged 13, he delivered groceries in the Bassetlaw district by bicycle and traded with a customer for a better road bike.
He was left behind in club races. Simpson sensed resentment of his boasting from senior members, he left Harworth & District and joined Rotherham's Scala Wheelers at the end of 1954. Simpson's first road race was as a junior at the Forest Recreation Ground in Nottingham. After leaving school he was an apprentice draughtsman at an engineering company in Retford, using the 10 mi commute by bike as training, he decided to concentrate on road racing. In May 1955 Simpson won the National Cyclists' Union South Yorkshire individual pursuit track event as a junior. Simpson immersed himself in the world of writing letters asking for advice. Naturalised Austrian rider George Berger responded, travelling from London to Harworth to help him with his riding position. In late 1955, Simpson ran a red light in a race and was suspended from racing for six months by the BLRC. During his suspension he dabbled in motorcycle trials, nearly quitting cycling but unable to afford a new motorcycle necessary for progress in the sport.
Berger told Simpson that if he wanted to be a successful road cyclist, he needed experience in track cycling in the pursuit discipline. Simpson competed at Fallowfield Stadium in Manchester, where in early 1956 he met amateur world pursuit silver medallist Cyril Cartwright, who helped him develop his technique. At the national championships at Fallowfield the 18-year-old Simpson won a silver medal in the individual pursuit, defeating amateur world champion Norman Sheil before losing to Mike Gambrill. Simpson began working with his father as a draughtsman at the glass factory in Harworth, he was riding well. In mid-September, Simpson competed for two weeks in Eastern Europe against Russian and Italian teams to prepare for the Olympics; the seven-rider contingent began with races in Leningrad, continuing to Moscow before finishing in Sofia. He was nicknamed "the Sparrow" by the Soviet press because of his slender build; the following month he was in Melbourne for the Olympics, where the team qualified for the team-pursuit semi-finals against Italy.
Simpson blamed himself for the loss for pushing too hard on a turn and being unable to recover for the next. After the Olympics, Simpson trained throughout his winter break into 1957. In May, he rode in the national 25-mile championships. In a points race at an international event at Fallowfield a week Simpson crashed badly breaking his leg.
Track cycling is a bicycle racing sport held on specially built banked tracks or velodromes using track bicycles. Track cycling has been around since at least 1870; when cycling was in its infancy, wooden indoor tracks were laid which resemble those of modern velodromes. These velodromes consisted of two straights and banked turns. One appeal of indoor track racing was that spectators could be controlled, hence an entrance fee could be charged, making track racing a lucrative sport. Early track races attracted crowds of up to 2000 people. Indoor tracks enabled year-round cycling for the first time; the main early centers for track racing in Britain were Birmingham, Liverpool and London. The most noticeable changes in over a century of track cycling have concerned the bikes themselves, engineered to be lighter and more aerodynamic to enable ever-faster times. With the exception of the 1912 Olympics, track cycling has been featured in every modern Olympic Games. Women's track cycling was first included in the modern Olympics in 1988.
The sport was moved indoors since 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. Along the decades, track lengths have been reduced. Early velodromes varied in length between 500 metres long. By the 1960s, a standard length of 333.33 metres length were used for international competitions. Since 1990, international velodromes have a length of 250 metres. Track cycling is popular in Europe, notably Belgium, France and the United Kingdom where it is used as off-season training by road racers; the sport has significant followings in Japan and Australia. In the United States, track racing reached a peak of popularity in the 1930s when six-day races were held in Madison Square Garden in New York; the word "Madison" is still used as the name for this type of race in six-day racing. A group of US velodromes formed the American Track Racing Association and its membership now includes more than half of all velodromes in the US. Track cycling events fit into two broad categories: sprint races and endurance races. Riders will fall into one category and not compete in the other.
Riders with good all round ability in the junior ranks will decide to focus on one area or another before moving up to the senior ranks. Sprint races are between 8 and 10 laps in length and focus on raw sprinting power and race tactics over a small number of laps to defeat opponents. Sprint riders will train to compete in races of this length and will not compete in longer endurance races; the main sprint events are: Endurance races are held over much longer distances. While these test the riders endurance abilities, the ability to sprint is required in the Madison, points race and scratch race; the length of these races varies from 12–16 laps for the individual and team pursuit races, up to 120 laps for a full length Madison race in World Championships or Olympic Games. The main endurance events are: Held every four years as part of the Summer Olympics. There are 10 events in the Olympics, fewer than appear in the World Championships. At the 2008 Summer Olympics, seven of these events were for men.
For the 2012 Summer Olympics, there were five events for both women. For the 2016 Summer Olympics the events remained the same; the UCI Track Cycling World Championships are held every year in March or April at the end of the winter track season. There are 20 events in the World Championships, 10 for men and 10 for women. Qualification places are determined by different countries performance during the World Cup Classic series held through the season; the UCI Track Cycling World Cup series consists of four or five meetings, held in different countries throughout the world during the winter track cycling season. These meeting include 17 of the 19 events. Events won and points scored by the riders throughout this series count towards qualification places individually and for their nation in the World Championships at the end of the season; the overall leader in each event wears the white points leaders jersey at each race, with the overall winner at the end of the season keeping the jersey and wearing it at the World Championships.
Riders compete for trade teams. As World Championship qualification is at stake, the events attract a top field of riders. However, it is common for top riders not to compete at all the events of the series, with teams using the events to field younger riders or attempt different line-ups at some events. Top riders can still win the series, or obtain good a placing for qualification points for their country, without competing at every event; the UCI Track Cycling World Ranking is based upon the results in all women's UCI-sanctioned races over a twelve-month period. The ranking includes an individual and a nations ranking and includes the disciplines: individual pursuit, points race, sprint, time trial, omnium, team pursuit, team sprint and madison. Several countries run a series of national level events held as part of series throughout each of those countries and sometimes across country borders. Examples of these are the Revolution track series held in both the UK and Australia, the ATRA NCS series in the United States.
Aerodynamic drag is a significant factor in both track racing. Frames are constructed of moulded carbon fiber, for a li