click links in text for more info


In organic chemistry, the cycloalkanes are the monocyclic saturated hydrocarbons. In other words, a cycloalkane consists only of hydrogen and carbon atoms arranged in a structure containing a single ring, all of the carbon-carbon bonds are single. Cycloalkanes are named analogously to their normal alkane counterparts of the same carbon count: cyclopropane, cyclopentane, etc; the larger cycloalkanes, with more than 20 carbon atoms are called cycloparaffins. The cycloalkanes without side chains are classified as small, common and large. Besides this standard definition by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, in some authors' usage the term cycloalkane includes those saturated hydrocarbons that are polycyclic. In any case, the general form of the chemical formula for cycloalkanes is CnH2, where n is the number of carbon atoms and r is the number of rings; the simpler form, when working without focusing on rings is CnH2. The naming of polycyclic alkanes such as bicyclic alkanes and spiro alkanes is more complex, with the base name indicating the number of carbons in the ring system, a prefix indicating the number of rings, a numeric prefix before that indicating the number of carbons in each part of each ring, exclusive of junctions.

For instance, a bicyclooctane that consists of a six-membered ring and a four-membered ring, which share two adjacent carbon atoms that form a shared edge, is -bicyclooctane. That part of the six-membered ring, exclusive of the shared edge has 4 carbons; that part of the four-membered ring, exclusive of the shared edge, has 2 carbons. The edge itself, exclusive of the two vertices that define it, has 0 carbons. There is more than one convention for the naming of compounds, which can be confusing for those who are just learning, inconvenient for those who are well rehearsed in the older ways. For beginners it is best to learn IUPAC nomenclature from a source, up to date, because this system is being revised. In the above example -bicyclooctane would be written bicyclooctane to fit the conventions for IUPAC naming, it has room for an additional numerical prefix if there is the need to include details of other attachments to the molecule such as chlorine or a methyl group. Another convention for the naming of compounds is the common name, a shorter name and it gives less information about the compound.

An example of a common name is terpineol, the name of which can tell us only that it is an alcohol and it should have a hydroxy group attached to it. An example of the IUPAC method is given in the adjacent image. In this example the base name is listed first, which indicates the total number of carbons in both rings including the carbons making up the shared edge. In front of the base name is the numerical prefix, which lists the number of carbons in each ring, excluding the carbons that are shared by each ring, plus the number of carbons on the bridge between the rings. In this case there are two rings with two carbons each and a single bridge with one carbon, excluding the carbons shared by it and the other two rings. There is a total of three numbers and they are listed in descending order separated by dots, thus:. Before the numerical prefix is another prefix indicating the number of rings. Thus, the name is bicycloheptane; the group of cycloalkanes are known as naphthenes. Cycloalkanes are similar to alkanes in their general physical properties, but they have higher boiling points, melting points, densities than alkanes.

This is due to stronger London forces. Containing only C–C and C–H bonds, unreactivity of cycloalkanes with little or no ring strain are comparable to non-cyclic alkanes. In cycloalkanes, the carbon atoms are sp3 hybridized, which would imply an ideal tetrahedral bond angle of 109° 28′ whenever possible. Owing to evident geometrical reasons, rings with 3, 4, 5 atoms can only afford narrower angles. Eclipsing of hydrogen atoms is an important destabilizing effect, as well; the strain energy of a cycloalkane is the theoretical increase in energy caused by the compound's geometry, is calculated by comparing the experimental standard enthalpy change of combustion of the cycloalkane with the value calculated using average bond energies. Conformations of cycloalkanes, their different strain contributions with respect to reaction rates, methods for their characterization are discussed in the Wikipedia section Conformational isomerism. Molecular mechanics calculations are well suited to identify the many conformations occurring in medium rings.

Ring strain is highest for cyclopropane, in which the carbon atoms form a triangle and therefore have 60° C–C–C bond angles. There are three pairs of eclipsed hydrogens; the ring strain is calculated to be around 120 kJ mol−1. Cyclobutane has the carbon atoms in a puckered square with 90° bond angles, its ring strain is therefore less, at around 110 kJ mol−1. For a theoretical planar cyclopentane the C–C–C bond angles would be

Colin Mayes

Colin N. Mayes, is a Canadian politician and was the Member of Parliament for the riding of Okanagan—Shuswap from 2006 to 2015. In the 2006 federal election, he ran as a member of the Conservative Party and won with 44.86% of the vote. Prior to being elected to the House of Commons of Canada, he was elected mayor of Dawson City and Salmon Arm, British Columbia, he was a nominated candidate for both the Yukon Conservative Party and the Reform Party of British Columbia. He ran a trucking enterprise in the Yukon, owned a grocery store, worked in business development, he served as chair of the Standing Committee on Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development and the Subcommittee on Agenda and Procedure of the aforementioned committee, was a member of the Liaison Committee and the Standing Committee on Veterans Affairs. Mayes was the subject of minor controversy when it was reported he had responded to a e-mailed racist joke with the comment "good joke". Mayes voiced his support for private member's bill, motion 312, which would have Canada reexamine at what point human life begins.

He retired from parliament. Colin MayesParliament of Canada biography 2006 election results from the CBC

Steven King (ice hockey)

Steven Andrew King is an American former ice hockey forward who played professionally from 1991 to 2000. King played collegiate hockey at Brown University for 4 seasons, during his senior year he was selected by the New York Rangers in the 1991 NHL Supplemental Draft. During his first two professional seasons, King played 119 games for the Binghamton Rangers of the American Hockey League, he was called up to the National Hockey League by New York for 24 games in the 1992–93 NHL season; the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim entered the league during 1993–94 NHL season and they claimed King from the Rangers in the 1993 NHL Expansion Draft. King played 43 more NHL games from 1993 to 1995 and finished his career playing for the Baltimore Bandits, Philadelphia Phantoms, Rochester Americans, Providence Bruins, Springfield Falcons of the AHL and the Michigan K-Wings and Cincinnati Cyclones of the International Hockey League. During his career King played in 67 NHL games, scoring 17 goals along with 8 assists.

His other professional hockey statistics included 135 goals and 94 assists during 257 AHL games and 32 goals and 20 assists in 80 IHL games. At Brown University he added 33 assists in 104 games. After he retired as a player, King returned to Brown University and served as an assistant coach during the 2000–2001 and 2001–2002 collegiate seasons, he worked as a financial advisor for three years before returning to Brown in 2006 to succeed his former classmate, Ron Dalgliesh'91, as the Executive Director of the Brown University Sports Foundation. Biographical information and career statistics from, or, or Legends of Hockey, or The Internet Hockey Database

Flaunt It (album)

Flaunt It is the debut album by British band Sigue Sigue Sputnik. The album featured a remix of their #3 UK hit single "Love Missile F1-11", as well as "21st Century Boy". Flaunt It was unique in that the band sold spots between songs for advertisements. Ads for L'Oréal, i-D magazine, the short-lived London pirate television station NeTWork 21, London's Kensington Market clothing shop Pure Sex were complemented by fictitious ads for the Sputnik Corporation and the Sigue Sigue Sputnik Computer Game. All original CD versions and the version released in Germany include an ad for Tempo, a lifestyle magazine; the liner notes include small print ads for the various advertisers, as well. All songs written by Anthony James, Martin Degville and Neal Whitmore except "Atari Baby" and "Massive Retaliation" written by Anthony James, Martin Degville, Neal Whitmore and Giorgio Moroder. "Love Missile F1-11" "Atari Baby" "Sex-Bomb-Boogie" "Rockit Miss U·S·A" "21st Century Boy" "Massive Retaliation" "Teenage Thunder" "She's My Man" Martin Degville - vocals Tony James - synth guitar Neal X - electric guitar Ray Mayhew - drums Chris Kavanagh - drums Miss Yana Ya Ya - special effects Giorgio Moroder - producer Brian Reeves - engineer Syd Brak - illustrations Mike Morton - photography Joe Shutter - photography Frank Griffin - photography Dave Thompson - liner notes Brian Carr - legal counsel "Love Missile F1-11" was used in the 1986 hit film Ferris Bueller's Day Off and the video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City.

A version of the song is featured in the South Park episode Super Fun Time, with Eric Cartman singing along "I'm having a super fun time". The song features on the trailer for Stretch Pop Will Eat Itself released a cover of "Love Missile F1-11" as a single in May 1987, before including it on the Box Frenzy LP in 1988. David Bowie covered the song as an outtake during the sessions for Reality, it was released as a B-side for the single "New Killer Star". The robot depicted on Syd Brak's cover art was ranked as the 17th best robot of all time on the January 18th, 2017 episode of The Best Show with Tom Scharpling. Sigue Sigue Sputnik – Flaunt It at Discogs

Giriraj Singh Bora

Giriraj Singh Bora is an Indian liver transplant surgeon. He is the Founder member of the Liver transplant Society of India. Bora was the first surgeon to transplant the liver in Rajasthan, he carried out the first deceased donor and the first living donor liver transplants in Rajasthan and has been instrumental in starting a liver transplant program in the region. He serves as the joint director of Liver Transplantation and senior consultant of GI Surgery at Artemis Hospital. Born in Jaipur, Bora received his medical degree from JLN medical College, Ajmer, he received MS in Surgery from the same college in Rajasthan in 2003. Bora served as senior resident In the Dept of Surgical Gastroenterology, SGPGI Lucknow between 2004-2005. In 2008, he completed MCh in Surgical Gastroenterology from Gobind Ballabh Pant Hospital, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, he completed fellowship Liver Transplant from Indraprastha Apollo Hospital in 2011. Bora started his medical career as a consultant for Surgical Gastroenterology in Fortis Hospital Jaipur.

He served as a Senior Resident in GI Surgery at the Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences in Lucknow. He joined Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, New Delhi as the consultant in the Department of HPB Surgery, Liver Transplantation in 2011, he was in the team and performed 1450 Liver transplants and advanced Liver and bile duct surgeries from 2012 to 2015. He has performed advanced Liver and bile duct surgeries during the same period. In 2016, he was appointed as the Joint Director of Liver Transplantation & Senior Consultant of GI Surgery at Artemis Hospital.. Giriraj Bora performed a rare liver transplant on one year old babyBora has been a contributor and editor for medical journals and clinical publications, he has carried out medical research and published articles on Hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery, Surgical Gastroenterology. Travel Award of the International Liver Transplant Society in 2012 at San Francisco, USA Honoured by the Chief Minister of Rajasthan for performing the 1st liver transplant in the state Young Investigator Award of the International Liver Transplant Society in 2013 at Sydney.

First Deceased and First Living donor Liver Transplant of Rajasthan First Living donor Liver Transplant of Rajasthan

R. K. Singh

Raj Kumar Singh is a former Indian bureaucrat and a current Minister of State in the Government of India. He is a Member of the Indian Parliament for Arrah, since May 2014. Singh is a 1975 batch Bihar cadre Indian Administrative Service officer and former Home Secretary of India. On 3 September 2017 he was appointed as the Minister of Power in Prime Minister Narendra Modi's cabinet. On 30 May 2019, he was appointed as Minister of State of the Ministry of Power, Minister of State of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy and Minister of State in the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, Government of India. Singh was born to Haldhar Prasad Chandrakala Devi in Supaul in Bihar, he did Bachelor of Arts in English Literature, LL. B. and Diploma in Management. He was educated at St. Stephen's College, Magadh University and Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, he married Shiela Singh in 27 February 1975. They have a daughter together, he was the district magistrate in East Champaran and Patna in the 1980s before joining the state home department in 1997.

On 30 October 1990, R. K. Singh, posted as Registrar Cooperatives, Govt. of Bihar in Patna was appointed district magistrate of Samastipur on special deputation so that he could be sent to arrest L. K. Advani, a senior figure in the Bharatiya Janata Party, while Advani's Ram Rath Yatra was en route to Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh from Somnath in Gujarat; the arrest was made by order of the Lalu Prasad Yadav government. During the Nitish Kumar government's first term, Singh, as principal secretary in the road construction department, played an important role in improving the condition of roads in Bihar. In the National Democratic Alliance-led government, the Home Minister, selected Singh to work as joint secretary in the Home Ministry for five years from 1999 to 2004. R. K. Singh was Union Home Secretary of India from 30 June 2011 to 30 June 2013,after that he retired from service. In 2013, Singh was tipped to be adviser in the Nitish Kumar-led Bihar government,a post created through cabinet approval.

However, he did not accept the assignment. Before his appointment as Union home Secretary, Union Defence Minister A. K. Antony had picked Singh to head the department of defence production in 2009 in view of his clean reputation. Singh was chosen by the Union Home Minister P. Chidambaram for his efficiency and no-nonsense attitude. Known to be a tough taskmaster, Chidambaram got along well with Singh at a professional level. However, Singh had several run-ins with Chidambaram's successor, Sushilkumar Shinde, not happy with the home secretary's handling of the situation following 16 December 2012 Delhi gang rape. R. K. Singh after retirement revealed Shinde's involvement in the IPL Spot-fixing case and how Shinde had interfered in that investigation. Shinde met the accused Shahid Balwa at his North Block office after R. K. Singh's statements regarding Shinde's involvement in the IPL spot-fixing case. There was speculation that Singh would contest from the Bihar constituencies of either Arrah or Supaul in the 2014 Lok Sabha polls, though Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh objected to him contesting from Supaul.

On 13 December 2013, Singh joined the BJP. He contested the election as a BJP candidate in Arrah, beating his nearest rival, Sribhagwan Singh Kushwaha of RJD by a margin of over 135000 votes. In the 2019 General Elections conducted for the formation of the 17th Lok Sabha, he again contested from Arrah and retained his seat becoming the first MP from Arrah since Chandradeo Prasad Verma to retain his seat in successive elections, he defeated his nearest rival Raju Yadav of CPI Liberation by 1,47,285 votes. On 3 September 2017, Mr. Singh was appointed as Minister of Power and Minister of New and Renewable Energy by Narendra Modi; this post was held by Piyush Goyal. In May 2019, Singh was appointed as Minister of State for Power and New and Renewable Energy and Minister of State for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship. Bihar Breakthrough - RK Singh