Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical and linguistic ties. The term Scandinavia in local usage covers the three kingdoms of Denmark and Sweden; the majority national languages of these three, belong to the Scandinavian dialect continuum, are mutually intelligible North Germanic languages. In English usage, Scandinavia sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, always known locally as the Nordic countries. While part of the Nordic countries, the remote Norwegian islands of Svalbard and Jan Mayen are not in Scandinavia, nor is Greenland, a constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark; the Faroe Islands are sometimes included. The name Scandinavia referred to the former Danish, now Swedish, region of Scania. Scandinavia and Scandinavian entered usage in the late 18th century, being introduced by the early linguistic and cultural Scandinavist movement; the majority of the population of Scandinavia are descended from several North Germanic tribes who inhabited the southern part of Scandinavia and spoke a Germanic language that evolved into Old Norse.
Icelanders and the Faroese are to a significant extent descended from the Norse and are therefore seen as Scandinavian. Finland is populated by Finns, with a minority of 5% of Swedish speakers. A small minority of Sami people live in the extreme north of Scandinavia; the Danish and Swedish languages form a dialect continuum and are known as the Scandinavian languages—all of which are considered mutually intelligible with one another. Faroese and Icelandic, sometimes referred to as insular Scandinavian languages, are intelligible in continental Scandinavian languages only to a limited extent. Finnish and Meänkieli are related to each other and more distantly to the Sami languages, but are unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Apart from these, German and Romani are recognized minority languages in parts of Scandinavia. "Scandinavia" refers to Denmark and Sweden. Some sources argue for the inclusion of the Faroe Islands and Iceland, though that broader region is known by the countries concerned as Norden, or the Nordic countries.
The use of "Scandinavia" as a convenient general term for Denmark and Sweden is recent. According to some historians, it was adopted and introduced in the eighteenth century, at a time when the ideas about a common heritage started to appear and develop into early literary and linguistic Scandinavism. Before this time, the term "Scandinavia" was familiar to classical scholars through Pliny the Elder's writings and was used vaguely for Scania and the southern region of the peninsula; as a political term, Scandinavia was first used by students agitating for pan-Scandinavianism in the 1830s. The popular usage of the term in Sweden and Norway as a unifying concept became established in the nineteenth century through poems such as Hans Christian Andersen's "I am a Scandinavian" of 1839. After a visit to Sweden, Andersen became a supporter of early political Scandinavism. In a letter describing the poem to a friend, he wrote: "All at once I understood how related the Swedes, the Danes and the Norwegians are, with this feeling I wrote the poem after my return:'We are one people, we are called Scandinavians!'".
The clearest example of the use of Scandinavia is Finland, based on the fact that most of modern-day Finland was part of the Swedish kingdom for hundreds of years, thus to much of the world associating Finland with all of Scandinavia. However, the creation of a Finnish identity is unique in the region in that it was formed in relation to two different imperial models, the Swedish and the Russian, as described by the University of Jyväskylä based editorial board of the Finnish journal Yearbook of Political Thought and Conceptual History. Various promotional agencies of the Nordic countries in the United States serve to promote market and tourism interests in the region. Today, the five Nordic heads of state act as the organization's patrons and according to the official statement by the organization its mission is "to promote the Nordic region as a whole while increasing the visibility of Denmark, Iceland and Sweden in New York City and the United States"; the official tourist boards of Scandinavia sometimes cooperate under one umbrella, such as the Scandinavian Tourist Board.
The cooperation was introduced for the Asian market in 1986, when the Swedish national tourist board joined the Danish national tourist board to coordinate intergovernmental promotion of the two countries. Norway's government entered one year later. All five Nordic governments participate in the joint promotional efforts in the United States through the Scandinavian Tourist Board of North America. While the term "Scandinavia" is used for Denmark and Sweden, the term "Nordic countries" is used unambiguously for Denmark, Sweden and Iceland, including their associated territories. Scandinavia can thus be considered a subset of the Nordic countries. Furthermore, the term Fennoscandia refers to Scandinavia and Karelia, excluding Denmark and overseas territories, but the usage of this term is restricted to geology when speaking of the Fennoscandian Shield. In addition to the mainland Scandinavian countries of: Denmark Norway (constitutional monarchy with a parliament
Cyclone Xaver known as the North Sea flood or tidal surge of 2013, was a winter storm that affected northern Europe. Force 12 winds and heavy snowfall were predicted along the storm's path, there were warnings of a significant risk of storm surge leading to coastal flooding along the coasts of the North and Irish Seas; the Free University of Berlin gave the storm the name Xaver, given to the Berit storm of 2011. The Danish Meteorological Institute following a decision that the institute would name storms affecting Denmark following the St. Jude storm named the storm Bodil. In Poland, the storm is named Ksawery, the Polish equivalent of Xaver; the Swedish Meteorological Institute gave the storm the name Sven, after the name day of 5 December. In the Netherlands the storm was known as the "Sinterklaasstorm", as 5 December is traditionally celebrated as St. Nicholas Eve in the country. Twitter users in the UK were using the hashtags #Xaver and #UKstorm; the European Windstorm Centre, a UK-based forecaster, gave the storm the name Cameron.
Xaver formed to the south of Greenland on 4 December, explosively deepened as it moved east to pass the north of Scotland on 5 December. Over the next few days Xaver moved over Southern Norway and Sweden intensifying further, reaching its lowest pressure over the Baltic Sea; the low pressure system formed on 4 December off the west coast of Iceland and was expected to deepen explosively overnight. The UK Met Office issued an amber warning over Scotland and northern parts of England, that wind gusts may reach 90 miles per hour. On 4 December the Environment Agency released a warning to communities along the East Coast of England to prepare for the most serious tidal surge in 30 years, with a significant threat of coastal flooding between 5–7 December. In the Netherlands, the provinces of Friesland and North Holland were placed on Red Alert. Winds of Force 9 – 11 were forecast; the IJsselmeer and Waddenzee areas were covered by the Code Red alert. Force 12 gusts were expected in Denmark. In Sweden, the local meteorological institute gave a level 2 warning for central parts of the country due to heavy snowfall and formation of snow drifts.
An extreme weather warning was given to coastal areas of northwestern Germany due to 85 miles per hour wind gusts. Meteorologists in Germany likened the storm's development to that seen during the North Sea flood of 1962 in which 340 people lost their lives in Hamburg, saying that improvements in sea defences since that time would withstand this storm surge; the oil platform Buchan Alpha, northeast of Aberdeen was evacuated due to the upcoming storm. East Coast trains announced Thursday 4 December that they expected to run a revised timetable the next day due to the storm. First ScotRail planned to not run trains before 7:00 am on 5 December and expected around 20 routes to be closed, with Network Rail advising passengers to expect delays in Scotland and northern and eastern England. In Leeds roads surrounding the Bridgewater Place tower were closed following a coroners ruling that the surrounding roads should be closed when wind gusts reach 45 miles per hour, following the death of a man after a truck was blown over by freak winds in 2011.
People living in Great Yarmouth were told to prepare to evacuate in case the River Yare flooded as a result of the storm. In London, the Thames Barrier was closed to protect the capital from surges along the River Thames, closing for the 126th time in its 31-years of service. Storm Xaver brought wind gusts up to 142 mph to upland Scotland, though the lowlands in the U. K. and mainland Europe saw some strong winds. A large area along the European coast from the Netherlands to Denmark saw gusts up to 81 mph with one location on the Danish-German border peaking at 98 mph. Poland saw. Winds brought down a life size Tyrannosaurus rex model at Klimahaus Bremerhaven. In Scotland, at 8 a.m. on 5 December 2013 Glasgow Central station was evacuated after the glass roof was broken by flying debris. ScotRail cancelled all services in Scotland due to debris including "trampolines, hay bales and trees" falling on the train lines. Rail Net Denmark announced that all rail transport would come to a halt for the afternoon of 5 December.
This is the first time. All rail services were cancelled in the Swedish region of Skåne. Rail services across Northern Germany were affected with cancellations across Schleswig-Holstein; the East Suffolk Line was closed due to flooding at six locations between Haddiscoe. Services between Lowestoft and Beccles had not been restored as of 12 December 2013. Friarton Bridge, Scotland was closed due to an overturned lorry as a result of the storm; the Redheugh Bridge between Newcastle and Gateshead was closed due to an overturned lorry, leaving the route closed and traffic diverted, Forth Bridge was closed due to luton van being driven onto the bridge and abandons the van and Skye bridges were closed. Elsewhere, the Ouse Bridge which carries the M62 motorway over the River Ouse was closed in both directions following a lorry overturning in the high winds. In Stavanger, Norway, on the evening of 5 December 2013 road traffic and pedestrians were not allowed to the city centre due to the risk of house elements being blown down.
The Isle of Man Steam Packet Company cancelled ferries to and from Douglas due to winds forecast to reach Force 9. in Stavanger, Norway several local ferry services were cancelled. Glasgow and Aberdeen airports were affected by the storm. With an Easyjet flight to
The Eyemouth disaster was a severe European windstorm that struck the south-eastern coast of Scotland, United Kingdom Berwickshire, on 14 October 1881. One hundred and eighty-nine fishermen, most of whom were from the village of Eyemouth, were drowned. Many citizens of Eyemouth call the day Black Friday. Eyemouth - 129 Burnmouth - 24 Newhaven - 17 Cove - 11 Fisherrow - 7 Coldingham Shore - 3Some boats that had not capsized were wrecked on the Hurkar Rocks. Many houses were destroyed. Two days the Ariel Gazelle turned up in Eyemouth, having braved the storm instead of fleeing. A donation-led relief fund was established to provide financial security to families who had lost members to the storm; the response was significant, bringing in over £50,000. The disaster was the subject of a contemporary oil on canvas painting by Scottish artist J. Michael Brown Moray Firth fishing disaster Peter Aitchison. Children of the Sea: The Story of the People of Eyemouth. Tuckwell Press Ltd, 2001. "Black Friday" by Peter Aitchison "The Boy Who Came Ashore" by Alan Gay The Eyemouth Disaster - Black Friday The Eyemouth Disaster of 1881 Listing of Individuals who Perished When the seas swallowed Scotland's fishermen
Moray Firth fishing disaster
The Moray Firth fishing disaster of August 1848 was one of the worst fishing disasters in maritime history on the east coast of Scotland, was caused by a severe storm that struck the Moray Firth. The event led to widespread improvements to harbours and significant changes to the design of fishing boats over the remainder of the 19th century. Scottish fishing boats of the late 18th and early 19th centuries were small sail boats with open hulls that fished close to shore; the shallow design of the boats allowed them to be launched by their crew from beaches or small harbours, but their open hull provided little shelter for the crew and made them susceptible to swamping and capsizing in rough seas. Dutch fishermen had been fishing for herring in the North Sea from the 15th century, had developed a large scale system of "Buss" fishing in deeper waters using large boats which stayed at sea for several weeks and cured the fish aboard the vessels. To compete with this method, the Government of the day introduced a bounty system which rewarded fishermen for using larger vessels, but paid the bounty based on the size of catch.
This led to a gradual increase in the size of fishing vessel operating from the East Coast harbours, although open hulls were still favoured because this allowed the maximum possible catch to be accommodated. The weather on the afternoon of 18 August was favourable, promising good fishing and, from Wick to Stonehaven, around 800 boats set out to sea to gather the day's herring catch. By midnight the weather was deteriorating with strengthening winds and heavy seas. Many skippers decided to make for shelter. During the following storm, 124 boats were lost, many while trying to enter harbour, 100 fishermen lost their lives, leaving behind 47 widows and 161 children. In the aftermath of the storm, the Government appointed Captain John Washington of the Admiralty to conduct an inquiry into the tragedy and make recommendations for safety improvements in the fishing industry, his report, entitled Report on the loss of life, damage caused to fishing boats on the East Coast of Scotland, in the gale of 19 August 1848, was presented to the House of Commons in 1849.
Washington came to two main conclusions: firstly, that the open-hulled design of the fishing boats was deficient, leading to their susceptibility to swamping in heavy seas, was a significant factor in the tragedy. Washington's recommendations led to a programme of improvements to the many small harbours around the east coast of Scotland; the Fishery Board for Scotland encouraged the introduction of decked vessels. The main types of boat used for herring fishing on the east coast were the Fifie, the smaller Skaffie, common around the Moray Firth. Fishermen resisted the introduction of decks because it reduced the space available for the catch, but they feared that a deck would increase the risk of men being swept overboard; the provision of decks on the boats became more common, which led to a further increase in boat size to compensate for the reduced space for the catch. In addition to decks, new boats were being built with a small forecastle in the bow, which contained bunks and provided shelter for the fishermen.
This evolution in boat design led to the introduction of the Baldie in 1860 and the Zulu in 1879. By the end of the century all the east coast fishing vessels were decked. Maritime history of Scotland Eyemouth Disaster Scottish East Coast Fishery The history of herring fishing on the east coast of Scotland
Gale of January 1976
The Gale of January 1976 known as the "Capella" storm in Germany and the Ruisbroek flood in Belgium, was one in a series of extratropical cyclones and storm surges, which occurred over January 1976. The gale of 2–5 January resulted in severe wind damage across western and central Europe and coastal flooding around the southern North Sea coasts. At the time, this was the most severe storm of the century to date over the British Isles. Total fatalities reached 82 across Europe, although a figure of 100 is given by the World Meteorological Organization. Of these 24 were reported in 4 in Ireland. Overall losses of US$1,300 million were incurred, with insured losses standing at US$500 million. December 1975 saw a deep low persisting over the northern Barents Sea with a high north of the Azores and west of Biscay, which enhanced a strong westerly flow over northern Europe; this anomalously strong westerly flow over the North Atlantic saw a low pressure maintained in the central Atlantic in association with an stationary upper trough.
During the afternoon of 1 January, a depression broke away from this central Atlantic low from the SW of the Azores in a frontal wave, transporting a mass of warm and moist air and moved northeast, to be centred 150 kilometres north-west of Malin Head Ireland, by midday on 2 January. On its journey, the system deepened, powered by an in-draught of cold air from the north which supplied temperature contrast powering explosive development; the low passed eastwards, crossing central Scotland out into the North Sea to reach northern Denmark by the morning of 3 January. The central pressure reached a minimum of 962 hPa in the eastern North Sea. After crossing the North Sea, the low elongated over the southern Baltic Sea, with the centre stretching from Denmark to the Gulf of Gdańsk, with an occluded front stretching parallel to the southern Baltic Sea coast; the low coalesced with a secondary low which had formed in its wake, taking an elongated form over Denmark and the southern Baltic Sea. The gale's rapid development took the Irish weather service by surprise.
Flood warnings were only received by the police from the Met Office half an hour before water overwhelmed the sea defences. The UK national forecast service was in operation at this time with warnings provided up to 12 hours before the storm. Met Éireann estimated that the storm in Ireland was one third as disruptive than the previous storm of 11–12 January 1974 and was disruptive as a storm on 27–28 January 1974. Overall the storm was not as severe in Ireland as those storms, but in the mid-west of Ireland was severe along the upper reaches of the River Shannon from Limerick to Portumna and Athlone; the duration and force of the winds were comparable across Ireland to those experienced during Ex-Hurricane Debbie of 1961. In Ireland, damage from wind brought down trees and power lines on the evening of 2 January, blocking many roads; the Irish electricity board estimated some 90,000 homes had disrupted power supplies for an extended period. Transportation was affected by the storm, with many islands cut off by heavy seas.
Air transport was grounded for several hours at Irish airports. At Shannon Airport, a large inflatable hangar was blown away. In the British Isles, the storm was described as the worst since 1953 and destruction covered a wider area of the United Kingdom than the Great Storm of 1987, with 1.5 million incidents of damage reported. The storm saw structural damage occur across nearly all counties of England and Northern Ireland, with the worst hit areas in a band from Ulster across the Irish Sea to Lancashire and down through the Midlands into East Anglia. Wind speeds of over 40 m/s were recorded at a number of stations in England, with RAF Wittering in Cambridgeshire recording a gust of 105 mph at 22:18 GMT on 2 January. Many stations across the North East of England, East Anglia and the Midlands experienced gusts in excess of 70 kn, with mean winds of 45 kn or more. Strong gale or storm force was reached with hurricane force 12 reported from some places in South Wales and northern England, with Middlesbrough experiencing 114 mph winds.
In mainland Britain, railways were affected as overhead power supplies collapsed in the Midlands. A light aircraft was blown onto the railway from the ground at Southend Airport, causing disruption on the line. Damages were incurred at Manchester Ringway Airport, where runway approach lighting masts were bent and buckled by the wind; the high winds brought down a crane in central Manchester. The high winds blew a beech tree onto the elephant house of Longleat Safari Park causing estimated damage of $20,000 USD, The elephants Twiggy and Chiki escaped unharmed and were put to work pulling the remains of the tree from their home. One of the pinnacles of the main tower of Worcester Cathedral crashed through the roof into the transept during the storm. There were prolonged power outages in Norfolk, with power being cut to over 100,000 in the three counties of Kent and Sussex to the south of London; the Old Vic theatre in London was evacuated as strong winds brought down scaffolding surrounding the venue.
A spokesman for the RAC described the general conditions in the country as being like "A giant bowling alley with trees littered like bowling pins all over the road."Prolonged power outages occurred in Northern Ireland. The January storm of 1976 was similar in strength to those of Cyclone Quimburga and the storm of 2 April 1973 in the Netherlands, with average winds 114 km/h and gusts reaching 144 km/h in IJmuiden and Vliss
Cyclone Niklas known as the Lentestorm in the Netherlands, was a European windstorm that affected areas of western and central Europe with widespread disruption to air and road transport at the end of March 2015. The storm caused forestry and property damage, power outages, led to the loss of several lives. Preceding the development of the Niklas storm on 28–29 March strong rainfall was reported in the southern Germany; the 24-hour rainfall of 29–30 March in the Black Forest saw more than 60 liters fall per square metre. The Niklas storm was preceded by the low pressure named Mike by the Free University of Berlin, which brought hurricane strength winds to Germany on the 30th March. Gust reports from this low pressure at the high-altitude stations of Brocken were of 152 kilometres per hour and Zugspitze 137 kilometres per hour; the Niklas storm began to develop on the 29 March off the Newfoundland coast. Powerful air temperature differences across Europe led to a strong upper air flow at 2.5 km altitude.
Embedded in this was a shortwave trough, which promoted the intensification of the surface low Niklas as it came across Scotland. A plume of colder air from area of Iceland and Greenland formed a strong temperature gradient with warmer air masses from the Atlantic circulating around high pressure centred to the west of Iberia which helped intensify the storm. Together with an area of low pressure over Scandinavia, which formed a strong air pressure gradient across north-west Europe, The approach of the low pressure saw a tightening of the air pressure gradient in the German Bight and north west Germany; the pressure difference being between 1035 hPa in the high pressure situated to the west of Iberia, to a low of 971.4 hPa recorded at the Ekofisk platform in the North Sea. This situation was coupled with a powerful jet stream above the developing storm. Niklas developed as it crossed the UK reaching a low pressure 971.4hPa as it crossed the North Sea, in the course of a day moved to southern Denmark before continuing to the southern Baltic Sea and on towards the Baltic States.
The storm field drew across Western Europe on 30 and 31 March 2015, reaching the Netherlands and large areas of Germany on 31 March 2015. Hurricane-force winds were reported in Germany, according to the German Weather service with a peak gust at altitude on the mountains of Zugspitze, the Brocken, Feldberg in the Black Forest and on Weinbiet in Neustadt. At lower elevations on the North Sea coast peak gusts of 140 km/h were reported; the storm was absorbed by Windstorm Oskar on 6 April. The Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute, KNMI ranked the storm at 27th place in the Netherlands since 1971, displacing Cyclone Xaver to 28th place, of comparable strength in the country; the wind speeds encountered in Germany from the Niklas storm were comparable to the strongest wind speeds recorded during March over the 1981-2010 reference period. The Niklas storm is thus one of the most violent storms encountered in Germany during March. Which is noteworthy as the storm occurred so late in March and after the beginning of meteorological spring.
According to the German Weather Service, DWD the Niklas storm is akin to Cyclone Emma, one of the strongest storms witnessed in Germany during March, was damaging in Bavaria, which reported winds up to 220 kilometres per hour on the Wendelstein Mountain and rainfall totals up to 60 mm. In comparison with other recent storms in Germany, the St. Jude storm of October 2013 and the Kyrill storm of January 2007 affected the northern half of Germany, with the St. Jude storm affecting the far north of Germany, where it was stronger than Niklas. In the southern half of Germany the Niklas storm was stronger than either of these two winter storms. Cyclone Niklas is regarded as being not quite as strong in Germany as the Kyrill storm which had a higher peak gust speed and longer duration. MeteoSwiss reported that in March winds over 100 kilometres per hour would be expected to recur on the Swiss Plateau once every four years. Between the mid 1980s and 2001 the return period for these winds was one in three years, but has been less observed in recent years.
Considered throughout the year the wind gusts measured on 31 March 2015 were not exceptional. In the Swiss lowlands such a wind event occurs about once in every two years, though locally, there were gusts which only occur at that location once every 5 to 6 years, for example at Affoltern, Zürich. In the Swiss mountains a gust of 160 kilometres per hour was measured on Säntis, which occurs every 1 to 2 years, on Mount Pilatus a gust of 150 kilometres per hour was recorded, expected about every 4 to 5 years. Niklas was not thought to represent an insurance loss in the league of that seen following the catastrophic damages of Cyclone Lothar and Martin in France 1999, where peak gusts of over 270 km/h were measured. In the United Kingdom the Met Office gave out a yellow "be aware" warning for wind; the hashtag #windy was trending on UK social media on the morning of 31 March. Wales saw maximum wind gusts of 97 miles per hour at Conwy. Around Wales both bridges of the Severn crossing were closed, along with temporary closures of the Cleddau Bridge in Pembrokeshire and the Britannia Bridge across the Menai Strait.
Structural damage was reported to property in the capital Cardiff and Mountain Ash, Rhondda Cynon Taf. In the North East of England a lorry overturned in the wind on the A1 motorway near Sedgef
Hurricane Ophelia (2017)
Hurricane Ophelia was regarded as the worst storm to affect Ireland in 50 years, was the easternmost Atlantic major hurricane on record. The tenth and final consecutive hurricane and the sixth major hurricane of the active 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, Ophelia had non-tropical origins from a decaying cold front on 6 October. Located within a favorable environment, the storm strengthened over the next two days, drifting north and southeastwards before becoming a hurricane on 11 October. After becoming a Category 2 hurricane and fluctuating in intensity for a day, Ophelia intensified into a major hurricane on 14 October south of the Azores, brushing the archipelago with high winds and heavy rainfall. Shortly after achieving peak intensity, Ophelia began weakening as it accelerated over progressively colder waters to its northeast towards Ireland and Great Britain. Completing an extratropical transition early on 16 October, Ophelia became the second storm of the 2017–18 European windstorm season.
Early on 17 October, the cyclone crossed the North Sea and struck western Norway, with wind gusts up to 70 kilometres per hour in Rogaland county, before weakening during the evening of 17 October. The system moved across Scandinavia before dissipating over Russia. Three deaths can be directly attributed to Ophelia. Total losses from the storm were less than feared, with a minimum estimate of total insured losses across Ireland and the United Kingdom of US$65.3 million. On 6 October, the United States' National Hurricane Center began monitoring the tail end of a decaying cold front for possible subtropical or tropical cyclogenesis. On the same day, a circulation developed on the periphery of this front. Soon afterwards, a non-tropical low developed within the circulation, drifted to the southwest before becoming nearly stationary; the system began to acquire subtropical characteristics on the next day, the chances of development were raised to a high percentage of cyclogenesis. After a brief loss of organization and diminished convection, due to moderate wind shear, the system continued to organize, developed a well-defined circulation center early on 9 October, as deep convection began to persist near the center.
By 09:00 UTC that day, the convection had persisted long enough for the system to be classified as a tropical depression about 875 mi west-southwest of the Azores, the storm was identified as Tropical Depression Seventeen. A curved banding feature wrapped around the center as the satellite presentation improved, leading to the upgrade to Tropical Storm Ophelia six hours later. Despite marginally warm sea surface temperatures of around 79 °F, the effects of below-average air temperatures aloft and low wind shear allowed Ophelia to strengthen. In addition, the large temperature contrast between the unusually-warm ocean surface and the cold temperatures in the upper atmosphere provided instability for Ophelia's thunderstorms, which allowed the storm to continue strengthening, despite being over marginally-warm ocean temperatures. A slight degradation of the structure of the storm resulted in some weakening early on 11 October, but this was short-lived as deep convection wrapped around the entire storm.
It was upgraded to a hurricane at 21:00 UTC that day after a ragged eye developed, becoming the record-tying tenth consecutive hurricane to form during the 2017 hurricane season. Afterwards, Ophelia intensified as it became nearly stationary, intensifying into a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale on 12 October, as the central dense overcast became more symmetric and the eye became better defined; the hurricane weakened on the following day, as cloud tops warmed, only to strengthen as the eye became much more defined and cloud tops cooled due to outflow from a strong trough to the northeast. The NHC upgraded the storm to a major hurricane at 15:00 UTC on 14 October. At the same time, it attained its peak intensity with winds of 115 mph and a minimum pressure of 959 millibars while located 235 miles southeast of the Azores. After peaking in intensity, increasing shear and dry air from an encroaching frontal boundary began to disrupt the core of the storm, which caused Ophelia to begin weakening early on 15 October, as it began its extratropical transition, with the eye collapsing.
The process accelerated as Ophelia became further embedded in the trough, the storm became extratropical at 03:00 UTC on the next day. Ophelia made landfall in Ireland as a hurricane-force European windstorm. Afterward, Ophelia weakened, tracked over the UK, turned eastward. Late on 17 October, Ophelia's remnant made landfall over Norway, before dissipating shortly afterward, on 18 October; the Portuguese Institute of the Sea and the Atmosphere issued a red warning for heavy rainfall for the eastern group of the Azores—São Miguel, Santa Maria and Formigas—on 14 October from 17:59 UTC to 23:59 UTC. An orange gale warning was issued for the eastern group for the afternoon through night of 14–15 October, as well as a yellow alert for high seas. Rainfall alerts were issued for the central group—Terceira, Graciosa, São Jorge Island and Faial; the President of the Regional Service of Civil Protection of the Azore