Dylan Marlais Thomas was a Welsh poet and writer whose works include the poems "Do not go gentle into that good night" and "And death shall have no dominion". He became popular in his lifetime and remained so after his premature death at the age of 39 in New York City. By he had acquired a reputation, which he had encouraged, as a "roistering and doomed poet". Thomas was born in Swansea, Wales, in 1914. An undistinguished pupil, he became a journalist for a short time. Many of his works appeared in print while he was still a teenager, the publication in 1934 of "Light breaks where no sun shines" caught the attention of the literary world. While living in London, Thomas met Caitlin Macnamara, whom he married in 1937. In 1938 they moved to the Welsh fishing village of Laugharne where from 1949 they settled permanently and brought up their three children. Thomas came to be appreciated as a popular poet during his lifetime, though he found earning a living as a writer difficult, he began augmenting his income with reading tours and radio broadcasts.
His radio recordings for the BBC during the late 1940s brought him to the public's attention, he was used by the BBC as a populist voice of the literary scene. Thomas first travelled to the United States in the 1950s, his readings there brought him a degree of fame, while drinking worsened. His time in America cemented his legend, he went on to record to vinyl such works as A Child's Christmas in Wales. During his fourth trip to New York in 1953, Thomas became gravely ill and fell into a coma, from which he never recovered, he died on 9 November 1953. His body was returned to Wales, where he was interred at the churchyard of St Martin's in Laugharne on 25 November 1953. Although Thomas wrote in the English language, he has been acknowledged as one of the most important Welsh poets of the 20th century, he is noted for his original and ingenious use of words and imagery. His position as one of the great modern poets has been much discussed, he remains popular with the public. Dylan Thomas was born on 27 October 1914 in Swansea, the son of Florence Hannah, a seamstress, David John Thomas, a teacher.
His father had a first-class honours degree in English from University College and ambitions to rise above his position teaching English literature at the local grammar school. Thomas had one sibling, Nancy Marles, eight years his senior; the children spoke only English, though their parents were bilingual in English and Welsh, David Thomas gave Welsh lessons at home. Thomas's father chose the name Dylan, which could be translated as "son of the sea", after Dylan ail Don, a character in The Mabinogion, his middle name, was given in honour of his great-uncle, William Thomas, a Unitarian minister and poet whose bardic name was Gwilym Marles. Dylan, pronounced ˈ in Welsh, caused his mother to worry that he might be teased as the "dull one"; when he broadcast on Welsh BBC, early in his career, he was introduced using this pronunciation. Thomas gave instructions that it should be Dillan; the red-brick semi-detached house at 5 Cwmdonkin Drive, in which Thomas was born and lived until he was 23, had been bought by his parents a few months before his birth.
His childhood featured regular summer trips to Llanstephan where his maternal relatives were the sixth generation to farm there. His mother's family, the Williamses, lived in such farms as Waunfwlchan, Llwyngwyn and Penycoed; the memory of Fernhill, a dairy farm owned by his maternal aunt, Ann Jones, is evoked in the 1945 lyrical poem "Fern Hill". Thomas struggled with these throughout his life. Thomas was indulged by his mother and enjoyed being mollycoddled, a trait he carried into adulthood, he was skilful in gaining attention and sympathy. Thomas' formal education began at Mrs Hole's dame school, a private school on Mirador Crescent, a few streets away from his home, he described his experience there in Quite Early One Morning: Never was there such a dame school as ours, so firm and kind and smelling of galoshes, with the sweet and fumbled music of the piano lessons drifting down from upstairs to the lonely schoolroom, where only the sometimes tearful wicked sat over undone sums, or to repent a little crime – the pulling of a girl's hair during geography, the sly shin kick under the table during English literature.
In October 1925, Thomas enrolled at Swansea Grammar School for boys, in Mount Pleasant, where his father taught English. He was an undistinguished pupil. In his first year one of his poems was published in the school's magazine, before he left he became its editor. During his final school years he began writing poetry in notebooks. In June 1928 Thomas won the school's mile race, held at St. Helen's Ground. In 1931, when he was 16, Thomas left school to become a reporter for the South Wales Daily Post, only to leave under pressure 18 months later. Thomas continued to work as a freelance journalist for several years, during which time he remained at Cwmdonkin Drive and continued to add to his notebooks, amassing 200 poems in four books between 1930 and 1934. Of the 90 poems he published, half were written during these years. In his free time, he join
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Rusk County, Texas
Rusk County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 53,330, its county seat is Henderson. The county is named for a secretary of war of the Republic of Texas. Rusk County is part of the Longview, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the Longview–Marshall, TX Combined Statistical Area. Rusk County is represented by Bryan Hughes, a Republican from Mineola, Texas, in the Texas State Senator for Senate District 1, which includes Rusk County. Travis Clardy, a Republican from Nacogdoches, is the Texas State Representative for House District 11, which includes Rusk County. Trent Ashby, a Republican from Lufkin, born in Rusk County in 1972, represents District 57, which includes Angelina and several other rural East Texas counties. Prior to Texas annexation in 1845, the land while from time to time occupied by Caddoan peoples, was unpopulated until 1819 when Cherokee Indians, led by The Bowl settled in what is now Rusk County; the Treaty of Bowles Village on February 23, 1836 between the Republic of Texas and the Cherokee and twelve affiliated tribes, gave parts of western Rusk County along with parts of today's Gregg and Van Zandt counties, in addition to the whole areas of Cherokee and Smith counties to the tribes.
They remained on these lands until the Cherokee War in the summer of 1839. Thus the Cherokee were driven out of Rusk County only to return in 1844 and 1845 with the purchase of 10,000 aces of land by Benjamin Franklin Thompson a white man married to a Cherokee; this established the Mount Tabor Indian Community, some six miles south of present day Kilgore that spread to incorporate areas near Troup and Overton, Texas. Organized as a part of Nacogdoches County, Rusk was established as its own county by the Congress of the Republic of Texas on January 16, 1843. By 1850, it was the second-most populous county in Texas of the 78 counties, organized at that time, according to the 1850 census. Rusk County's population was 8,148 then. With the discovery of oil in Joinerville in October 1930, an oil boom began that caused county population to nearly double during the next decade, caused dramatic changes in the county towns. Rusk is one of the five counties that are part of the East Texas Oil Field, whose production has been a major part of the economy since that time.
Rusk County was one of 25 dry counties in Texas until January 2012. The city of Henderson at that time opted to allow serving beer and wine. Sadly, America's worst school disaster happened in Rusk County in 1937, when nearly 300 people, most of them children, were killed in a natural gas explosion at the London Independent School District. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 938 square miles, of which 924 square miles is land and 14 square miles is covered by water. U. S. Highway 79 U. S. Highway 84 U. S. Highway 259 State Highway 42 State Highway 43 State Highway 64 State Highway 149 State Highway 315 State Highway 322 State Highway 323 Gregg County Harrison County Panola County Shelby County Nacogdoches County Cherokee County Smith County As of the census of 2000, 47,372 people, 17,364 households, 12,727 families resided in the county; the population density was 51 people per square mile. The 19,867 housing units averaged 22 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 74.89% White, 19.21% Black or African American, 0.35% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 4.22% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races.
About 8.44% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 17,364 households, 32.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.20% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were not families. About 24.20% of all households was made up of individuals and 12.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was distributed as 24.90% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,898, for a family was $39,185. Males had a median income of $30,956 versus $19,749 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,674. About 10.90% of families and 14.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.80% of those under age 18 and 13.00% of those age 65 or over.
The following school districts serve Rusk County: Rusk County's first authorized school was the Rusk County Academy. Lake Cherokee National Register of Historic Places listings in Rusk County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Rusk County Mount Tabor Indian Community Rusk County government's website Historic materials about Rusk County, hosted by the Portal to Texas History Rusk County from the Handbook of Texas Online Rusk County Sons of Confederate VeteransThe above website shut down, their new site can be found *Here Rusk County Sheriff's Office Rusk County Airport Mount Tabor Indian Community tribal government website
Stephen F. Austin State University
Stephen F. Austin State University is a public university located in Nacogdoches, United States. Founded as a teachers' college in 1923 as a result of legislation authored by State Senator Wilfred Roy Cousins, Sr. the university was subsequently renamed after one of Texas's founding fathers, Stephen F. Austin, its campus resides on part of the homestead of Thomas Jefferson Rusk. Stephen F. Austin is one of four independent public universities in Texas. Stephen F. Austin State University is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees; the Stephen F. Austin Lumberjacks are members of the Southland Conference and compete in Division I for all varsity sports; the Lumberjacks football team competes in the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision. The Lumberjacks basketball team has made five appearances in the NCAA Division I Tournament, with two upset first-round wins in 2014 and 2016. Though the university is located in the rural East Texas college town of Nacogdoches, the vast majority of SFA students come from Greater Houston, the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, other cities throughout Texas.
SFA has served students from 46 states outside Texas and 42 countries outside the United States. Stephen F. Austin offers more than 120 areas of study, including more than 80 undergraduate majors, nearly 60 graduate degrees, three doctoral programs. Stephen F. Austin offers classes through one independent school; the Arthur Temple College of Forestry and Agriculture is nationally recognized, houses one of only two schools of forestry in the State of Texas. During the 2014–2015 academic year, there were 2,690 degrees awarded. Of those degrees, 2,108 were undergraduate, 558 were post-graduate, 24 were doctoral. In addition to the main campus, located on 430 acres, the university maintains a 642-acre agricultural research center for beef and swine production and an equine center. Since 2007, Stephen F. Austin has served as the headquarters of the Association for Business Communication, it is the home of the National Center for Pharmaceutical Crops, which in 2011 discovered a potential cancer-fighting agent from the extract of giant salvinia, one of the world's most notorious invasive species.
Nelson Rusche College of Business Gerald W. Schlief School of Accountancy James I. Perkins College of Education College of Fine Arts School of Art School of Music School of Theatre Arthur Temple College of Forestry and Agriculture College of Liberal and Applied Arts School of Social Work College of Sciences and Mathematics School of Nursing Richard and Lucille DeWitt School of Nursing School of Honors The Graduate School Alton W. Birdwell Paul Boynton Ralph W. Steen William R. Johnson Donald Bowen William J. Brophy Dan Angel Roland Smith Tito Guerrero Baker Pattillo Steve Westbrook, In tribute to the forestry industry, a major component of the area's economy, the men's athletic teams are called Lumberjacks, women's teams are known as Ladyjacks. All of SFA's athletic teams participate in the Southland Conference which hosts teams from the states of Texas and Arkansas. Stephen F. Austin's colors are White. Stephen F. Austin sports teams participate in NCAA Division I for football in the Southland Conference.
SFA's football team earned a berth into the FCS playoffs in 2009, the first for the university since 1995. The team earned a playoff berth in 2010, marking the first time in the program's history that the team had reached the playoffs in consecutive seasons; the 2010 season marked the first time that the school had won an outright conference championship since 1989. Stephen F. Austin's only bowl appearance was the 1973 Poultry Bowl, in which the team defeated Gardner–Webb 31–10; the men's basketball team reached its first NCAA tournament in 2009 after winning the Southland Conference regular season and tournament. They lost 59–44 to Syracuse University. In their second appearance in 2014, they upset Virginia Commonwealth in overtime, 77–75. In their third appearance in 2016, they upset 3rd seeded West Virginia 70–56. In the second round against 6th seeded Notre Dame they lost 77–76 on a buzzer beater by Notre Dame's Rex Pflueger; the annual Parent's Day is one of the largest student run programs on the campus of SFA.
Parents and family members of students visit the campus every fall for a day of activities and school spirit. Parents Day is sponsored by the Residence Hall Association in conjunction with the Housing and Residence Life Departments; the University's main rivals are Northwestern State University. SFA Rugby Fest is a popular event. Many schools in the region show up to play in this tournament; every year at Homecoming a bonfire is lit by members of Alpha Phi Omega and of the organization that has the most points earned in a series of competitions leading up to the Homecoming celebration. The bonfire is built by the members of Alpha Phi Omega. Preceding the lighting of the bonfire, a "Torchlight Parade" is held, where students walk through campus with lights to the Homecoming Pep Rally; the Student Activities Association distributes Homecom
Nacogdoches is a small city in East Texas and the county seat of Nacogdoches County, United States. The 2010 U. S. Census recorded the city's population to be 32,996. Nacogdoches is a sister city of the smaller and similarly-named Natchitoches, the third-largest city in the Southern Ark-La-Tex. Nacogdoches is the home of Texas' largest azalea garden. Local promotional literature from the Nacogdoches Convention and Visitors Bureau describes Nacogdoches as “the oldest town in Texas”. Evidence of settlement at the same site dates back to 10,000 years ago, it is on the site of Nevantin, the primary village of the Nacogdoche tribe of Caddo Indians. Nacogdoches remained a Caddo Indian settlement until the early 19th century. In 1716, Spain established a mission there, Mission Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de los Nacogdoches; that was the first European construction in the area. The “town” of Nacogdoches got started after the French had vacated the region, Spanish officials decided that maintaining the mission was too costly.
In 1772, they ordered all settlers in the area to move to San Antonio. Some were eager to escape the wilderness, it was one of the original European settlements in the region, populated by Adaeseños from Fort Los Adaes. Colonel Antonio Gil Y'Barbo, a prominent Spanish trader, emerged as the leader of the settlers, in the spring of 1779, he led a group back to Nacogdoches; that summer, Nacogdoches received designation from Spain as a pueblo, or town, thereby making it the first “town” in Texas. Y'Barbo, as lieutenant governor of the new town, established the rules and laws for local government, he laid out streets with the intersecting El Camino Real and La Calle del Norte/North Street as the central point. On the main thoroughfare, he built a stone house for use in his trading business; the house, or Old Stone Fort as it is known today, became a gateway from the United States to the Texas frontier. The city has been under more flags than the state of Texas. In addition to the Six Flags of Texas, it flew under the flags of the Magee-Gutierrez Republic, the Long Republic, the Fredonian Rebellion.
People from the United States began moving to settle in Nacogdoches in 1820 and Texas' first English-language newspaper was published there. However, the first newspaper published was in Spanish. An edition of the newspaper is shown at the local museum. In 1832, the Battle of Nacogdoches brought many local settlers together, as they united in their stand to support a federalist form of government, their successful venture drove the Mexican military from East Texas. Thomas Jefferson Rusk was one of the most prominent early Nacogdoches Anglo settlers. A veteran of the Texas Revolution, hero of San Jacinto, he signed the Texas Declaration of Independence and was secretary of war during the Republic of Texas, he was president of the Texas Statehood Commission and served as one of the first two Texas U. S. Senators along with Sam Houston, he worked to establish Nacogdoches University, which operated from 1845 to 1895. The Old Nacogdoches University Building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1971.
Rusk suffered from depression as a result of the untimely death of his wife, killed himself on July 29, 1857. Sam Houston lived in Nacogdoches for four years prior to the Texas Revolution and opened a law office downtown, he courted Anna Raguet, daughter of one of the leading citizens, but Anna rejected him after finding that he was not divorced from his first wife Eliza Allen of Tennessee. William Goins, the son of a white mother and black father, operated a local inn, trucking service, blacksmith works and maintained a plantation outside Nacogdoches on Goins Hill, he was owned slaves. He was appointed as an agent to treat with the Cherokees and was prominent in providing assistance to the Texas Army during the Revolution. Adolphus Sterne was a merchant of German Jewish extraction, he was visited by famous luminaries such as Sam Houston, Thomas Rusk, Chief Bowles, David Crockett, many others, so his diary is one of the best sources for early Nacogdoches history. Nacogdoches contains one of the last surviving family-owned homestead plantations in East Texas, the August Tubbe Plantation and operated by the same family which established it in 1859.
August Tubbe was a German-born immigrant, who with his elderly mother, left Germany in 1858 and arrived in Nacogdoches by 1859. Their lives are recounted in several books, including a historical fiction novel by Gisela Laudi entitled “This is what I want to give ye report on. Tubbe plantation is significant in the formation of early life in East Texas, not only in its cotton and sugarcane, but because it played an important part in milled-lumber production. Tubbe Sawmill was the first water-, steam-powered, sawmill in Nacogdoches. During renovations of the Cason-Monk buildings in the early 21st century, boards stamped with Tubbe Mill logos made dating the building possible; the estate contains one of the largest owned genealogical archives pertaining to the Tubbe family in existence, providing important insight into early settlers life during the 19th century. The family has been featured in a number of German museums including the Expo2000 in Bremerhaven Germany; the estate and archives are owned and maintained by a descendant of its original founder, are available for study through
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western