A command-line interface or command language interpreter known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface, is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text. A program which handles the interface is called shell; the CLI was the primary means of interaction with most computer systems on computer terminals in the mid-1960s, continued to be used throughout the 1970s and 1980s on OpenVMS, Unix systems and personal computer systems including MS-DOS, CP/M and Apple DOS. The interface is implemented with a command line shell, a program that accepts commands as text input and converts commands into appropriate operating system functions. Today, many end users if use command-line interfaces and instead rely upon graphical user interfaces and menu-driven interactions. However, many software developers, system administrators and advanced users still rely on command-line interfaces to perform tasks more efficiently, configure their machine, or access programs and program features that are not available through a graphical interface.
Alternatives to the command line include, but are not limited to text user interface menus, keyboard shortcuts, various other desktop metaphors centered on the pointer. Examples of this include the Windows versions 1, 2, 3, 3.1, 3.11, DosShell, Mouse Systems PowerPanel. Programs with command-line interfaces are easier to automate via scripting. Command-line interfaces for software other than operating systems include a number of programming languages such as Tcl/Tk, PHP, others, as well as utilities such as the compression utility WinZip, some FTP and SSH/Telnet clients. Compared with a graphical user interface, a command line requires fewer system resources to implement. Since options to commands are given in a few characters in each command line, an experienced user finds the options easier to access. Automation of repetitive tasks is simplified - most operating systems using a command line interface support some mechanism for storing used sequences in a disk file, for re-use. A command-line history can be kept, allowing repetition of commands.
A command-line system may require paper or online manuals for the user's reference, although a "help" option provides a concise review of the options of a command. The command-line environment may not provide the graphical enhancements such as different fonts or extended edit windows found in a GUI, it may be difficult for a new user to become familiar with all the commands and options available, compared with the drop-down menus of a graphical user interface, without repeated reference to manuals. Operating system command line interfaces are distinct programs supplied with the operating system. A program that implements such a text interface is called a command-line interpreter, command processor or shell. Examples of command-line interpreters include DEC's DIGITAL Command Language in OpenVMS and RSX-11, the various Unix shells, CP/M's CCP, DOS's COMMAND. COM, as well as the OS/2 and the Windows CMD. EXE programs, the latter groups being based on DEC's RSX-11 and RSTS CLIs. Under most operating systems, it is possible to replace the default shell program with alternatives.
Although the term'shell' is used to describe a command-line interpreter speaking a'shell' can be any program that constitutes the user-interface, including graphically oriented ones. For example, the default Windows GUI is a shell program named EXPLORER. EXE, as defined in the SHELL=EXPLORER. EXE line in the WIN. INI configuration file; these programs are shells, but not CLIs. Application programs may have command line interfaces. An application program may support none, any, or all of these three major types of command line interface mechanisms: Parameters: Most operating systems support a means to pass additional information to a program when it is launched; when a program is launched from an OS command line shell, additional text provided along with the program name is passed to the launched program. Interactive command line sessions: After launch, a program may provide an operator with an independent means to enter commands in the form of text. OS inter-process communication: Most operating systems support means of inter-process communication.
Command lines from client processes may be redirected to a CLI program by one of these methods. Some applications support only a CLI, presenting a CLI prompt to the user and acting upon command lines as they are entered. Other programs support both a CLI and a GUI. In some cases, a GUI is a wrapper around a separate CLI executable file. In other cases, a program may provide a CLI as an optional alternative to its GUI. CLIs and GUIs support different functionality. For example, all features of MATLAB, a numerical analysis computer program, are available via the CLI, whereas the MATLAB GUI exposes only a subset of features; the early Sierra games, such as the first three King's Quest games, used commands from an internal command line to move the character around in the graphic window. The command-line interface evolved from a form of dialog once conducted by humans over teleprinter machines, in which human operators remotely exchanged inf
NetApp, Inc. is a hybrid cloud data services and data management company headquartered in Sunnyvale, California. It has ranked in the Fortune 500 since 2012. Founded in 1992 with an IPO in 1995, NetApp offers hybrid cloud data services for management of applications and data across cloud and on-premises environments. NetApp was founded in 1992 by David Hitz, James Lau, Michael Malcolm. At the time, its major competitor was Auspex Systems. In 1994, NetApp received venture capital funding from Sequoia Capital, it had its initial public offering in 1995. NetApp thrived in the internet bubble years of the mid 1990s to 2001, during which the company grew to $1 billion in annual revenue. After the bubble burst, NetApp's revenues declined to $800 million in its fiscal year 2002. Since the company's revenue has climbed. In 2006, NetApp sold the NetCache product line to Blue Coat Systems. On June 1, 2015, Tom Georgens was replaced by George Kurian. In May 2018 NetApp announced its first End to End NVMe array called All Flash FAS A800 with release of ONTAP 9.4 software.
NetApp claims over 1.3 million IOPS at 500 microseconds per high-availability pair. In January 2019 Dave Hitz announced retirement from NetApp. 1997 - Internet Middleware acquired for $10.5 million. IMC's web proxy caching software became the NetCache product line. 2004 - Spinnaker Networks acquired for $300 million. Technologies from Spinnaker integrated into Data ONTAP GX and first released in 2006 Data ONTAP GX become Clustered Data ONTAP 2005 - Alacritus acquired for $11 million; the tape virtualization technology Alacritus brought to NetApp was integrated into the NetApp NearStore Virtual Tape Library product line, introduced in 2006. 2005 - Decru: Storage security systems and key management. 2006 - Topio acquired for $160 million. Software that helped replicate and protect data over any distance regardless of the underlying server or storage infrastructure; this technology became known as ReplicatorX, has since been abandoned. 2008 - Onaro acquired for $120 million. Storage service management software which helps customers manage storage more efficiently with guaranteed service levels for availability and performance.
Onaro's SANscreen technology launched as such and later influencing NetApp OnCommand Insight. 2010 - Bycast acquired for between $20 million and $50 million. Technologies from Bycast gave start for StorageGRID product 2011 - Akorri acquired for $60 million. Cross-domain analysis and advanced analytics to help customers manage and plan performance and utilization across their data center infrastructure. 2011 - Engenio acquired for $480 million. Engenio external storage systems business unit of LSI Corporation. Launched as NetApp NetApp E-Series product line for 2012 - Bycast: Development of software for storage with the purpose of control on the petabyte level. With its Active IQ software available for end users as web-based GUI service for monitoring and prediction of storage systems performance and availability 2017 - Plexistor: NetApp first announced the acquisition of a company and technology called Plexistor in May of 2017. Technologies from Plexistor gave start for MAX Data product 2017 - Greenqloud with its Qstack product.
A private startup company that created cloud services and management platform for hybrid cloud and multi-cloud environments 2017 - Immersive Partner Solutions, a Littleton, Colo.-based developer of software to validate multiple converged infrastructures through their lifecycles 2018 - StackPointCloud: NetApp acquired StackPointCloud, a project for multi-cloud Kubernetes as-a-service and a contributor to the Kubernetes which gave start for Kubernetes Service product NetApp competes in the computer data storage hardware industry. In 2009, NetApp ranked second in market capitalization in its industry behind EMC Corporation, now Dell EMC, ahead of Seagate Technology, Western Digital, Brocade and Quantum. In total revenue of 2009, NetApp ranked behind EMC, Western Digital, ahead of Imation, Brocade and Hutchinson Technology. According to a 2014 IDC report, NetApp ranked second in the network storage industry "Big 5's list", behind EMC, ahead of IBM, HP and Hitachi.. According to Gartner’s 2018 Magic Quadrant for Solid-State Arrays NetApp named a leader, behind only Pure Storage Systems.
NetApp's OnCommand management software controls and automates data-storage.. ActiveIQ comes to NetApp with the acquisition of SolidFire. ActiveIQ is SaaS portal with built-in monitoring, recommendations for optimizing configurations and performance for NetApp storage systems based on machine-learning capabilities and artificial intelligence. ONTAP Analytics and Telemetry Service product which can be installed in AWS cloud and on-premise was renamed to Active IQ Performance Analytics Services. NetApp's FAS and AFF storage systems serve as the company's flagship products; such a product
X Window System
The X Window System is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on Unix-like operating systems. X provides the basic framework for a GUI environment: drawing and moving windows on the display device and interacting with a mouse and keyboard. X does not mandate the user interface – this is handled by individual programs; as such, the visual styling of X-based environments varies greatly. X originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1984; the X protocol has been version 11 since September 1987. The X. Org Foundation leads the X project, with the current reference implementation, X. Org Server, available as free and open source software under the MIT License and similar permissive licenses. X is an architecture-independent system for remote graphical user interfaces and input device capabilities; each person using a networked terminal has the ability to interact with the display with any type of user input device. In its standard distribution it is a complete, albeit simple and interface solution which delivers a standard toolkit and protocol stack for building graphical user interfaces on most Unix-like operating systems and OpenVMS, has been ported to many other contemporary general purpose operating systems.
X provides the basic framework, or primitives, for building such GUI environments: drawing and moving windows on the display and interacting with a mouse, keyboard or touchscreen. X does not mandate the user interface. Programs may use X's graphical abilities with no user interface; as such, the visual styling of X-based environments varies greatly. Unlike most earlier display protocols, X was designed to be used over network connections rather than on an integral or attached display device. X features network transparency, which means an X program running on a computer somewhere on a network can display its user interface on an X server running on some other computer on the network; the X server is the provider of graphics resources and keyboard/mouse events to X clients, meaning that the X server is running on the computer in front of a human user, while the X client applications run anywhere on the network and communicate with the user's computer to request the rendering of graphics content and receive events from input devices including keyboards and mice.
The fact that the term "server" is applied to the software in front of the user is surprising to users accustomed to their programs being clients to services on remote computers. Here, rather than a remote database being the resource for a local app, the user's graphic display and input devices become resources made available by the local X server to both local and remotely hosted X client programs who need to share the user's graphics and input devices to communicate with the user. X's network protocol is based on X command primitives; this approach allows both 2D and 3D operations by an X client application which might be running on a different computer to still be accelerated on the X server's display. For example, in classic OpenGL, display lists containing large numbers of objects could be constructed and stored in the X server by a remote X client program, each rendered by sending a single glCallList across the network. X provides no native support for audio. X uses a client–server model: an X server communicates with various client programs.
The server sends back user input. The server may function as: an application displaying to a window of another display system a system program controlling the video output of a PC a dedicated piece of hardwareThis client–server terminology – the user's terminal being the server and the applications being the clients – confuses new X users, because the terms appear reversed, but X takes the perspective of the application, rather than that of the end-user: X provides display and I/O services to applications, so it is a server. The communication protocol between server and client operates network-transparently: the client and server may run on the same machine or on different ones with different architectures and operating systems. A client and server can communicate securely over the Internet by tunneling the connection over an encrypted network session. An X client itself may emulate an X server by providing display services to other clients; this is known as "X nesting". Open-source clients such as Xnest and Xephyr support such X nesting.
To use an X client application on a remote machine, the user may do the following: on the local machine, open a terminal window use ssh with the X forwarding argument to connect to the remote machine request local display/input service The remote X client application will make a connection to the user's local X server, providing display and input to the user. Alternatively, the local machine may run a small program that connects to the remote machine and starts the client application. Practical examples of remote clients include: administering a remote machine graphically using a client application to join with large numbers of other terminal users in collaborative workgroups running a computationally intensive simulation on a remote machine and displaying the results on
Secure Shell is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network. Typical applications include remote command-line login and remote command execution, but any network service can be secured with SSH. SSH provides a secure channel over an unsecured network in a client–server architecture, connecting an SSH client application with an SSH server; the protocol specification distinguishes between two major versions, referred to as SSH-1 and SSH-2. The standard TCP port for SSH is 22. SSH is used to access Unix-like operating systems, but it can be used on Microsoft Windows. Windows 10 uses OpenSSH as its default SSH client. SSH was designed as a replacement for Telnet and for unsecured remote shell protocols such as the Berkeley rlogin and rexec protocols; those protocols send information, notably passwords, in plaintext, rendering them susceptible to interception and disclosure using packet analysis. The encryption used by SSH is intended to provide confidentiality and integrity of data over an unsecured network, such as the Internet, although files leaked by Edward Snowden indicate that the National Security Agency can sometimes decrypt SSH, allowing them to read the contents of SSH sessions.
SSH uses public-key cryptography to authenticate the remote computer and allow it to authenticate the user, if necessary. There are several ways to use SSH. Another is to use a manually generated public-private key pair to perform the authentication, allowing users or programs to log in without having to specify a password. In this scenario, anyone can produce a matching pair of different keys; the public key is placed on all computers that must allow access to the owner of the matching private key. While authentication is based on the private key, the key itself is never transferred through the network during authentication. SSH only verifies whether the same person offering the public key owns the matching private key. In all versions of SSH it is important to verify unknown public keys, i.e. associate the public keys with identities, before accepting them as valid. Accepting an attacker's public key without validation will authorize an unauthorized attacker as a valid user. On Unix-like systems, the list of authorized public keys is stored in the home directory of the user, allowed to log in remotely, in the file ~/.ssh/authorized_keys.
This file is respected by SSH only if it is not writable by anything apart from the root. When the public key is present on the remote end and the matching private key is present on the local end, typing in the password is no longer required. However, for additional security the private key itself can be locked with a passphrase; the private key can be looked for in standard places, its full path can be specified as a command line setting. The ssh-keygen utility produces the private keys, always in pairs. SSH supports password-based authentication, encrypted by automatically generated keys. In this case, the attacker could imitate the legitimate server side, ask for the password, obtain it. However, this is possible only if the two sides have never authenticated before, as SSH remembers the key that the server side used; the SSH client raises a warning before accepting the key of a new unknown server. Password authentication can be disabled. SSH is used to log into a remote machine and execute commands, but it supports tunneling, forwarding TCP ports and X11 connections.
SSH uses the client-server model. The standard TCP port 22 has been assigned for contacting SSH servers. An SSH client program is used for establishing connections to an SSH daemon accepting remote connections. Both are present on most modern operating systems, including macOS, most distributions of Linux, OpenBSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, Solaris and OpenVMS. Notably, versions of Windows prior to 1709 do not include SSH by default. Proprietary and open source versions of various levels of complexity and completeness exist. File managers for UNIX-like systems can use the FISH protocol to provide a split-pane GUI with drag-and-drop; the open source Windows program WinSCP provides similar file management capability using PuTTY as a back-end. Both WinSCP and PuTTY are available packaged to run directly off a USB drive, without requiring installation on the client machine. Setting up an SSH server in Windows involves enabling a feature in Settings app. In Windows 10 version 1709, an official Win32 port of OpenSSH is available.
SSH is important in cloud computing to solve connectivity problems, avoiding the security issues of exposing a cloud-based virtual machine directly on the Internet. An SSH tunnel can provide a secure path over the Internet, through a firewall to a virtual machine. In 1995, Tatu Ylönen, a researcher at Helsinki University of Technology, designed the first version of the protocol prompted by a password-sniffing attack at his university network; the goal of SSH was to replace the earlier rlogin, TELNET, FTP and rsh protocols, which did not provide strong authentication nor guarantee confidentiality. Ylönen released his implementation as freeware in July 1995, an
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is packaged in a Linux distribution. Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy. Popular Linux distributions include Debian and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, include a solution stack such as LAMP; because Linux is redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose. Linux was developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers. It is used by around 2.3 percent of desktop computers. The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is tailored to the system. This includes routers, automation controls, digital video recorders, video game consoles, smartwatches. Many smartphones and tablet computers run other Linux derivatives; because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of open-source software collaboration; the source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.
The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969, at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, Joe Ossanna. First released in 1971, Unix was written in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. In a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie; the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier. Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, AT&T was required to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked; as a result, Unix grew and became adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs; the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed of free software. Work began in 1984. In 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License in 1989.
By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel, called GNU/Hurd, were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, he would not have decided to write his own. Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, he would not have created Linux. MINIX was created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, a computer science professor, released in 1987 as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn the operating system principles. Although the complete source code of MINIX was available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000. In 1991, while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds became curious about operating systems.
Frustrated by the licensing of MINIX, which at the time limited it to educational use only, he began to work on his own operating system kernel, which became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were used on Linux. Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. GNU applications replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the available code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, making a functional and free operating system. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention "Freax", a portmant
Red Hat, Inc. is an American multinational software company providing open-source software products to the enterprise community. Founded in 1993, Red Hat has its corporate headquarters in Raleigh, North Carolina, with other offices worldwide. Red Hat has become associated to a large extent with its enterprise operating system Red Hat Enterprise Linux and with the acquisition of open-source enterprise middleware vendor JBoss. Red Hat offers Red Hat Virtualization, an enterprise virtualization product. Red Hat provides storage, operating system platforms, applications, management products, support and consulting services. Red Hat creates and contributes to many free software projects, it has acquired several proprietary software product codebases through corporate mergers and acquisitions and has released such software under open-source licenses. As of March 2016, Red Hat is the second largest corporate contributor to the Linux kernel version 4.14 after Intel. On October 28, 2018, IBM announced its intent to acquire Red Hat for $34 billion.
In 1993, Bob Young incorporated the ACC Corporation, a catalog business that sold Linux and Unix software accessories. In 1994, Marc Ewing created his own Linux distribution. Ewing released the software in October, it became known as the Halloween release. Young bought Ewing's business in 1995, the two merged to become Red Hat Software, with Young serving as chief executive officer. Red Hat went public on August 11, 1999, achieving the eighth-biggest first-day gain in the history of Wall Street. Matthew Szulik succeeded Bob Young as CEO in December of that year. Bob Young went on to found the online print on demand and self-publishing company, Lulu in 2002. On November 15, 1999, Red Hat acquired Cygnus Solutions. Cygnus provided commercial support for free software and housed maintainers of GNU software products such as the GNU Debugger and GNU Binutils. One of the founders of Cygnus, Michael Tiemann, became the chief technical officer of Red Hat and by 2008 the vice president of open-source affairs.
Red Hat acquired WireSpeed, C2Net and Hell's Kitchen Systems. In February 2000, InfoWorld awarded Red Hat its fourth consecutive "Operating System Product of the Year" award for Red Hat Linux 6.1. Red Hat acquired Planning Technologies, Inc in 2001 and AOL's iPlanet directory and certificate-server software in 2004. Red Hat moved its headquarters from Durham to North Carolina State University's Centennial Campus in Raleigh, North Carolina in February 2002. In the following month Red Hat introduced Red Hat Linux Advanced Server renamed Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Dell, IBM, HP and Oracle Corporation announced their support of the platform. In December 2005, CIO Insight magazine conducted its annual "Vendor Value Survey", in which Red Hat ranked #1 in value for the second year in a row. Red Hat stock became part of the NASDAQ-100 on December 19, 2005. Red Hat acquired open-source middleware provider JBoss on June 5, 2006, JBoss became a division of Red Hat. On September 18, 2006, Red Hat released the Red Hat Application Stack, which integrated the JBoss technology and, certified by other well-known software vendors.
On December 12, 2006, Red Hat stock moved from trading on NASDAQ to the New York Stock Exchange. In 2007 Red Hat made an agreement with Exadel to distribute its software. On March 15, 2007, Red Hat released Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, in June acquired Mobicents. On March 13, 2008, Red Hat acquired Amentra, a provider of systems integration services for service-oriented architecture, business process management, systems development and enterprise data services. On July 27, 2009, Red Hat replaced CIT Group in Standard and Poor's 500 stock index, a diversified index of 500 leading companies of the U. S. economy. This was reported as a major milestone for Linux. On December 15, 2009, it was reported that Red Hat will pay US$8.8 million to settle a class action lawsuit related to the restatement of financial results from July 2004. The suit had been pending in U. S. District Court for the Eastern District of North Carolina. Red Hat reached the proposed settlement agreement and recorded a one-time charge of US$8.8 million for the quarter that ended Nov. 30.
On January 10, 2011, Red Hat announced that it would expand its headquarters in two phases, adding 540 employees to the Raleigh operation, investing over US$109 million. The state of North Carolina is offering up to US$15 million in incentives; the second phase involves "expansion into new technologies such as software visualization and technology cloud offerings". On August 25, 2011, Red Hat announced it would move about 600 employees from the N. C. State Centennial Campus to Two Progress Plaza downtown. A ribbon cutting ceremony was held June 2013, in the re-branded Red Hat Headquarters. In 2012, Red Hat became the first one-billion dollar open-source company, reaching US$1.13 billion in annual revenue during its fiscal year. Red Hat passed the $2 billion benchmark in 2015; as of February 2018 the company's annual revenue was nearly $3 billion. On October 16, 2015, Red Hat announced its acquisition of IT automation startup Ansible, rumored for an estimated $100 million USD. In May 2018, Red Hat acquired CoreOS.
On October 28, 2018, IBM announced its intent to acquire Red Hat for US$34 billion, in one of its largest-ever acquisitions. The company will operate out of IBM's Hybrid Cloud division. Red Hat's lead advisor was Guggenheim Securities LLC. Red Hat sponsors the Fedora Project, a community-supported free software project that aims to promote the rapid progress of free and open-source software and conten