Cymbeline known as Cymbeline, King of Britain, is a play by William Shakespeare set in Ancient Britain and based on legends that formed part of the Matter of Britain concerning the early Celtic British King Cunobeline. Although listed as a tragedy in the First Folio, modern critics classify Cymbeline as a romance or a comedy. Like Othello and The Winter's Tale, it deals with the themes of jealousy. While the precise date of composition remains unknown, the play was produced as early as 1611. Cymbeline, the Roman Empire's vassal king of Britain, once had two sons and Arvirargus, but they were stolen twenty years earlier as infants by an exiled traitor named Belarius. Cymbeline now discovers that his only child left, his daughter Imogen, has secretly married her lover Posthumus Leonatus, an otherwise honourable man of Cymbeline's court; the lovers have exchanged jewellery as tokens: Imogen with a bracelet, Posthumus with a ring. Cymbeline dismisses the marriage and banishes Posthumus since Imogen -- as Cymbeline's only child -- must produce a royal-blooded heir to succeed to the British throne.
In the meantime, Cymbeline's Queen is conspiring to have Cloten married to Imogen to secure her bloodline. The Queen is plotting to murder both Imogen and Cymbeline, procuring what she believes to be deadly poison from the court doctor; the doctor, switches the poison with a harmless sleeping potion. The Queen passes the "poison" along to Pisanio and Imogen's loving servant -- the latter is led to believe it is a medicinal drug. No longer able to be with her banished Posthumus, Imogen secludes herself in her chambers, away from Cloten's aggressive advances. Posthumus must now live in Italy, where he meets Iachimo, who challenges the prideful Posthumus to a bet that he, can seduce Imogen, who Posthumus has praised for her chastity, bring Posthumus proof of Imogen's adultery. If Iachimo wins, he will get Posthumus's token ring. If Posthumus wins, not only must Iachimo pay him but fight Posthumus in a duel with swords. Iachimo heads to Britain where he aggressively attempts to seduce the faithful Imogen, who sends him packing.
Iachimo hides in a chest in Imogen's bedchamber and, when the princess falls asleep, emerges to steal from her Posthumus's bracelet. He takes note of the room and Imogen's naked body to be able to present false evidence to Posthumus that he has seduced his bride. Returning to Italy, Iachimo convinces Posthumus that he has seduced Imogen. In his wrath, Posthumus sends two letters to Britain: one to Imogen, telling her to meet him at Milford Haven, on the Welsh coast. However, Pisanio reveals to her Posthumus's plot, he has Imogen continue to Milford Haven to seek employment. He gives her the Queen's "poison," believing it will alleviate her psychological distress. In the guise of a boy, Imogen adopts the name "Fidele," meaning "faithful." Back at Cymbeline's court, Cymbeline refuses to pay his British tribute to the Roman ambassador Caius Lucius, Lucius warns Cymbeline of the Roman Emperor's forthcoming wrath, which will amount to an invasion of Britain by Roman troops. Meanwhile, Cloten learns of the "meeting" between Posthumus at Milford Haven.
Dressing himself enviously in Posthumus's clothes, he decides to go to Wales to kill Posthumus, rape and marry Imogen. Imogen has now been travelling as "Fidele" through the Welsh mountains, her health in decline as she comes to a cave: the home of Belarius, along with his "sons" Polydore and Cadwal, whom he raised into great hunters; these two young men are in fact the British princes Guiderius and Arviragus, who themselves do not realise their own origin. The men discover "Fidele," and captivated by a strange affinity for "him", become fast friends. Outside the cave, Guiderius is met by Cloten, who throws insults, leading to a sword fight during which Guiderius beheads Cloten. Meanwhile, Imogen's fragile state worsens and she takes the "poison" as a hopeful medicine, they mourn and, after placing Cloten's body beside hers depart to prepare for the double burial. Imogen awakes to find the headless body, believes it to be Posthumus due to the fact the body is wearing Posthumus' clothes. Lucius' Roman soldiers have just arrived in Britain and, as the army moves through Wales, Lucius discovers the devastated "Fidele", who pretends to be a loyal servant grieving for his killed master.
The treacherous Queen is now wasting away due to the disappearance of her son Cloten. Meanwhile, despairing of his life, a guilt-ridden Posthumus enlists in the Roman forces as they begin their invasion of Britain. Belarius, Guiderius and Posthumus all help rescue Cymbeline from the Roman onslaught. Posthumus, allowing himself to be captured, as well as "Fidele", are imprisoned alongside the true Romans, all of whom await execution. In jail, Posthumus sleeps, while the ghosts of his dead family appear to complain to Jupiter of his grim fate. Jupiter himself appears in thunder and glory to assure the others that destiny will grant happiness to Posthumus and Britain. Cornelius arrives in the court to announce that the Queen has died and that on her deathbed she unrepentantly confessed to villainous sche
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Edward Allen Harris is an American actor, producer and screenwriter. His performances in Apollo 13, The Truman Show and The Hours earned him critical acclaim in addition to Academy Award nominations. Harris has appeared in several leading and supporting roles, such as in The Right Stuff, The Abyss, State of Grace, Glengarry Glen Ross, The Rock, Stepmom, A Beautiful Mind, Enemy at the Gates, A History of Violence, Gone Baby Gone and Mother!. In addition to directing Pollock, Harris directed the western Appaloosa. In television, Harris is notable for his roles as Miles Roby in the miniseries Empire Falls and as United States Senator John McCain in the television movie Game Change, the latter of which earned him the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film, he stars as the Man in Black in the HBO science fiction-western series Westworld, for which he earned a nomination for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series. Harris was born at the Englewood Hospital in Englewood, New Jersey, was raised in Tenafly, New Jersey, the son of Margaret, a travel agent, Robert L. "Bob" Harris, who sang with the Fred Waring chorus and worked at the bookstore of the Art Institute of Chicago.
He has two brothers and Robert. Harris was raised in a middle-class Presbyterian family, his parents were from Oklahoma. He graduated from Tenafly High School in 1969, where he played on the football team, serving as the team's captain in his senior year. A star athlete in high school, Harris competed in athletics at Columbia University in 1969; when his family moved to New Mexico two years Harris followed, having discovered his interest in acting in various theater plays. He enrolled at the University of Oklahoma to study drama. After several successful roles in local theaters, he moved to Los Angeles and enrolled at the California Institute of the Arts, where he spent two years and graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts in 1975. Harris began his career on the stage. In 1976, he played an FBI agent in the world premiere of Thomas Rickman's play, Baalam at the Pasadena Repertory Theatre located at the historic The Hotel Carver, he followed that at the Pasadena Repertory Theatre in 1976 playing Lot in the West Coast premiere of Tennessee Williams's play Kingdom of Earth.
From the mid 1970s to the mid 1980s, Harris found steady work on television. He had a role in one episode of Gibbsville, in one episode of Delvecchio, in one episode of The Rockford Files, in one episode of David Cassidy - Man Undercover, two episodes of The Seekers, one episode of Barnaby Jones, one episode of Paris, three episodes of Lou Grant, one episode of CHiPs, one episode of Hart to Hart, one episode of Cassie & Co. and one episode of American Playhouse. Harris' first film role came in 1978 with a minor part in the suspense film Coma, starring Michael Douglas, his first major role in a film came two years with Borderline, in which he starred alongside Charles Bronson. In 1981, Harris played the lead, William "Billy" Davis, a king of a motorcycle riding renaissance-fair troupe, in Knightriders; the following year, he has a small role as Hank Blaine in Creepshow, directed by George A. Romero. In 1983, Harris became well known after portraying astronaut John Glenn in The Right Stuff. In 1984, he co starred in the Robert Benton directed drama film Places in the Heart.
In 1984 he co-starred along with Goldie Hawn and Kurt Russell in the Jonathan Demme directed World War II biopic Swing Shift and in 1985 played abusive husband Charlie Dick to Jessica Lange's Patsy Cline in the HBO film Sweet Dreams In 1986, he received a Tony Award nomination in the Best Actor in a Play category for his role in George Furth's Precious Sons. He won the Theatre World Award and Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Actor in a Play for his performance. Harris portrayed William Walker, a 19th-century American who appointed himself President of Nicaragua, in Walker; that same year, he played Harry Nash in the HBO television thriller film The Last Innocent Man. In 1988, he acted in Agnieszka Holland's To Kill a Priest, starring Christopher Lambert, based on Jerzy Popiełuszko and his murder under the Polish communist regime, it was well received by critics. In 1989, his role as David "Dave" Flannigan in Jacknife earned him his first Golden Globe Award nomination, for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture.
In 1989, he portrayed Virgil "Bud" Brigman in the sci fi film The Abyss, directed by James Cameron. In 1992, Harris co starred as Dave Moss in the drama film Glengarry Glen Ross, based on the play of the same name by David Mamet, he won the Valladolid International Film Festival Award for Best Actor for his performance in the film. He next appeared in the films The Firm and Needful Things, before portraying the lead role of Kyle Bodine in the neo noir film China Moon. In 1995, Harris portrayed Watergate figure E. Howard Hunt in the Oliver Stone biopic Nixon, received his first Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor nomination for his performance as NASA Apollo Mission Control Director Gene Kranz in Apollo 13. In 1996, Harris starred in and executive produced the television adaptation of Riders of the Purple Sage; that same year, he returned to Broadway as Major Steve Arnold in the
John Alberto Leguizamo is an American actor, stand-up comedian and playwright. He came to prominence with a co-starring role in the action comedy Super Mario Bros. as Luigi and a supporting role in the crime drama Carlito's Way. Other roles include Sid the Sloth in the animated Ice Age films and the narrator of the sitcom The Brothers García; as of 2009, he has appeared in over 75 films, produced over 10 films, starred on Broadway in several productions, made over 12 television appearances, has produced or starred in many other television shows. Leguizamo was born in Bogotá, the son of Alberto and Luz Leguizamo, his father was once an aspiring film director and studied at Cinecittà, but dropped out due to lack of finances. According to Leguizamo, his paternal grandfather was of Italian and Puerto Rican descent, his maternal grandmother was Lebanese, he has described himself as being of Amerindian and Mestizo heritage. On June 10, 2011, Leguizamo's father declared in an interview with New York Hispanic newspaper El Diario that he is Colombian and not Puerto Rican, that Leguizamo is therefore not half Puerto Rican as he has always stated.
Leguizamo had always declared that he was Puerto Rican on his father's side, one of the reasons he was selected as the Puerto Rican Day Parade Global Ambassador of the Arts. In response to his father's allegations, Leguizamo reiterated that his grandfather was of Puerto Rican descent. A National Puerto Rican Day Parade spokesman stated, he marched in the parade on June 12, 2011. When Leguizamo was four years old, his family immigrated to New York City, where they lived in various neighborhoods in Queens, including Jackson Heights, he credited growing up as one of the first Latino children in the neighborhood as formative in his acting ability: "It was tough. There were lots of fights. I would walk through a park and be attacked, I had to defend myself all the time, but this helped me to become funny so that I wouldn't get hit." Leguizamo attended the Joseph Pulitzer Middle School and the Murry Bergtraum High School. As a student at Murry Bergtraum, he tested it on his classmates, he was voted "Most Talkative" by his classmates.
After graduating from high school, he began his theater career as an undergraduate at NYU's Tisch School of the Arts, from which he dropped out in favor of a career in stand-up comedy. Post-NYU, Leguizamo enrolled at HB Studio, where he took theater classes. Leguizamo started out as a stand-up comic doing the New York nightclub circuit in 1984, he made his television debut in 1986 with a small part in Miami Vice. His other early roles include: a friend of Madonna's boyfriend in her "Borderline" video. In 1992, he starred in Whispers in the Dark as John Castillo. In 1993 Leguizamo was offered the lead part as Luigi in the film Super Mario Bros. based on the Mario video game franchise. Despite being considered a critical and financial failure universally, the film started his acting career in Hollywood and became one of his memorable roles, it provided a boost to his career, allowing him to appear in better comedic roles in the following years. That same year, he had a prominent role in Brian De Palma's Carlito's Way as Carlito Brigante's nemesis, "Benny Blanco from the Bronx," which boosted his career in serious roles.
Leguizamo starred in Romeo + Juliet as Tybalt Capulet, as Violator in Spawn, Cholo in Land of the Dead, Pestario'Pest' Vargas in The Pest, the latter being one of his few roles as a lead actor in a studio film. In 1995, he starred as drag queen Chi-Chi Rodriguez in To Wong Foo, Thanks for Everything! Julie Newmar for which he received a Golden Globe Nomination for Best Supporting Actor, starred in the 1996 action film Executive Decision as Captain Rat. In 2002, he starred in the movie Empire. To promote the 2001 movie Moulin Rouge!, he appeared on a celebrity edition of the US version of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? with Kelly Ripa, Kevin Sorbo, Alfre Woodard, Martin Short and Chevy Chase. Appearing as the first celebrity to sit in the hot seat, he tried for $125,000, but got the answer wrong. In 2002, on the syndicated version, a question about the movie featured his character and Meredith Vieira mentioned that Leguizamo had played Lautrec and had been on the show. In 2002, he voiced Sid the Sloth for the film Ice Age, reprising the role for the sequels Ice Age: The Meltdown, Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs, Ice Age: Continental Drift and Ice Age: Collision Course.
The game versions of the films used his voice. In 2003, he voice-acted Globox from Rayman 3: Hoodlum Havoc. Leguizamo portrayed Paul in the Brad Anderson thriller film Vanishing on 7th Street. In 2007, he played Michael Beltran in the movie The Babysitters. In 2008, he co-starred in the movie The Happening and directed by M. Night Shyamalan. In 2014 Leguizamo starred alongside Jon Favreau in Chef as the line cook Martin, a role he prepared for by working as an actual line cook at The Lion in the West Village. In 2014, he played a drug dealer in the Jesse Eisenberg and Kristen Stewart movie American Ultra, he starred in John Wick as Aurelio in 2014. In October 2013, Leguizamo started filming for The Crash, starring alongside Frank Grillo, AnnaSophia Robb, Dianna Agron, Ed Westwick, Minnie Driver, Mary McCormack, Christopher McDonald and Maggie Q; the film is directed by Aram Rappaport and produced by Hil
Spencer Treat Clark
Spencer Treat Clark is an American actor who has appeared in several films, including Gladiator, Mystic River and Glass. Clark was born in New York, he is the brother of playwright Eliza Clark. He was educated in Darien, Connecticut, at Hindley Elementary School, Middlesex Middle School and his freshman year at Darien High School before he attended and graduated from The Taft School in Watertown, Connecticut. Clark graduated from Columbia University in New York City, receiving bachelor's degree in political science and economics. Clark began his career in 1995, his film debut was in Arlington Road. He appeared in the 2014 film Cymbeline; as of 2019, Clark has a recurring role on the television series Animal Kingdom. Clark resides in Los Angeles. Spencer Treat Clark on IMDb
David Ludwig (composer)
David Ludwig is an American composer of classical music. His uncle is pianist Peter Serkin, his grandfather was the pianist Rudolf Serkin, his great-grandfather was the violinist Adolf Busch. Ludwig has written music for many musicians and ensembles, including Jonathan Biss, André Watts, Jaime Laredo, eighth blackbird, Jennifer Koh, Dolce Suono Ensemble, Mimi Stillman, Network for New Music, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Minnesota Orchestra, the National Symphony Orchestra. Ludwig has held residencies with Meet the Composer, the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, the MacDowell and Yaddo artist colonies, the Marlboro Music School, he was the composer-in-residence with the Vermont Symphony Orchestra from 2006-2009. His choral work, The New Colossus, was performed at the 2013 presidential inauguration of Barack Obama. Ludwig joined the composition faculty at the Curtis Institute of Music as of the 2010-2011 academic year, is the Artistic Director of the Curtis 20/21 Contemporary Music Ensemble and the Dean of Artistic Programs.
He has composed for films such as Cymbeline. Ludwig attended Oberlin College for his undergraduate degree intending to take a degree in art history, but taking a music degree, his teachers included Richard Hoffmann. He received his M. M. from the Manhattan School of Music. He completed additional post-graduate work at the Curtis Institute of Music with Richard Danielpour, Jennifer Higdon, Ned Rorem, at the Juilliard School with John Corigliano, he received his PhD from the University of Pennsylvania, where he was the George Crumb Fellow, with his "Sonata for Violin and Piano" as his dissertation. Ludwig is married to violinist Bella Hristova. "Pictures from the Floating World" for solo bassoon and orchestra "Virtuosity", Five Micro-Concertos for String Orchestra "Seasons Lost" for two solo violins and string orchestra "Fanfare for Sam" Symphony No. 1 "Book of Hours" Concerto for Violin and Orchestra "Compose Yourself!" Concertino for solo violin and orchestra Concerto for Cello and Orchestra Radiance, serenade for oboe and strings NightVision "Aria Fantasy" for piano quartet "Kantigas" for Arabic violin and Arabic percussion "Josquin Microludes" for saxophone quartet "Piccola musica notturna" for EH, string quartet "Three Yiddish Dances" for vln, pno "Flowers in the Desert" for cl, pno "From the Rubayaat of Omar Khayyam" for mezzo-soprano and chamber ensemble "A Modern Psalm" for jazz trio: pno, drum set "Lamentations" for clar, hrp, cb, perc "Divertimento" for vln, vcl, cb, pno "Haiku Catharsis" for flt, cl, pno, perc "Four Japanese Folk Songs" for euphonium and string quartet Oboe Quartet "The Catherine Wheel" for oboe and string trio "Autumn Variations" for vln, vcl "Dances of Light" for string trio Clarinet Quintet "Poems from Antiquity" for cl and string quartet "Still Life" soprano and piano "Four Ladino Folk Songs" SATB choir "Our Long War" for soprano and piano "Ewigkeit" for baritone and chamber ensemble "From the Rubayaat of Omar Khayyam" for mezzo-soprano and chamber ensemble Hannukah Cantata SATB choir + soloists, cornetto, 3 sackbuts and baroque strings "Kaddish" "The Choir" SATB choir Whitman Songs baritone and pno "The New Colussus" SATB choir Ave Maria SSAA Things to Do in a Park children's choir & string quartet "Swan Song" violin and piano "Five Ladino Songs" violin "Lunaire Variations" piano "5 Bagatelles" piano "Canzoniere" flute and piano "Density 15.1" solo tenor saxophone "Scenes from Childhood" cello and piano Six Haikus horn and piano "Three Chansons" arrangements and responses to G. Dufay" cello and piano "Pleiades" oboe and piano "Three Portraits of Isabella" solo piano Sonata for Flute and Piano Star Cycles harp La Follia - string orchestra "Missa Brevis" - wind ensemble Eastern Light The Seven Ages of Man - string nonet Official David Ludwig website Curtis Institute of Music faculty page on David Ludwig University of Pennsylvania, Department of Music,'Penn Ph.
D.s in Composition' Instant Encore Vermont Symphony Orchestra interview with Ludwig The Bulletin Newspaper world of music blog, 29 August 2009
Venice Film Festival
The Venice Film Festival or Venice International Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the "Big Three" film festivals, alongside the Cannes Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival. The Big Three are internationally acclaimed for giving creators the artistic freedom to express themselves through film. Founded in Venice, Italy, in August 1932, the festival is part of the Venice Biennale, an exhibition of Italian art founded by the Venice City Council on 19 April 1893; the range of work at the Venice Biennale now covers Italian and international art, dance, music and cinema. These works are experienced at separate exhibitions: the International Art Exhibition, the International Festival of Contemporary Music, the International Theatre Festival, the International Architecture Exhibition, the International Festival of Contemporary Dance, the International Kids' Carnival, the annual Venice Film Festival, arguably the best-known of all the events; the festival is held in late August or early September on the island of the Lido in the Venice Lagoon.
Screenings take place in the historic Palazzo del Cinema on the Lungomare Marconi. The festival continues to be one of the world's most fastest-growing; the 76th Venice International Film Festival is scheduled for 28 August to 7 September 2019. During the 1930s, the government and Italian citizens were interested in film. Of the money Italians spent on cultural or sporting events, most of it went for movies; the majority of films screened in Italy were American, which led to government involvement in the film industry and the yearning to celebrate Italian culture in general. With this in mind, the Venice International Film Festival was created by Giuseppe Volpi, Luciano de Feo, Antonio Maraini in 1932. Volpi, a statesman, wealthy businessman, avid fascist, Benito Mussolini's minister of finance, was appointed president of the Venice Biennale the same year. Maraini served as the festival's secretary general, de Feo headed its executive committee. On the night of 6 August 1932, the festival opened with a screening of the American film Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde on the terrace of the Excelsior Palace Hotel.
A total of nine countries participated in the festival. No awards were given at the first festival, but an audience referendum was held to determine which films and performances were most praiseworthy; the French film À Nous la Liberté was voted the Film Più Divertente. The Sin of Madelon Claudet was chosen the Film Più Commovente and its star, Helen Hayes, the best actress. Most Original Film was given to Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, its leading man, Fredric March, was voted best actor. Despite the success of the first festival, it did not return in 1933. In 1934, the festival was declared to be an annual event, participation grew from nine countries to seventeen; that year the festival gave its first official awards, namely the Mussolini Cup for Best Italian Film, the Mussolini Cup for Best Foreign Film, the Corporations Ministry Cup. Seventeen awards were given: fourteen to films and three to individuals. Five films received; the third installment of the festival in 1935 was headed by its first artistic director, Ottavio Croze, who maintained this position until World War II.
The following year, a jury was added to the festival's governing body. The majority of funds for the festival came from the Ministry of Popular Culture, with other portions from the Biennale and the city of Venice; the year 1936 marked another important development in the festival. A law crafted by the Ministry of Popular Culture made the festival an autonomous entity, separate from the main Venice Biennale; this allowed additional fascist organizations, such as the Department of Cinema and the Fascist National Federation of Entertainment Industries, to take control of the festival. The fifth year of the festival saw the establishment of its permanent home. Designed and completed in 1937, the Palazzo del Cinema was built on the Lido; the Palazzo has since been the site for every Venice Film Festival, with the exception of the three years from 1940 to 1942, when the festival was moved away from Venice for fear of bombing. However, Venice received no damage during that time; the 1940s represent one of the most difficult moments for the festival itself.
Nazi propaganda movie Heimkehr was presented in 1941 winning an award from the Italian Ministry of Popular Culture. With the advent of the conflict the situation degenerated to such a point that the editions of 1940, 1941 and 1942, subsequently are considered as if they did not happen because they were carried out in places far away from Lido. Additionally, the festival was renamed the Italian-German Film Festival in 1940; the festival carried this title until 1942. The festival resumed full speed after the war. For the first time, the 1946 edition was held in the month of September, in accordance to an agreement with the newly-born Cannes Film Festival, which had just held its first review in the spring of that year. With the return of normalcy, Venice once again became a great icon of the film world. In 1947 the festival was held in the courtyard of the Doge's Palace, a most magnificent backdrop for hosting a record 90 thousand participants; the 1947 festival is considered one of the most successful editions in the history of the festival.
In 1963 the winds of change blow during Luigi C