The mullets or grey mullets are a family of ray-finned fish found worldwide in coastal temperate and tropical waters, some species in fresh water. Mullets have served as an important source of food in Mediterranean Europe since Roman times; the family includes about 78 species in 20 genera. Mullets are distinguished by the presence of two separate dorsal fins, small triangular mouths, the absence of a lateral line organ, they feed on detritus, most species have unusually muscular stomachs and a complex pharynx to help in digestion. A common noticeable behavior in mullet is the tendency to leap out of the water. There are two distinguishable types of leaps: a straight, clean slice out of the water to escape predators and a slower, lower jump while turning to its side that results in a larger, more distinguishable, splash; the reasons for this lower jump are disputed, but have been hypothesized to be in order to gain oxygen rich air for gas exchange in a small organ above the pharynx. Taxonomically, the family is treated as the sole member of the order Mugiliformes, but as Nelson says, "there has been much disagreement concerning the relationships" of this family.
The presence of fin spines indicates membership in the superorder Acanthopterygii, in the 1960s, they were classed as primitive perciforms, while others have grouped them in Atheriniformes. They are classified as an order, within the subseries Ovalentaria of the clade Percomorpha in the 5th Edition of Fishes of the World. In North America, "mullet" by itself refers to Mugilidae. In Europe, the word "mullet" is qualified, the "grey mullets" being Mugilidae and the "red mullets" or "surmullets" being Mullidae, notably members of the genus Mullus, the red mullets. Outside Europe, the Mullidae are called "goatfish". Fish with common names including the word "mullet" may be a member of one family or the other, or unrelated such as the freshwater white sucker; the following genera were accepted as making up the Mugilidae: However, recent taxonomic work has reorganised the family and the following genera as make up the Mugilidae: Mulletfish portal J. S. Nelson, Fishes of the World. ISBN 978-0-471-25031-9.
Froese and Daniel Pauly, eds.. "Mugilidae" in FishBase. June 2012 version. Sepkoski, Jack. "A compendium of fossil marine animal genera". Bulletins of American Paleontology. 364: 560. Retrieved 2011-05-19. SPECIES BY FAMILY/SUBFAMILY IN THE CATALOG OF FISHES Video: Mullet Dursey Sound May 2010, West Cork, Ireland
Cynoscion is a genus of fish in the drum family, Sciaenidae. The genus consists of 24 species: Cynoscion acoupa -- Acoupa weakfish Cynoscion albus -- Whitefin weakfish Cynoscion analis -- Peruvian weakfish Cynoscion arenarius -- Sand seatrout Cynoscion jamaicensis -- Jamaica weakfish Cynoscion leiarchus -- Smooth weakfish Cynoscion microlepidotus -- Smallscale weakfish Cynoscion nannus -- Dwarf weakfish Cynoscion nebulosus -- Spotted seatrout Cynoscion nortoni -- Hake weakfish Cynoscion nothus -- Silver seatrout Cynoscion othonopterus -- Gulf weakfish Cynoscion parvipinnis -- Shortfin corvina Cynoscion phoxocephalus -- Cachema weakfish Cynoscion praedatorius -- Boccone weakfish Cynoscion regalis -- Weakfish Cynoscion reticulatus Cynoscion similis Cynoscion squamipinnis -- Scalyfin corvina Cynoscion steindachneri Cynoscion stolzmanni -- Yellowtail corvina Cynoscion striatus Cynoscion virescens Cynoscion xanthulus
Perciformes called the Percomorpha or Acanthopteri, is an order or superorder of ray-finned fish. If considered a single order, they are the most numerous order of vertebrates, containing about 41% of all bony fish. Perciformes means "perch-like"; this group comprises over 10,000 species found in all aquatic ecosystems. The order contains about 160 families, the most of any order within the vertebrates, it is the most variably sized order of vertebrates, ranging from the 7-mm Schindleria brevipinguis to the 5-m marlin in the genus Makaira. They first diversified in the Late Cretaceous. Among the well-known members of this group are perch and darters, sea bass and groupers; the dorsal and anal fins are divided into anterior spiny and posterior soft-rayed portions, which may be or separated. The pelvic fins have one spine and up to five soft rays, positioned unusually far forward under the chin or under the belly. Scales are ctenoid, although sometimes they are cycloid or otherwise modified. Classification is controversial.
As traditionally defined before the introduction of cladistics, the Perciformes are certainly paraphyletic. Other orders that should be included as suborders are the Scorpaeniformes, Tetraodontiformes, Pleuronectiformes. Of the presently recognized suborders, several may be paraphyletic, as well; these are grouped by suborder/superfamily following the text Fishes of the World. Photos of Perciformes on Sealife Collection
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, the atmosphere. NOAA warns of dangerous weather, charts seas, guides the use and protection of ocean and coastal resources, conducts research to provide understanding and improve stewardship of the environment. NOAA was formed in 1970 and in 2017 had over 11,000 civilian employees, its research and operations are further supported by 321 uniformed service members who make up the NOAA Commissioned Corps. Since October 2017, NOAA has been headed by Timothy Gallaudet, as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and NOAA interim administrator. NOAA plays several specific roles in society, the benefits of which extend beyond the US economy and into the larger global community: A Supplier of Environmental Information Products. NOAA supplies to its customers and partners information pertaining to the state of the oceans and the atmosphere.
This is clear through the production of weather warnings and forecasts via the National Weather Service, but NOAA's information products extend to climate and commerce as well. A Provider of Environmental Stewardship Services. NOAA is a steward of U. S. coastal and marine environments. In coordination with federal, local and international authorities, NOAA manages the use of these environments, regulating fisheries and marine sanctuaries as well as protecting threatened and endangered marine species. A Leader in Applied Scientific Research. NOAA is intended to be a source of accurate and objective scientific information in the four particular areas of national and global importance identified above: ecosystems, climate and water, commerce and transportation; the five "fundamental activities" are: Monitoring and observing Earth systems with instruments and data collection networks. Understanding and describing Earth systems through research and analysis of that data. Assessing and predicting the changes of these systems over time.
Engaging and informing the public and partner organizations with important information. Managing resources for the betterment of society and environment. NOAA traces its history back to multiple agencies, some of which were among the oldest in the federal government: United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, formed in 1807 Weather Bureau of the United States, formed in 1870 Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, formed in 1871 Coast and Geodetic Survey Corps, formed in 1917Another direct predecessor of NOAA was the Environmental Science Services Administration, into which several existing scientific agencies such as the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Weather Bureau and the uniformed Corps were absorbed in 1965. NOAA was established within the Department of Commerce via the Reorganization Plan No. 4 and formed on October 3, 1970 after U. S. President Richard Nixon proposed creating a new agency to serve a national need for "better protection of life and property from natural hazards …for a better understanding of the total environment… for exploration and development leading to the intelligent use of our marine resources."
In 2007, NOAA celebrated 200 years of service in its role as successor to the United States Survey of the Coast. In 2013, NOAA closed 600 weather stations. Since October 25, 2017 Timothy Gallaudet, Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, has served as acting Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere at the US Department of Commerce and NOAA's interim administrator. Gallaudet succeeded Benjamin Friedman, who served as NOAA's interim administrator since the end of the Obama Administration on January 20, 2017. In October 2017, Barry Lee Myers, CEO of AccuWeather, was proposed to be the agency's administrator by the Trump Administration. NOAA works toward its mission through six major line offices, the National Environmental Satellite and Information Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service, the National Ocean Service, the National Weather Service, the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research and the Office of Marine & Aviation Operations, and in addition more than a dozen staff offices, including the Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology, the NOAA Central Library, the Office of Program Planning and Integration.
The National Weather Service is tasked with providing "weather and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its territories, adjacent waters and ocean areas, for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy." This is done through a collection of national and regional centers, 13 river forecast centers, more than 120 local weather forecast offices. They are charged with issuing weather and river forecasts, advisories and warnings on a daily basis, they issue more than 734,000 weather and 850,000 river forecasts, more than 45,000 severe weather warnings annually. NOAA data is relevant to the issues of global warming and ozone depletion; the NWS operates NEXRAD, a nationwide network of Doppler weather radars which can detect precipitation and their velocities. Many of their products are broadcast on NOAA Weather Radio, a network of radio transmitters that broadcasts weather forecasts, severe weather statements and warnings 24 hours a day; the National Ocean Service focuses on ensuring that ocean and coastal areas are safe and productive.
NOS scientists, natural resource managers, specialists serve America by ensuring safe and efficient marine transportation, promoting innovative solutions to protect coastal communities, conserving mari
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi
The brown trout is a European species of salmonid fish, introduced into suitable environments globally. It includes both purely freshwater populations, referred to as the riverine ecotype, Salmo trutta morpha fario, a lacustrine ecotype, S. trutta morpha lacustris called the lake trout, as well as anadromous forms known as the sea trout, S. trutta morpha trutta. The latter migrates to the oceans for much of its life and returns to fresh water only to spawn. Sea trout in the Ireland and Britain have many regional names: sewin in Wales, finnock in Scotland, peal in the West Country, mort in North West England, white trout in Ireland; the lacustrine morph of brown trout is most potamodromous, migrating from lakes into rivers or streams to spawn, although evidence indicates stocks spawn on wind-swept shorelines of lakes. S. trutta morpha fario forms stream-resident populations in alpine streams, but sometimes in larger rivers. Anadromous and nonanadromous morphs. What determines whether or not they migrate remains unknown.
The scientific name of the brown trout is Salmo trutta. The specific epithet trutta derives from the Latin trutta, meaning "trout". Behnke relates that the brown trout was the first species of trout described in the 1758 edition of Systema Naturae by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus. Systema Naturae established the system of binomial nomenclature for animals. Salmo trutta was used to describe sea-run forms of brown trout. Linnaeus described two other brown trout species in 1758. Salmo fario was used for riverine forms. Salmo lacustris was used for lake-dwelling forms; the native range of brown trout extends from northern Norway and White Sea tributaries in Russia in the Arctic Ocean to the Atlas Mountains in North Africa. The western limit of their native range is Iceland in the north Atlantic, while the eastern limit is in Aral Sea tributaries in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Brown trout have been introduced into suitable environments around the world, including North and South America, Australasia and South and East Africa.
Introduced brown trout have established self-sustaining, wild populations in many introduced countries. The first introductions were in Australia in 1864 when 300 of 1500 brown trout eggs from the River Itchen survived a four-month voyage from Falmouth, Cornwall, to Melbourne on the sailing ship Norfolk. By 1866, 171 young brown trout were surviving in a Plenty River hatchery in Tasmania. Thirty-eight young trout were released in the river, a tributary of the River Derwent in 1866. By 1868, the Plenty River hosted a self-sustaining population of brown trout which became a brood source for continued introduction of brown trout into Australian and New Zealand rivers. Successful introductions into the Natal and Cape Provinces of South Africa took place in 1890 and 1892, respectively. By 1909, brown trout were established in the mountains of Kenya; the first introductions into the Himalayas in northern India took place in 1868, by 1900, brown trout were established in Kashmir and Madras. The first introductions in Canada occurred in 1883 in Newfoundland and continued up until 1933.
The only Canadian regions without brown trout are Northwest Territories. Introductions into South America began in 1904 in Argentina. Brown trout are now established in Chile and the Falklands. In the 1950s and 1960s, Edgar Albert de la Rue, a French geologist, began the introduction of several species of salmonids on the remote Kerguelen Islands in the southern Indian Ocean. Of the seven species introduced, only brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, brown trout survived to establish wild populations. Sea-run forms of brown trout exceeding 20 lb are caught by local anglers on a regular basis; the first introductions into the U. S. started in 1883 when Fred Mather, a New York pisciculturist and angler, under the authority of the U. S. Fish Commissioner, Spencer Baird, obtained brown trout eggs from a Baron Lucius von Behr, president of the German Fishing Society; the von Behr brown trout came from both mountain streams and large lakes in the Black Forest region of Baden-Württemberg. The original shipment of "von Behr" brown trout eggs were handled by three hatcheries, one on Long Island, the Cold Spring Hatchery operated by Mather, one in Caledonia, New York operated by pisciculturalist Seth Green, other hatchery in Northville, Michigan.
Additional shipments of "von Behr" brown trout eggs arrived in 1884. In 1885, brown trout eggs from Loch Leven, arrived in New York; these "Loch Leven" brown trout were distributed to the same hatcheries. Over the next few years, additional eggs from Scotland and Germany were shipped to U. S. hatcheries. Behnke believed all life forms of brown trout—anadromous and lacustrine—were imported into the U. S. and intermingled genetically to create what he calls the American generic brown trout and a single subspecies the North European brown trout. In April 1884, the U. S. Fish Commission released 4900 brown trout fry into the Baldwin River, a tributary of the Pere Marquette River in Michigan; this was the first release of brown trout into U. S. waters. Between 1884 and 1890, brown trout were introduced into suitable habitats throughout the U. S. By 1900, 38 states and two territories had received stocks of brown trout, their adaptability resulted in most of these introductions establishing wild, self-sustaining populations.
The fish is not considered to be endangered, although, in some cases, individual stocks are under various degrees of stress through habitat degradation and artificial propagation leading to introgression. Increased frequency of excessively warm water
Gillnetting is a common fishing method used by commercial and artisanal fishers of all the oceans and in some freshwater and estuary areas. Gill nets are composed of vertical panels of netting that hang from a line with spaced floaters that hold the line on the surface of the water; the floats are sometimes called "corks" and the line with corks is referred to as a "cork line." The line along the bottom of the panels is weighted. Traditionally this line has been weighted with lead and may be referred to as "lead line." A gill net is set in a straight line. Gill nets can be characterized by mesh size, as well as colour and type of filament from which they are made. Fish may be caught by gill nets in three ways: Wedged – held by the mesh around the body. Gilled – held by mesh slipping behind the opercula. Tangled – held by teeth, maxillaries, or other protrusions without the body penetrating the mesh. Most fish are gilled. A fish passes only part way through the mesh; when it struggles to free itself, the twine prevents escape.
Gillnets are so effective that their use is monitored and regulated by fisheries management and enforcement agencies. Mesh size, twine strength, as well as net length and depth are all regulated to reduce bycatch of non-target species. Gillnets have a high degree of size selectivity. Most salmon fisheries in particular have an low incidence of catching non-target species. A fishing vessel rigged to fish by gillnetting is a gillnetter. A gillnetter which deploys its gillnet from the bow is a bowpicker, while one which deploys its gillnet from the stern is a sternpicker. Gillnets existed in ancient times. In North America, Native American fishermen used cedar canoes and natural fibre nets, e.g. made with nettles or the inner bark of cedar. They would attach stones to the bottom of the nets as weights, pieces of wood to the top, to use as floats; this allowed the net to suspend straight down in the water. Each net would be suspended either between two boats. Native fishers in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska still use gillnets in their fisheries for salmon and steelhead.
Both drift gillnets and setnets have long been used by cultures around the world. There is evidence of fisheries exploitation, including gillnetting, going far back in Japanese history, with many specific details available from the Edo period. Fisheries in the Shetland Islands, which were settled by Norsemen during the Viking age, share cultural and technological similarities with Norwegian fisheries, including gillnet fisheries for herring. Many of the Norwegian immigrant fishermen who came to fish in the great Columbia River salmon fishery during the second half of the 19th century did so because they had experience in the gillnet fishery for cod in the waters surrounding the Lofoten Islands of northern Norway. Gillnets were used as part of the seasonal round by Swedish fishermen as well. Welsh and English fishermen gillnetted for Atlantic salmon in the rivers of Wales and England in coracles, using hand-made nets, for at least several centuries; these a few of the examples of historic gillnet fisheries around the world.
Gillnetting was an early fishing technology in colonial America, used for example, in fisheries for Atlantic salmon and shad. Immigrant fishermen from northern Europe and the Mediterranean brought a number of different adaptations of the technology from their respective homelands with them to the expanding salmon fisheries of the Columbia River from the 1860s onward; the boats used by these fisherman were around 25 feet long and powered by oars. Many of these boats had small sails and were called "row-sail" boats. At the beginning of the 1900s, steam powered ships would haul these smaller boats to their fishing grounds and retrieve them at the end of each day. However, at that time gas powered boats were beginning to make their appearance, by the 1930s, the row-sail boat had disappeared, except in Bristol Bay, where motors were prohibited in the gillnet fishery by territorial law until 1951. In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen; the drum is a circular device, set to the side of the boat and draws in the nets.
The powered drum allowed the nets to be drawn in much faster and along with the faster gas powered boats, fisherman were able to fish in areas they had been unable to go into, thereby revolutionizing the fishing industry. During World War II, navigation and communication devices, as well as many other forms of maritime equipment were improved and made more compact; these devices became much more accessible to the average fisherman, thus making their range and mobility larger. It served to make the industry much more competitive, as the fisherman were forced to invest more in boats and equipment to stay current with developing technology; the introduction of fine synthetic fibres such as nylon in the construction of fishing gear during the 1960s marked an expansion in the commercial use of gillnets. The new materials were cheaper and easier to handle, lasted longer and required less maintenance than natural fibres. In addition, multifilament nylon, monofilament or multimonofilament fibres become invisible in water, so nets made with synthetic twines caught greater numbers of fish than natural fibre nets used in comparable situations.
Nylon is resistant to abrasion and degradation, hence the netting has the potential to last for many years if it is not recovered. This ghost fishing is of environmental concern. Attaching the gillnet floats with biodegradable mat