Cyprus the Republic of Cyprus, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean, located south of Turkey, west of Syria and Lebanon, northwest of Israel, north of Egypt, southeast of Greece. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic village of Khirokitia, Cyprus is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world. Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC; as a strategic location in the Middle East, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in 333 BC by Alexander the Great. Subsequent rule by Ptolemaic Egypt, the Classical and Eastern Roman Empire, Arab caliphates for a short period, the French Lusignan dynasty and the Venetians, was followed by over three centuries of Ottoman rule between 1571 and 1878.
Cyprus was placed under the UK's administration based on the Cyprus Convention in 1878 and was formally annexed by Britain in 1914. While Turkish Cypriots made up 18% of the population, the partition of Cyprus and creation of a Turkish state in the north became a policy of Turkish Cypriot leaders and Turkey in the 1950s. Turkish leaders for a period advocated the annexation of Cyprus to Turkey as Cyprus was considered an "extension of Anatolia" by them. Following nationalist violence in the 1950s, Cyprus was granted independence in 1960; the crisis of 1963–64 brought further intercommunal violence between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, which displaced more than 25,000 Turkish Cypriots into enclaves and brought the end of Turkish Cypriot representation in the republic. On 15 July 1974, a coup d'état was staged by Greek Cypriot nationalists and elements of the Greek military junta in an attempt at enosis, the incorporation of Cyprus into Greece; this action precipitated the Turkish invasion of Cyprus on 20 July, which led to the capture of the present-day territory of Northern Cyprus in the following month, after a ceasefire collapsed, the displacement of over 150,000 Greek Cypriots and 50,000 Turkish Cypriots.
A separate Turkish Cypriot state in the north was established by unilateral declaration in 1983. These events and the resulting political situation are matters of a continuing dispute; the Republic of Cyprus has de jure sovereignty over the entire island, including its territorial waters and exclusive economic zone, with the exception of the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, which remain under the UK's control according to the London and Zürich Agreements. However, the Republic of Cyprus is de facto partitioned into two main parts: the area under the effective control of the Republic, located in the south and west, comprising about 59% of the island's area. Another nearly 4% of the island's area is covered by the UN buffer zone; the international community considers the northern part of the island as territory of the Republic of Cyprus occupied by Turkish forces. The occupation is viewed as illegal under international law, amounting to illegal occupation of EU territory since Cyprus became a member of the European Union.
Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean. With an advanced, high-income economy and a high Human Development Index, the Republic of Cyprus has been a member of the Commonwealth since 1961 and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement until it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004. On 1 January 2008, the Republic of Cyprus joined the eurozone; the earliest attested reference to Cyprus is the 15th century BC Mycenaean Greek, ku-pi-ri-jo, meaning "Cypriot", written in Linear B syllabic script. The classical Greek form of the name is Κύπρος; the etymology of the name is unknown. Suggestions include: the Greek word for the Mediterranean cypress tree, κυπάρισσος the Greek name of the henna tree, κύπρος an Eteocypriot word for copper, it has been suggested, for example, that it has roots in the Sumerian word for copper or for bronze, from the large deposits of copper ore found on the island. Through overseas trade, the island has given its name to the Classical Latin word for copper through the phrase aes Cyprium, "metal of Cyprus" shortened to Cuprum.
The standard demonym relating to Cyprus or its people or culture is Cypriot. The terms Cypriote and Cyprian are used, though less frequently; the earliest confirmed site of human activity on Cyprus is Aetokremnos, situated on the south coast, indicating that hunter-gatherers were active on the island from around 10,000 BC, with settled village communities dating from 8200 BC. The arrival of the first humans correlates with the extinction of the dwarf hippos and dwarf elephants. Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old. Remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with a human body at a separate Neolithic site in Cyprus; the grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, predating ancient Egyptian civilisation and pushing back the ear
Apollon Limassol is a Cypriot sports club, based in Limassol. It has football and volleyball teams. Founded in 1954, Apollon FC plays in the Cypriot First Division and has won the championship title 3 times, the cup 9 times and the Super Cup 3 times. Apollon is considered as one of the most successful clubs of the island and the second most successful in Limassol with 15 major trophies and 4 participations in the Europa League Group Stages. Apollon FC has a fanatic following, considered to be among the largest in number in Cyprus. At the end of 1953, a team of young men placed as a dream and objective, the foundation of an association with national and athletic aims based on promoting the education and social skills of its young members. On 14 April 1954, the general assembly of these members with leader Mr Christakis Pavlides proposes the foundation of an athletic association called "APOLLON LIMASSOL"; the assembly approved the proposal and thus from that date "APOLLON was born". The first administrative council of the team included: Charalambos Lymbourides, Andreas Psyllides, Antonakis Fourlas, Melis Charalampous, Andreas Theoharous Andreas Aggelopoulos and Kostas Panayiotou In its first year, Apollon had 8 defeats in 8 matches in the second division.
Just before the next season, Apollon won the regional group in the second division and subsequently the play-offs and was promoted to the first division. This took place in 1957 and since Apollon has been competing in the first division. Through his history, Apollon won three Championships, nine Cups, 3 Super Cup and had some successful participation in European competitions, winning several important games and at the same time, the respect of many European football clubs during the several participations in the Group Stage of the Europa League. In its first year, Apollon suffered. Just before the next season, Apollon won the regional group in the second division and subsequently the play-offs and was promoted to the first division; this took place in 1957 and since Apollon has been competing in the first division. Things were not easy however for the newly promoted club. Apollon couldn't reach a satisfactory position in the rankings and was struggling in the middle of the table for many years.
But in the mid-60's things changed. In 1965 Apollon reached the Cup Final. However, Omonia won the title with a score of 5–1. A year Apollon was in the Final again, won the Cup by defeating Nea Salamina with the score of 4–2, triumphantly took the trophy to Limassol. Apollon managed to maintain its Cup title in 1967, by beating Alki 1–0 thanks to the goal of Antonis Panayides. After celebrating these titles, Apollon had to wait another 15 years to start making history once again. In the football season 1981–82 Apollon managed to reach once again the Cup final however in double games Omonia won the Cup. In the 1985–86 season, after 20 years of "drought" Apollon won once again the Cup in Tsirion Stadium, overcoming APOEL with a score of 2–0. Scores were Sokratous. In these years, it emerged that absent was this "something" that could make the difference for the team to lead in the Championship; this "something" therefore was non-other than the German coach named Diethelm Ferner who, upon arriving in Cyprus was determined to win.
The German, with his discipline and hard work accomplishes "links" between young talented footballers with older more experienced footballers creating a team ready for the big time. Thus in the season 1990–91 the team entered the championship "marathon" wanting to write the biggest and most glorious page in its history book. After a frantic and impressive season, offering both substance and spectacle in its game, Apollon was crowned Champion of Cyprus! From that year and for a five-year period the team gained the admiration of all Cypriot football fans after playing modern football. In 1991–92 season Apollon won the Cup for the fourth time, overcoming Omonia in final with a final score of 1–0; the scorer was Evgenio Ptak. However, in the next season of 1992–93 Apollon lost both titles; the team returned and gained the club's second Championship one year in 1993–94 season after a hard duel with Anorthosis where the title was judged on the last day of the season. In the 1994–95 season Apollon reached the Cup final losing from Apoel with 2–4 while the same happened in the 1997–98 season with "executioner" this time the almighty Anorthosis, that accomplishes and gains the cup with a final score 1–3.
In that five-year period Apollon was accomplished in the European ties, winning enough games and at the same time the respect of many European football clubs. However, the game, in which Apollon wrote his own unique history is non-other than with the big opponent of Inter Milan in the UEFA Cup! The 1–0 in "Stadio Giuseppe Meazza" left margins for Apollon to believe in a miracle, against the Italians for the second leg game of 3 November 1993; the Cup Champions, staffed with a squad of international players led by Dutchman Dennis Bergkamp talked for a walkover in Cyprus against "fishermen" and that the game in Milan was just a bad game for their team. However, the Inter team was found in Limassol, losing in the first ten minutes with a 0–2 score and only managed to recover and to finish another historic tie with 3–3, leaving at the end the gre
UEFA Champions League
The UEFA Champions League is an annual club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations and contested by top-division European clubs. It is one of the most prestigious tournaments in the world and the most prestigious club competition in European football, played by the national league champions of the strongest UEFA national associations. Introduced in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs' Cup, more known as the European Cup, it was a straight knockout tournament open only to the champion club of each national championship; the competition took on its current name in 1992, adding a round-robin group stage and allowing multiple entrants from certain countries. It has since been expanded, while most of Europe's national leagues can still only enter their champion, the strongest leagues now provide up to five teams. Clubs that finish next-in-line in their national league, having not qualified for the Champions League, are eligible for the second-tier UEFA Europa League competition.
In its present format, the Champions League begins in late June with four knockout qualifying rounds and a play-off round. The 6 surviving teams enter the group stage; the 32 teams are drawn into eight groups of four teams and play each other in a double round-robin system. The eight group winners and eight runners-up proceed to the knockout phase that culminates with the final match in May; the winner of the Champions League qualifies for the FIFA Club World Cup. The competition has been won by 22 clubs. Real Madrid is the most successful club in the tournament's history, having won it 13 times, including its first five seasons. Real Madrid are the reigning champions. Spanish clubs have the highest number of victories, followed by Italy. England has the largest number of winning teams, with five clubs having won the title; the first pan-European tournament was the Challenge Cup, a competition between clubs in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Mitropa Cup, a competition modelled after the Challenge Cup, was created in 1927, an idea of Austrian Hugo Meisl, played between Central European clubs.
In 1930, the Coupe des Nations, the first attempt to create a cup for national champion clubs of Europe, was played and organised by Swiss club Servette. Held in Geneva, it brought together ten champions from across the continent; the tournament was won by Újpest of Hungary. Latin European nations came together to form the Latin Cup in 1949. After receiving reports from his journalists over the successful Campeonato Sudamericano de Campeones of 1948, Gabriel Hanot, editor of L'Équipe, began proposing the creation of a continent-wide tournament. After Stan Cullis declared Wolverhampton Wanderers "Champions of the World" following a successful run of friendlies in the 1950s, in particular a 3–2 friendly victory against Budapest Honvéd, Hanot managed to convince UEFA to put into practice such a tournament, it was conceived in Paris in 1955 as the European Champion Clubs' Cup. The first edition of the European Cup took place during the 1955–56 season. Sixteen teams participated: Milan, AGF Aarhus, Djurgården, Gwardia Warszawa, Partizan, PSV Eindhoven, Rapid Wien, Real Madrid, Rot-Weiss Essen, Saarbrücken, Sporting CP, Stade de Reims, Vörös Lobogó.
The first European Cup match took place on 4 September 1955, ended in a 3–3 draw between Sporting CP and Partizan. The first goal in European Cup history was scored by João Baptista Martins of Sporting CP; the inaugural final took place at the Parc des Princes between Stade de Real Madrid. The Spanish squad came back from behind to win 4–3 thanks to goals from Alfredo Di Stéfano and Marquitos, as well as two goals from Héctor Rial. Real Madrid defended the trophy next season in their home stadium, the Santiago Bernabéu, against Fiorentina. After a scoreless first half, Real Madrid scored twice in six minutes to defeat the Italians. In 1958, Milan failed to capitalise after going ahead on the scoreline twice, only for Real Madrid to equalise; the final held in Heysel Stadium went to extra time where Francisco Gento scored the game-winning goal to allow Real Madrid to retain the title for the third consecutive season. In a rematch of the first final, Real Madrid faced Stade Reims at the Neckarstadion for the 1958–59 season final winning 2–0.
West German side Eintracht Frankfurt became the first non-Latin team to reach the European Cup final. The 1959–60 season finale still holds the record for the most goals scored, with Real Madrid beating Eintracht Frankfurt 7-3 in Hampden Park, courtesy of four goals by Ferenc Puskás and a hat-trick by Alfredo Di Stéfano; this was a record that still stands today. Real Madrid's reign ended in the 1960–61 season when bitter rivals Barcelona dethroned them in the first round. Barcelona themselves, would be defeated in the final by Portuguese side Benfica 3–2 at Wankdorf Stadium. Reinforced by Eusébio, Benfica defeated Real Madrid 5–3 at the Olympic Stadium in Amsterdam and kept the title for a second, consecutive season. Benfica wanted to repeat Real Madrid's successful run of the 1950s after reaching the showpiece event of the 1962–63 European Cup, but a brace from Brazilian-Italian José Altafini at the Wembley Stadi
Oroklini, or less Voroklini, is a village in Larnaca District, Cyprus, to the north-east of Larnaca. Its population in 2011 was 6,134; the region around village was inhabited in ancient times, when there was intense mining in that region copper. It was an estate of despots destroyed by Saracens. Leontios Machairas in his Chronicle mentions raids by the Saracens in that region during the reign of Janus of Cyprus. Oroklini and surrounding villages were abandoned in the 15th century, resettled again temporarily abandoned and again resettled in the 16th century. In the 17th century it is mentioned in Venetian documents as Vorochini: during this period the village was yet again abandoned, it was permanently settled in the 18th century. Although copper is no longer mined, there are a number of quarries of grey soli and tera alba. Oroklini lake is designated as a Special Protection Area and was subject to a three-year project starting in January 2012 to bring the lake to ″favourable conservation status″.
Black-winged stilt and the spur-winged lapwing were the main target species along with fifty-eight bird species that migrate through, or overwinter within the SPA. The shallow salt lakes are home to greater flamingo. There are several deserted chapels in the area next to the mountainside; the old small church of Archangel Michael from 17 century is built in byzantine style. It was rebuilt in 1867. New church of Archangel Michael is built in 1986; the small church of Prophet Elias was built in the 16th century on the hilltop west of the village. There was the Church of Saint Thomas, a monastery from the 10th century
Nicosia is the largest city and seat of government of the island of Cyprus. It is located on the banks of the River Pedieos. Nicosia is the southeasternmost of all EU member states' capitals, it has been continuously inhabited for over 4,500 years and has been the capital of Cyprus since the 10th century. The Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities of Nicosia segregated into the south and north of the city in early 1964, following the fighting of the Cyprus crisis of 1963–64 that broke out in the city; this separation became a militarized border between the Republic of Cyprus and Northern Cyprus after Turkey invaded the island of Cyprus in 1974, occupying the north of the island, including northern Nicosia. Today North Nicosia is the capital of Northern Cyprus, a state recognized only by Turkey, considered to be occupied Cypriot territory by the international community. Apart from its legislative and administrative functions, Nicosia has established itself as the island's financial capital and its main international business centre.
In 2018, Nicosia was the 32nd richest city in the world in relative purchasing power. The earliest mention of Nicosia is in the clay prism of the Assyrian king Esarhaddon in 672 BC; this is a mention to the city-state of Ledra located on the site of Nicosia, the city is named "Lidir". The name Ledra and variations remained in use as late as 392 AD, when it was used in writing by Saint Jerome. However, that text refers the city as "Leucotheon", early Christian sources of this period are the first to use similar variations of the name Lefkosia; the origin of the name "Lefkosia" is considered by scholars to be a "toponymic puzzle". The name is recorded in the majority of Byzantine sources as "Leukousia", it is accepted in literature that the name "most probably" derives from the Greek phrase "leuke ousia". Nicosia has been in continuous habitation since the beginning of the Bronze Age 2500 years BC, when the first inhabitants settled in the fertile plain of Mesaoria. Nicosia became a city-state known as Ledra or Ledrae, one of the twelve kingdoms of ancient Cyprus built by Achaeans after the end of the Trojan War.
Remains of old Ledra today can be found in the Ayia Paraskevi hill in the south east of the city. Only one king of Ledra is known: Onasagoras; the kingdom of Ledra was destroyed early. Under Assyrian rule of Cyprus, Onasagoras was recorded as paying tribute to Esarhaddon of Assyria in 672 BC. By 330 BC, Ledra was recorded to be a small unimportant town, it is thought that the settlement was economically and politically dependent on the nearby town of Chytri. The main activity of the town inhabitants was farming. During this era, Ledra did not have the huge growth that the other Cypriot coastal towns had, based on trade. In Byzantine times, the town was referred to as Λευκωσία or as Καλληνίκησις. In the 4th century AD, the town became the seat of bishopric, with bishop Saint Tryphillius, a student of Saint Spyridon. Archaeological evidence indicates that the town regained much of its earlier significance in the early Christian period, the presence of two or three basilicas with opus sectile decorations, along with marbles decorated with high relief indicate the presence of a prosperous and sophisticated Christian society.
After the destruction of Salamis, the existing capital of Cyprus, by Arab raids in 647, along with extensive damage to other coastal settlements, the economy of the island became much more inward-looking and inland towns gained relative significance. Nicosia benefited from this and functioned as an outlet of the agricultural products from its hinterland, the Mesaoria plain, it further was at an advantageous position due to its ample water supply. As such, the town developed enough for the Byzantine Empire to choose Nicosia as the capital of the island around 965, when Cyprus rejoined the Byzantine Empire; the Byzantines moved the island's administration seat to Nicosia for security reasons as coastal towns were suffering from raids. From that point on it has remained as the capital of Cyprus. Nicosia was the seat of the Byzantine governor of Cyprus. Testimony as late as 1211 indicates that Nicosia was not a walled city at that point and thus that the Byzantines did not build a city wall, thinking that the city's inland location would be sufficient for defense purposes.
The Byzantines did, build a weak fort within the city. The economy under Byzantine rule consisted of the trading of agricultural goods, but the town produced luxury items and metalware due to the presence of the imperial administration. On his way to the Holy Land during the Third Crusade in 1187, Richard I of England's fleet was plagued by storms, he himself stopped first at Crete and at Rhodes. Three ships continued on, one of, carrying Joan of England, Queen of Sicily and Berengaria of Navarre, Richard's bride-to-be. Two of the ships were wrecked off Cyprus, but the ship bearing Joan and Berengaria made it safely to Limassol. Joan refused to come ashore, fearing she would be captured and held hostage by Isaac Komnenos of Cyprus, who hated all Franks, her ship sat at anchor for a full week before Richard arrived on 8 May. Outraged at the treatment of his sister and his future bride, Richard invaded. Richard laid siege to Nicosia met and defeated Isaac Komnenos at Tremetousia and became ruler of the island, but sold it to the Knights Templar.
Limassol is a city on the southern coast of Cyprus and capital of the eponymous district. Limassol is the second largest urban area in Cyprus after Nicosia, with an urban population of 183,658 and a metropolitan population of 239,842. Limassol has been ranked by TripAdvisor as the 3rd up-and-coming destination in the world, in its Top 10 Traveler’s Choice Destinations on the Rise; the city is ranked 89th worldwide in Mercer's Quality of Living Survey. In the ranking published by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, Limassol has been classified global city in the 4th category. Limassol was built between two ancient Greek cities and Kourion, during Byzantine rule it was known as Neapolis. Limassol's historical centre is located around the Old Port. Today the city spreads along the Mediterranean coast and has extended much farther than the castle and port, with its suburbs stretching along the coast to Amathus. To the west of the city, is the Akrotiri Area of the British Overseas Territory of Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
The city of Limassol is situated between the ancient cities of Kourion. Limassol was built after Amathus had been ruined. However, the town of Limassol has been inhabited since ancient times. Graves found there date back to 2000 BC and others date back to the 8th and 4th centuries BC; these few remains show that a small colonisation must have existed which did not manage to develop and flourish. Ancient writers mention nothing about the foundation of the town. In 85 BC, Armenian emperor Tigranes the Great had reached Limassol in order to establish security and protection of local Greek allies against Rome in a result followed by his conquest of Syria and Anatolia. According to the Council of Chalcedon which took place in 451, the local bishop as well as the bishops of Amathus and Arsinoe were involved in the foundation of the city, which would be known by the names of Theodosiana and Neapolis. Bishop Leontios of Neapolis was an important church writer in the 7th century; the records of the 7th Synod refer to it.
The town was known as Lemesos in the 10th century. The history of Limassol is known by the events associated with the Third Crusade; the king of England, Richard the Lionheart, was travelling to the Holy Land in 1170. His fiancée Berengaria and his sister Joan, Queen of Sicily, were travelling on a different ship; because of a storm, the ship with the queens arrived in Limassol. Isaac Komnenos, the renegade Byzantine Greek governor of Cyprus invited the queens ashore, with the intention of holding them to ransom, but they refused. So he refused they had to put out to sea again or yield to capture; when Richard arrived in Limassol and met Isaac Komnenos, he asked him to contribute to the crusade for the liberation of the Holy Land. While at the beginning Isaac had accepted, he on refused to give any help. Richard chased him and arrested him. Richard celebrated his marriage with Berengaria who had received the crown as queen of England in Cyprus. Richard destroyed Amathus and the inhabitants were transferred to Limassol.
A year in AD 1175 Cyprus was sold for the sum of 100,000 bezants to the Templars, rich monks and soldiers whose aim was the protection of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. The knights enforced high taxes, in order to get back the money, given for the purchase of Cyprus; this led to the revolt of the Cypriots. Richard accepted their request and a new purchaser was found: Guy de Lusignan, a Roman Catholic from Poitou. Cyprus was therefore handed over to the French dynasty of the house of Lusignan, thus establishing the medieval Kingdom of Cyprus. For a period of about three centuries 1175–1489, Limassol enjoyed remarkable prosperity. Cyprus was characterised by its great number of Latin bishops; this lasted until the occupation of Cyprus by the Ottomans in AD 1570. Latin battalions; the settlement of merchants in Cyprus and in Limassol in the 13th century led to the financial welfare of its inhabitants. Its harbour as a centre of transportation and commerce, contributed to the financial and cultural development.
Cyprus was sold in 1489 to Venice by the Cypriot Queen Catherine Cornaro. The Venetians did not have Cyprus' best interest at heart, they were only interested in receiving the taxes and in exploiting the country’s resources; the Venetians strengthened the Castle of Limassol. The Ottoman Empire occupied it. Limassol was conquered in July 1570 without any resistance; some neighbourhoods to the east of the city were predominantly Greek, to the west predominantly Turkish with an evenly mixed area around the castle. The church played an important role in the education of Greeks during the years 1754–1821. During those years new schools were set up in all the towns. Greek intellectuals used to teach Greek history and French; the following schools operated in the town of Limassol: The Greek School, established in 1819. The first public school, established in 1841; the Girls’ School, established in 1861. The British took over in Cyprus in 1878; the first British governor of Limassol was Colonel Warren. He showed a particular interest in Limassol and from the first days the condition of the town showed an improvement.
Anorthosis Famagusta FC
Αnorthosis Famagusta FC, known as Anorthosis, is a Cypriot football and volleyball club. Based in Famagusta, the club is now based in Larnaca. Anorthosis was founded in 1911 in Famagusta and in 1934 became one of the founder clubs of the Cyprus Football Association, their home ground is the Antonis Papadopoulos Stadium, the president of the club is Antreas Panteli. One of the most successful clubs in Cypriot football, Anorthosis has won 13 First Division titles, 10 Cypriot Cups and seven Super Cups. Anorthosis is one of three Cypriot clubs never to have played in the second division and the first one which had participated in the Champions League Group Stages; the club was founded in Famagusta on 30 January 1911. After the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974 and the occupation of Famagusta by the Turkish army, Anorthosis was relocated to Antonis Papadopoulos Stadium in Larnaca and because of the occupation of Famagusta Anorthosis is one of those clubs that are known as the "refugee" clubs. Anorthosis' original home stadium in Famagusta, G.
S. E. is in poor condition. Ammochostos, or better Varoshi, around 1910 was a small town of about 4,000 inhabitants: farmers, fishermen and a few shop-keepers; the only place of recreation was the coffee shop. At that time a few and enthusiastic men of that community set a goal and managed to create a "reading club" in hospitable rooms where they could gather and educate the youth in cultural and national matters; the period from 1911 until 1928 can be characterized as the first period of Anorthosis history. In that period, Anorthosis was a nationalist and spiritual group. Patriotic speeches and national commemorations were organised in the building of Anorthosis, but the sector where Anorthosis had created a tradition, unique in the history of clubs of which the reputation and activity was spread all over Cyprus, was in music. Under the control of Demetris Demetriades, it began with great success the only madolinade and band of Anorthosis; the actions taken at that time were many, some of them were: 1913: In a collection, done in the building of Anorthosis the extravagant – for that time – amount of 84 pounds was gathered in just one hour, given for the political needs of the country.
1922: Anorthosis establishes a depository for the relief of the refugees from the Asia Minor destruction. The second period in the history of Anorthosis started with an important changeover in the aims and actions of the club; the "Anorthosis Reading Club" renamed to "Musical Philological and Philanthropical Club" and as an emblem of the club is now the mythical bird Phoenix. During this period the mantolinade and band of Anorthosis are better organised and stipendiary teachers are being appointed for the development of the two groups. In the philological sector the tradition of the past continued. Anorthosis created a first class library with a lending section. In 1936, 1,500 volumes of books were lent to Anorthosis members. In the second period a great importance was given to the athletic sector. Under the control of professor of Gymnastics, Anastasis Oikonomides and volleyball teams, sea sports and teams of classical athleticism, gave Anorthosis many first wins and trophies. Anorthosis in association with Gymnastic Club Evagoras, its own child, organized district and pan-Cyprian games and athletes got their first wins, not only in PanCyprian games.
Of course, for a small time period, there was nothing to show. For example, in 1929 with a letter of POEB of which members are in Anorthosis, said that it was ready to break up and its members to be merged into the football team of Anorthosis, it was decided that a second football team should be funded, the responsibility was on Mr. An. Oikonomidis and S. Mathaiou. On 11 February 1932, at the command of the Ammochostos governor the club of Anorthosis closed for a short time. On 29 October, the president, the general secretary and the boufι manager of Anorthosis were arrested by the police because the Greek flag was hanging on the balcony of the club building. On 26 July 2005, they beat the Turkish team Trabzonspor 3-1 in the first leg of their second-round Champions League qualifying match, they progressed 3-2 on aggregate. In the third-round qualifying tie against the Scottish team Rangers, Anorthosis lost the first leg 2-1, the second leg 2-0, so dropped into the first round of the UEFA Cup.
They were defeated 6-1 on aggregate by the Italian team Palermo. Anorthosis qualified for the 2007–08 UEFA Cup by way of their Cypriot Cup win, they entered the competition at the First Qualifying round stage. Aggregate victories over FK Vardar and CFR 1907 Cluj saw them move through to the First Round proper. Anorthosis were drawn against English Premier League side Tottenham Hotspur; the first leg was played at White Hart Lane on 20 September 2007 which Tottenham Hotspur won 6-1. On 4 October 2007 the second leg resulted in a 1-1 draw when Robbie Keane equalised for Tottenham Hotspur after Fabinho had put Anorthosis ahead. After winning the domestic league 2007–08, Anorthosis qualified for the 2008–09 UEFA Champions League Group Stage, over-running Armenian Champions FC Pyunik, Austrian Champions Rapid Wien and Greek Champions Olympiacos in the qualifying rounds; this allowed the team to qualify for the Group Stage of the Champions League, the first time for a Cypriot team. In the group stage, they earned their first point following a 0-0 away draw with Werder Bremen got their first win beating Panathinaikos FC 3-1 while Hawar Mulla Mohammed became the first Iraqi playe