The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization, tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi and The Hague; the organization is financed by voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law; the UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; the UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945; the UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted of unarmed military observers and armed troops with monitoring and confidence-building roles; the organization's membership grew following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.
The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, UNICEF; the UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work; the organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes. Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed; some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt. In the century prior to the UN's creation, several international treaty organizations such as the International Committee of the Red Cross was formed to ensure protection and assistance for victims of armed conflict and strife.
In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of World War I. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches, influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal advocate of this concept, in 1918 he included a sketch of the international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war. In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt the killing in World War I. Two months the Allies met with Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out formal peace terms. President Wilson wanted peace, but the United Kingdom and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on their former enemies; the League of Nations was approved, in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the US Senate for ratification.
On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in 1919, takes effect. However, at some point the League became ineffective when it failed to act against the Japanese invasion of Manchuria as in February 1933, 40 nations voted for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan voted against it and walked out of the League instead of withdrawing from Manchuria, it failed against the Second Italo-Ethiopian War despite trying to talk to Benito Mussolini as he used the time to send an army to Africa, so the League had a plan for Mussolini to just take a part of Ethiopia, but he ignored the League and invaded Ethiopia, the League tried putting sanctions on Italy, but Italy had conquered Ethiopia and the League had failed. After Italy conquered Ethiopia and other nations left the league, but all of them realised that they began to re-arm as fast as possible. During 1938, Britain and France tried negotiating directly with Hitler but this failed in 1939 when Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.
When war broke out in 1939, the League closed down and its headquarters in Geneva remained empty throughout the war. The earliest concrete plan for a new world organization began under the aegis of the U. S. State Department in 1939; the text of the "Declaration by United Nations" was drafted at the White House on December 29, 1941, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Roosevelt aide Harry Hopkins
United States Department of State
The United States Department of State referred to as the State Department, is the federal executive department that advises the President and conducts international relations. Equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries, it was established in 1789 as the nation's first executive department; the current Secretary of State is Mike Pompeo, who ascended to the office in April 2018 after Rex Tillerson resigned. The State Department's duties include implementing the foreign policy of the United States, operating the nation's diplomatic missions abroad, negotiating treaties and agreements with foreign entities, representing the United States at the United Nations, it is led by the Secretary of State, a member of the Cabinet, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. In addition to administering the department, the Secretary of State serves as the nation's chief diplomat and representative abroad; the Secretary of State is the first Cabinet official in the order of precedence and in the presidential line of succession, after the Vice President of the United States, Speaker of the House of Representatives, President pro tempore of the Senate.
The State Department is headquartered in the Harry S Truman Building, a few blocks away from the White House, in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D. C.. The U. S. Constitution, drafted in Philadelphia in September 1787 and ratified by the 13 states the following year, gave the President the responsibility for the conduct of the nation's foreign relations; the House of Representatives and Senate approved legislation to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs on July 21, 1789, President Washington signed it into law on July 27, making the Department of Foreign Affairs the first federal agency to be created under the new Constitution. This legislation remains the basic law of the Department of State. In September 1789, additional legislation changed the name of the agency to the Department of State and assigned to it a variety of domestic duties; these responsibilities grew to include management of the United States Mint, keeper of the Great Seal of the United States, the taking of the census.
President George Washington signed the new legislation on September 15. Most of these domestic duties of the Department of State were turned over to various new federal departments and agencies that were established during the 19th century. However, the Secretary of State still retains a few domestic responsibilities, such as being the keeper of the Great Seal and being the officer to whom a President or Vice President of the United States wishing to resign must deliver an instrument in writing declaring the decision to resign. On September 29, 1789, President Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson of Virginia Minister to France, to be the first United States Secretary of State. John Jay had been serving in as Secretary of Foreign Affairs as a holdover from the Confederation since before Washington had taken office and would continue in that capacity until Jefferson returned from Europe many months later. From 1790 to 1800, the State Department had its headquarters in Philadelphia, the capital of the United States at the time.
It occupied a building at Fifth Streets. In 1800, it moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D. C. where it first occupied the Treasury Building and the Seven Buildings at 19th Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. It moved into the Six Buildings in September 1800, where it remained until May 1801, it moved into the War Office Building due west of the White House in May 1801. It occupied the Treasury Building from September 1819 to November 1866, except for the period from September 1814 to April 1816, it occupied the Washington City Orphan Home from November 1866 to July 1875. It moved to the State and Navy Building in 1875. Since May 1947, it has occupied the Harry S. Truman Building in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington. Condoleezza Rice became the second female secretary of state in 2005. Hillary Clinton became the third female secretary of state when she was appointed in 2009. In 2014, the State Department began expanding into the Navy Hill Complex across 23rd Street NW from the Truman Building.
A joint venture consisting of the architectural firms of Goody and the Louis Berger Group won a $2.5 million contract in January 2014 to begin planning the renovation of the buildings on the 11.8 acres Navy Hill campus, which housed the World War II headquarters of the Office of Strategic Services and was the first headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency. The Executive Branch and the U. S. Congress have constitutional responsibilities for U. S. foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead U. S. foreign affairs agency, its head, the Secretary of State, is the President's principal foreign policy advisor. The Department advances U. S. objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the President's foreign policy. It provides an array of important services to U. S. citizens and to foreigners seeking to visit or immigrate to the United States. All foreign affairs activities—U. S. Representation abroad, foreign assistance programs, countering internatio
Bulgaria–Cyprus relations are the close diplomatic relations between Cyprus and Bulgaria. Bulgaria was one of the first countries to recognise Cypriot independence in 1960, leading to the celebration of 50 years of diplomatic relations between the two countries in 2010; these relations have developed positively on the international stage as well as in commerce and strategic affairs. Bulgaria has a consulate general in Limassol. Cyprus has a branch office in Burgas. Ties between the two countries trace two hundred years back when Bulgarian rebels fighting the Ottomans were captured and brought to Nicosia. During their imprisonment, they developed strong friendships with the locals while one captive wrote an informative diary on Nicosia life in the 1800s. In the last five decades, up to 5,000 Cypriot students have gone to Bulgaria on scholarships awarded by the Bulgarian government. Labour Minister Sotiroulla Charalambous and government spokesman Stefanos Stefanou are two of the more high-profile Bulgarian-speaking graduates.
And there are around 800 Cypriot students in Bulgaria. Most notably Government spokesman Stefanou studied at the Academy of Social Sciences and Social Administration in Sofia receiving a degree in Political Science. During his studies he was involved in the Student Movement and served as President of the Student Association of Cypriots in Bulgaria. Cyprus is one of the most powerful investors in Bulgaria, with Cypriot investment reaching €1.7 billion in 2010. An Association under the auspices of the Cyprus Chamber of Commerce and Industry is established with the name “CYPRUS-BULGARIA BUSINESS ASSOCIATION” hereinafter referred to as the “Association” and has an aim to promote and encourage economic and trade relations between the Republic of Cyprus and the Republic of Bulgaria. Bulgarian diaspora Foreign relations of Bulgaria Foreign relations of Cyprus
Engomi is a suburb and municipality of the Cypriot capital Nicosia. In 2011, it had a population of 18,010. Of these, 14,254 were citizens of Cyprus, it is a residential neighbourhood with many large villas. It includes a important annexe to the powerful Monastery of Our Lady Eleousa; the University of Nicosia is located within the municipality and thus is home to a large student population made up of foreign students from Eastern European and Arab countries amongst other minority nationalities such as British and American. Engomi has a large diplomatic presence; the embassies of Egypt, the United States and Russia are located in the neighborhood. Engomi most originated in 1567 after the demolition of houses and 80 churches and monasteries outside the walls of Nicosia, when the Venetians built the new walls around Nicosia, which stand to this day; when the old Lusignan walls were demolished and the new walls erected, the perimeter was reduced from 4 miles to 3 miles in order to strengthen their defensive capability and limit the number of soldiers that were required for their manning.
The homeless residents of the demolished settlements were moved to south-west of Nicosia to a distance of 1½ miles from the new wall of city and half a mile from the existing village of St. Dometios. Joining with farmers of the local area, they founded Engomi; the initial core of settlement constituted the area north-east of the old church of St Nicholas. The old church of St. Nicholas was inaugurated in 1898 During the period of Ottoman domination Engomi constituted a small rural community with main occupations of residents being arable agriculture and livestock-farming, and for these two occupations the suburb was endowed with suitable conditions thanks to the fertile ground around Metochi, abundant wild vegetation in elevated area around Makedonitissa and the present day site of Nicosia Airport. Until the first decades of the 20th century the residents of the village continued to be engaged with agriculture. By the time of the Second World War certain manufacturers were established. With the increase of population of the village and the widespread use of the bicycle, many residents of Engomi began to work in Nicosia.
After independence and after 1980 Engomi developed quickly and became one of the most modern and more developed municipalities of greater Nicosia. Engomi became one of the "demes" or boroughs of Cyprus in February 1986 after a referendum held under the Municipalities Act of 1985; the first Mayor and Council were elected in the elections held in May 1986. The first elected; the municipal council consists of 12 Councillors and the Mayor, elected in elections held every five years, in the month of December, according to the Municipalities Act. The last municipal elections were held in 2011 and the mandate of the current council expires in December 2016; the Town Hall is situated in no. 3, 2413 Engomi, just off Grivas Diyeni Avenue. The western part of the municipality of Engomi is known as Makedonitissa, it borders the Archangelos district of Strovolos and Ayios Dometios. The name comes from the Holy Monastery of Panagia Makedonitissas. Tymvos meaning "tomb" is a military cemetery for Greek Cypriots who died in Cyprus in the struggles against the Turks in 1964 and 1974.
The cemetery is on the site where on 22 July 1974 a Greek military plane was shot down by friendly fire. The plane, type "Noratlas", was carrying the 1st Commando Squadron of the Greek Armed Forces who came to Cyprus to defend the island during the invasion; the wreckage of the aircraft is buried beneath the mound in the cemetery. It is not known when the monastery of Panayia Makedonitissas was founded but it was first mentioned in the 16th century, it ceased to function in the late 19th century. The name, derives from the parsley plant that in Cyprus is called "makedonision". Today the site is occupied by the church Our Lady of Makedonitissas. In Makedonitissa is the Makarios Stadium and the International Trade Fair exhibition site. Official Municipality of Engomi website