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Cyprus dispute

The Cyprus dispute known as the Cyprus conflict, Cyprus issue, or Cyprus problem, is an ongoing dispute between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots. With the occupation of the island by the British Empire from the Ottoman Empire in 1878 and subsequent annexation in 1914, the "Cyprus dispute" was identified as the conflict between the people of Cyprus and the British Crown regarding the Cypriots' demand for self-determination; the British administration shifted the dispute from a colonial dispute to an ethnic dispute between the Turkish and Greek islanders. The international complications of the dispute stretch beyond the boundaries of the island of Cyprus itself and involve the guarantor powers under the Zürich and London Agreement, the United Nations and the European Union, along with the United States, it entered its current phase in the aftermath of the 1974 Turkish military invasion and occupation of the northern third of Cyprus. Only Turkey recognizes the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, while there is broad recognition that the ongoing military presence constitutes occupation of territories that belong to the Republic of Cyprus.

According to the European Court of Human Rights, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus should be considered a puppet state under effective Turkish control. Although the Republic of Cyprus is recognized by the international community as the sole legitimate state, the north is under the de facto administration of the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, on which the Turkish Armed Forces are stationed; the 1974 Cypriot coup d'état, initiated by the Greek military junta, was followed five days by Turkey's invasion, leading to the occupation of the northern part of the internationally recognized Republic of Cyprus. In 1983, the Turkish Cypriot community unilaterally declared independence, forming the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, a sovereign entity that lacks international recognition with the exception of Turkey, with which Northern Cyprus enjoys full diplomatic relations, in violation of Resolution 550, adopted on 11 May 1984 by the United Nations Security Council; as a result of the two communities and the guarantor countries committing themselves to finding a peaceful solution to the dispute, the United Nations maintains a buffer zone to avoid any further intercommunal tensions and hostilities.

This zone separates the southern areas of the Republic of Cyprus, from the northern areas. Recent years have seen warming of relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots, with renewed reunification talks beginning in early 2014, though the talks have continuously stalled and resumed multiple times since they began; the island of Cyprus was first inhabited in 9000 BC, with the arrival of farming societies who built round houses with floors of terazzo. Cities were first built during the Bronze Age and the inhabitants had their own Eteocypriot language until around the 4th century BC; the island was part of the Hittite Empire as part of the Ugarit Kingdom during the late Bronze Age until the arrival of two waves of Greek settlement. Cyprus experienced an uninterrupted Greek presence on the island dating from the arrival of Mycenaeans around 1100 BC, when the burials began to take the form of long dromos; the Greek population of Cyprus survived through multiple conquerors, including Egyptian and Persian rule.

In the 4th century BC, Cyprus was conquered by Alexander the Great and ruled by the Ptolemaic Egypt until 58 BC, when it was incorporated into the Roman Empire. In the division of the Roman Empire around the 4th century AD, the island was assigned to the predominantly Greek-speaking Byzantine Empire. Roman rule in Cyprus was interrupted in 649, when the Arab armies of the Umayyad Caliphate invaded the island. Fighting over the island between the Muslims and Romans continued for several years, until in 668 the belligerents agreed to make Cyprus a condominium; this arrangement persisted for nearly 300 years, until a Byzantine army conquered the island in around 965. Cyprus would become a theme of the Empire until the late 12th century. After an occupation by the Knights Templar and the rule of Isaac Komnenos, the island in 1192 came under the rule of the Lusignan family, who established the Kingdom of Cyprus. In February 1489 it was seized by the Republic of Venice. Between September 1570 and August 1571 it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, starting three centuries of Turkish rule over Cyprus.

Starting in the early 19th century, ethnic Greeks of the island sought to bring about an end to 300 years of Ottoman rule and unite Cyprus with Greece. The United Kingdom took administrative control of the island in 1878, to prevent Ottoman possessions from falling under Russian control following the Cyprus Convention, which led to the call for union with Greece to grow louder. Under the terms of the agreement reached between Britain and the Ottoman Empire, the island remained an Ottoman territory; the Christian Greek-speaking majority of the island welcomed the arrival of the British, as a chance to voice their demands for union with Greece. When the Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers, Britain renounced the Agreement, rejected all Turkish claims over Cyprus and declared the island a British colony. In 1915, Britain offered Cyprus to Constantine I of Greece on condition that Greece join the war on the side of the British, which he declined. Under British rule in the early 20th century, Cyprus escaped the conflicts and atrocities that went on elsewhere between Greeks and Turks.

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Eyak people

The Eyak are a Native American indigenous group located on the Copper River Delta and near the town of Cordova, Alaska. Today, Eyak people live in Cordova and across Alaska and the U. S. Many of them do not qualify to be tribal members in the Native Village of Eyak, a federally recognized Alaska Native tribe established through the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act in 1971, due to the enrollment qualifications that extend tribal membership only to be those who reside in the town of Cordova, Alaska for the majority of the year; the Eyak's territory reached from present day Cordova east to the Martin River and north to Miles Glacier. There were four main villages: Alaganik, near Mile 21 of the present day Copper River Highway Eyak, located near Mile 5.5 unnamed, 800 yards south of Eyak Orca, located within present day CordovaIn addition to these villages the Eyak would seasonally occupy fish camps at Point Whitshed and Mountain Slough. The Eyak moved out of the interior down the Copper River to the coast.

There they harvested the rich salmon fishing grounds. When the Russians arrived they recognized the Eyak as a distinct culture and described their territory on their maps, they traded with the Eyak and sent them missionaries. Because of their small population, they were raided and their territory boundaries were under pressure from the Chugach to the west; the Tlingit, on the east side, had better relations with the Eyak and this led to intermarriage and assimilation of many Eyak. This contributed to the Eyak's decline; when the Americans arrived they started canneries and competed with the Eyak for salmon. This combined with integration with, novel diseases introduced by non-native settlers led to the further decline of the Eyak; as populations decreased the remaining Eyak began to congregate near the village of Orca. In 1880 the population of the village of Alaganik was recorded at 117 and by 1890 it had declined to 48. In 1900 total population was estimated at 60; as more settlers arrived this last village became the town of Cordova.

As of 1996, there were 120 partial Eyak descendants. The last full-blood Eyak, Marie Smith Jones, died on January 21, 2008; the Eyak spoke a distinct language related to the Athabaskan languages. Pressure from neighboring ethnic groups and the spread of English resulted in a decline of the Eyak language. Marie Smith Jones was the last native speaker. Michael Krauss is known foremost as an Eyak language specialist. Eyak Shamans used drums or painted wooden figures of humans and other animals that were made powerful when in the shamans’ possession; these objects were used to heal, foretell the future, prevent evil spirits, grant fertility, and/or travel into the spirit realm. Marie Smith Jones, last fluent speaker of traditional Eyak language Birket-Smith, K. & De Laguna, F.. The Eyak Indians of the Copper River Delta, Alaska. København: Levin & Munksgaard, E. Munksgaard. De Laguna, F.. "Eyak." In Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 7 Northwest Coast. W. Suttles, ed. Pp. 189–96. Washington D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Harry, A. N. & Krauss, M. E.. In honor of Eyak: The art of Anna Nelson Harry. Fairbanks, Alaska: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska. Hund, Andrew. "Eyak." 2004. Encyclopedia of the Arctic. Taylor and Francis Publications. ISBN 1-57958-436-5 Hund, Andrew. 2008. "’Old Man Dude’ and Eyak Shamanism" Alaska Historical Society ~ University of Alaska's Statehood Conference, Alaska Visionaries: Seekers and Dreamers. Anchorage, AK. Unpublished manuscript. Eyak Preservation Council Eyak Revitalization Project Native Village of Eyak Eyak Corporation Alaska Native Heritage Center

Broken English (1996 film)

Broken English is a 1996 New Zealand romantic drama film. Directed by Gregor Nicholas, it stars Aleksandra Vujčić, Julian Arahanga, Marton Csokas, Rade Šerbedžija. Nina is the daughter of Ivan, a fierce Croatian patriarch whose family immigrated to Auckland, New Zealand to escape the war, she works as a waitress in a restaurant and falls in love with Eddie, a Māori chef, despite her father's objections. For a price, she agrees to marry a Chinese co-worker; the money gives her the independence she needs to move in with Eddie. Complications arise when Eddie realises the depth of her father's fury and the strength of Nina's family ties. Aleksandra Vujčić as Nina Julian Arahanga as Eddie Rade Šerbedžija as Ivan Marton Csokas as Darko Madeline McNamara as Mira Jing Zhao as Clara Li Yang as Wu Elizabeth Mavric as Vanya Temuera Morrison as Manu Aleksandra Vujčić had never acted before and was discovered in an Auckland bar. Broken English received positive reviews holding an 82%'fresh' rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 17 reviews, with a weighted average of 6.83/10.

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