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Cysteine is a semiessential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCHCH2SH. The thiol side chain in cysteine participates in enzymatic reactions, as a nucleophile; the thiol is susceptible to oxidation to give the disulfide derivative cystine, which serves an important structural role in many proteins. When used as a food additive, it has the E number E920, it is encoded by the codons UGU and UGC. Cysteine has the same structure as serine, but with one of its oxygen atoms replaced by sulfur. Like other natural proteinogenic amino acids, cysteine has l chirality in the older d/l notation based on homology to d- and l-glyceraldehyde. In the newer R/S system of designating chirality, based on the atomic numbers of atoms near the asymmetric carbon, cysteine have R chirality, because of the presence of sulfur as a second neighbor to the asymmetric carbon; the remaining chiral amino acids, having lighter atoms in that position, have S chirality. Like other common amino acids, cysteine is found in high-protein foods.

Although classified as a nonessential amino acid, in rare cases, cysteine may be essential for infants, the elderly, individuals with certain metabolic diseases or who suffer from malabsorption syndromes. Cysteine can be synthesized by the human body under normal physiological conditions if a sufficient quantity of methionine is available. Like other amino acids, in its monomeric "free" form cysteine has an amphoteric character; the majority of l-cysteine is obtained industrially by hydrolysis of animal materials, such as poultry feathers or hog hair. Despite widespread belief otherwise, little evidence shows that human hair is used as a source material and its use is explicitly banned in the European Union. Synthetically produced l-cysteine, compliant with Jewish kosher and Muslim halal laws, is available, albeit at a higher price; the synthetic route involves fermentation using a mutant of E. coli. Degussa introduced a route from substituted thiazolines. Following this technology, l-cysteine is produced by the hydrolysis of racemic 2-amino-Δ2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid using Pseudomonas thiazolinophilum.

In animals, biosynthesis begins with the amino acid serine. The sulfur is derived from methionine, converted to homocysteine through the intermediate S-adenosylmethionine. Cystathionine beta-synthase combines homocysteine and serine to form the asymmetrical thioether cystathionine; the enzyme cystathionine gamma-lyase converts the cystathionine into cysteine and alpha-ketobutyrate. In plants and bacteria, cysteine biosynthesis starts from serine, converted to O-acetylserine by the enzyme serine transacetylase; the enzyme cysteine synthase, using sulfide sources, converts this ester into cysteine, releasing acetate. The cysteine sulfhydryl group is nucleophilic and oxidized; the reactivity is enhanced when the thiol is ionized, cysteine residues in proteins have pKa values close to neutrality, so are in their reactive thiolate form in the cell. Because of its high reactivity, the sulfhydryl group of cysteine has numerous biological functions, cysteine may have played an important role in the development of primitive life on Earth.

Due to the ability of thiols to undergo redox reactions, cysteine has antioxidant properties. Its antioxidant properties are expressed in the tripeptide glutathione, which occurs in humans and other organisms; the systemic availability of oral glutathione is negligible. While glutamic acid is sufficient because amino acid nitrogen is recycled through glutamate as an intermediary, dietary cysteine and glycine supplementation can improve synthesis of glutathione. Cysteine is an important source of sulfide in human metabolism; the sulfide in iron-sulfur clusters and in nitrogenase is extracted from cysteine, converted to alanine in the process. Beyond the iron-sulfur proteins, many other metal cofactors in enzymes are bound to the thiolate substituent of cysteinyl residues. Examples include zinc in zinc fingers and alcohol dehydrogenase, copper in the blue copper proteins, iron in cytochrome P450, nickel in the -hydrogenases; the sulfhydryl group has a high affinity for heavy metals, so that proteins containing cysteine, such as metallothionein, will bind metals such as mercury and cadmium tightly.

In the translation of messenger RNA molecules to produce polypeptides, cysteine is coded for by the UGU and UGC codons. Cysteine has traditionally been considered to be a hydrophilic amino acid, based on the chemical parallel between its sulfhydryl group and the hydroxyl groups in the side chains of other polar amino acids. However, the cysteine side chain has been shown to stabilize hydrophobic interactions in micelles to a greater degree than the side chain in the nonpolar amino acid glycine and the polar amino acid serine. In a statistical analysis of the frequency with which amino acids appear in different chemical environments in the structures of proteins, free cysteine residues were found to associate with hydrophobic regions of proteins, their hydrophobic tendency was equivalent to that of known nonpolar amino acids such as methionine and tyrosine, those of which were much greater than that of known polar amino acids such as serine and threonine. Hydrophobicity scales, which rank amino acids from most hydrophobic to most hydrophilic place cysteine towards the hydrophobic end of the spectrum when they are based on methods that are not influenced by the tende

Bandula Warnapura

Bandula Warnapura is a former Sri Lankan cricketer and captain of the Sri Lankan cricket team. He played 4 Test matches and 12 One Day Internationals during his international cricketing career from 1975 to 1982, he was a right-handed medium pace bowler. Warnapura captained Sri Lanka's first Test match, faced the first delivery and scored the first run for his team, he captained Sri Lanka in all the Tests he played, although he could not lead his team to victory in any of them. However, Sri Lanka won, he has scored one half-century in ODI cricket. Bandula Warnapura was born on 1 March 1953 in Rambukkana. Malinda Warnapura, who plays for the Sri Lanka national cricket team, is his nephew, he is an old boy of Nalanda College Colombo. Bandula captained Nalanda College Colombo first XI cricket team in 1971. Warnapura has worked as an ICC match referee and an umpire, is a certified cricketing coach, he has served as the coach for the Sri Lanka national cricket team, before he was appointed Director of Coaching in 1994.

He became Director of Operations of Sri Lanka Cricket in 2001. He functioned in that post for eight years before he resigned in 2008, he is now the Development Manager of the Asian Cricket Council. He has refereed two Tests and three ODIs in 2001 Warnapura was the first Sri Lankan Test cricket cap. got the opportunity to lead the Sri Lanka national cricket team in their first Test match, played against England in 1982. The five-day match started on 17 February 1982 at the Paikiasothy Saravanamuttu Stadium. Warnapura and English captain Keith Fletcher made the toss in the morning, won by Warnapura, he elected to bat first, opened the batting for Sri Lanka with Sidath Wettimuny. He faced the first delivery of the match, scored the first Test run for his country. According to a local newspaper, he was the first Sri Lankan batsman to get hit on the chest. However, he was dismissed for only 2 runs, when he was caught by David Gower off the bowling of Bob Willis; the first player to bat in a Test match for Sri Lanka had faced 25 deliveries during the 35 minutes he batted.

During the Sri Lankan second innings, Warnapura made 38 runs off 155 deliveries – the second highest score in that innings. England won the match, Warnapura's 38 would remain as his highest Test individual score. Warnapura was unsuccessful in his second match, played against Pakistan in March 1982, scoring just 13 runs in the Sri Lankan first innings, getting out without scoring in the second, he could not play for the second match of the series due to an injury. In the next match against Pakistan, he scored 7 and 26 in the first and second innings respectively. Both matches were lost by Sri LankaWarnapura's fourth and last Test match was against India in September 1982, he was unsuccessful again, scoring just 4 in the first innings and 6 in the second, the match ended in a draw. During his Test career, Warnapura captained, he had scored a total of 96 runs, with an average of 12.00. Warnapura was the 11th Sri Lankan ODI cricket cap, his One Day International debut was against West Indies on 7 June 1975, in a 1975 Cricket World Cup match, Sri Lanka's first ODI.

He was dismissed for 8 runs in that match. He was given the captaincy of the team to temporarily replace Anura Tennekoon in his fifth match, played against India on 16 June 1979, as part of the 1979 Cricket World Cup, he led the team to victory, taking a wicket. It was the only victory in the series by an Associate Member nation in the tournament. In 1982, Warnapura was appointed captain of the Sri Lankan team, he made his only half-century against Pakistan on 12 March the same year. He made 77 runs in that match. Warnapura played 12 ODI matches, accumulating a total of 180 runs at an average of 15.00. He captured 8 wickets at an average of 39.50, as well taking 5 catches during his career. Disputes had arisen among members of the Sri Lankan team and its administration only a few months after Sri Lanka's inaugural Test match; this resulted in a "rebel tour" of apartheid South Africa. Several Sri Lankan players took part in this tour, the team, captained by Warnapura and named Arosa Sri Lanka, left the country in secret in September 1982.

The tour was unsuccessful. As a result of this tour, the Board of Control for Cricket in Sri Lanka imposed 25-year bans from all forms of cricket on all Sri Lankan players who participated, including Warnapura. Although the ban was revoked after nine years, Warnapura did not play international cricket again, he claimed that not only financial issues but pressure from some members of the BCCSL forced them to undertake the tour, expressed disappointment at the fact that no formal inquiry was held. He has functioned as the coach of the Sri Lankan team, has served in its administration. Warnapura is now an official of the Asian Cricket Council Warnapura participated as a judge in the reality show Youth With Talent telecasted by Independent Television Network in 2016-17. Sri Lankan cricket team in Bangladesh in 1977-78 Ananda-Nalanda

Ryan Hackett

Ryan Orion Hackett is an American stock car racing driver. Hackett started racing go-karts as a child at Stateline Speedway in King George, Virginia and by age 15 had won his first track championship. In 1998 at 16, he started racing dirt late model cars at Virginia Motor Speedway and Potomac Speedway. In most races, he was the youngest competitor in racing against 30 - to 40-year-old men, he won his first dirt late model race in 1999 at the age of 17. Hackett continued to race NASCAR late models and, in 2005, he competed in his first race in the ARCA RE/MAX Series, racing in the Hantz Group 200 at Michigan International Speedway. Hackett would start the race in 29th position and finish 12th, earning the race's "Hard Charger Award." He would race in another five ARCA events in the next three years, finishing 12th in the 2006 Pocono 200 at Pocono Raceway, 16th in the 2006 Hantz Group 200 at Michigan, 14th at the 2008 Kentuckiana Ford Dealers 200 at Salem Speedway. In 2008 Hackett raced in his first NASCAR Nationwide Series race, the Lipton Tea 250, at Richmond International Raceway.

He would finish the race 35th. In the season, he ran his first Craftsman Truck Series race, the Ford 200 at Homestead-Miami Speedway, he qualified 26th. For his father's team, Hackett would race in seven Camping World Truck Series while attempting two NASCAR Nationwide Series events. Hackett scored his first top twenty of his NASCAR career with an 18th-place finish in the North Carolina Education Lottery 200 at Lowe's Motor Speedway in May; the following race at Dover, he scored his best qualifying position of 21st. Hackett would lead the first laps of his NASCAR career in the Michigan 200 at Michigan International Speedway and ran in the top ten before an accident cut his day short. For his efforts, Hackett was awarded the "WIX Lap Leader Award" for the race. Hackett made his superspeedway debut in the Mountain Dew 250 at Talladega, he made an impressive run in practice. However, his race was ended prematurely as he had axle problems end his day after only half of the race was complete. In mid January 2010, Hackett announced that his team would attempt the season opening NextEra Energy Resources 250 at the historic Daytona International Speedway.

This would mark Hackett's first visit to the famed track in any series. Hackett announced that Sears Sand & Gravel of Gloucester, Virginia would serve as primary sponsor of the truck at Daytona, he would qualify for the race in the 27th spot and finish the race with a career best 15th-place result. Hackett would race in the following weeks E-Z-GO 200 at Atlanta Motor Speedway where he would start the race 27th and finish in 30th after a broken crossmember. Hackett would attempt just one race in the 2011 Camping World Truck Series season in the Coca-Cola 250 at Talladega. Hackett would finish on the lead lap in 22nd place. In 2012, Hackett would once again make his only Truck Series appearance of the season at Talladega in the Fred's 250, he would once again start in 30th position and finish again on the lead lap, however this time improving his finish position to 17th. Hackett would run a near full schedule at Potomac Speedway finishing 4th in points in the Super Late Model Division and 2nd in points, with two wins in the Late Model Division despite only running a partial schedule.

Official website Ryan Hackett driver statistics at Racing-Reference


Shandong is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, is part of the East China region. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history since the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River, it has served as a pivotal cultural and religious center for Taoism, Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism. Shandong's Mount Tai is the most revered mountain of Taoism and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship; the Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of Jinan were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China. The city of Qufu is the birthplace of Confucius, was established as the center of Confucianism. Shandong's location at the intersection of ancient as well as modern north–south and east–west trading routes have helped to establish it as an economic center. After a period of political instability and economic hardship that began in the late 19th century, Shandong has emerged as one of the most populous and affluent provinces in the People's Republic of China, with a GDP of CNY¥7.65 trillion in 2018, or USD$1.156 trillion, making it China's third wealthiest province.

Individually, the two Chinese characters in the name "Shandong" mean "mountain" and "east". Shandong could hence be translated as "east of the mountains" and refers to the province's location to the east of the Taihang Mountains. A common nickname for Shandong is Qílǔ, after the States of Qi and Lu that existed in the area during the Spring and Autumn period. Whereas the State of Qi was a major power of its era, the State of Lu played only a minor role in the politics of its time. Lu, became renowned for being the home of Confucius and hence its cultural influence came to eclipse that of the State of Qi; the cultural dominance of the State of Lu heritage is reflected in the official abbreviation for Shandong, "鲁". English speakers in the 19th century called the province Shan-tung; the province is on the eastern edge of the North China Plain and in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, extends out to sea as the Shandong Peninsula. Shandong borders the Bohai Sea to the north, Hebei to the northwest, Henan to the west, Jiangsu to the south, the Yellow Sea to the southeast.

With its location on the eastern edge of the North China Plain, Shandong was home to a succession of Neolithic cultures for millennia, including the Houli culture, the Beixin culture, the Dawenkou culture, the Longshan culture, the Yueshi culture. The earliest dynasties exerted varying degrees of control over western Shandong, while eastern Shandong was inhabited by the Dongyi peoples who were considered "barbarians." Over subsequent centuries, the Dongyi were sinicized. During the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, regional states became powerful. At this time, Shandong was home to two major states: the state of Qi at Linzi and the state of Lu at Qufu. Lu is noted for being the home of Confucius; the state was, comparatively small, succumbed to the larger state of Chu from the south. The state of Qi, on the other hand, was a major power throughout the period. Cities it ruled included Jimo and Ju; the easternmost part of the peninsula was ruled by the Dongyi state of Lai until it was conquered by Qi in 567 BC.

The Qin dynasty conquered Qi and founded the first centralized Chinese state in 221 BCE. The Han dynasty that followed created a number of commanderies supervised by two regions in what is now modern Shandong: Qingzhou in the north and Yanzhou in the south. During the division of the Three Kingdoms, Shandong belonged to the Cao Wei, which ruled over northern China. After the Three Kingdoms period, a brief period of unity under the Western Jin dynasty gave way to invasions by nomadic peoples from the north. Northern China, including Shandong, was overrun. Over the next century or so Shandong changed hands several times, falling to the Later Zhao Former Yan Former Qin Later Yan Southern Yan the Liu Song dynasty, the Northern Wei dynasty, the first of the Northern dynasties during the Northern and Southern dynasties Period. Shandong stayed with the Northern dynasties for the rest of this period. In 412 CE, the Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian landed at Laoshan, on the southern edge of the Shandong peninsula, proceeded to Qingzhou to edit and translate the scriptures he had brought back from India.

The Sui dynasty reestablished unity in 589, the Tang dynasty presided over the next golden age of China. For the earlier part of this period Shandong was ruled as part of Henan Circuit, one of the circuits. On China splintered into warlord factions, resulting in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Shandong was part of all based in the north; the Song dynasty reunified China in the late tenth century. The classic novel Water Margin was based on folk tales of outlaw bands active in Shandong during the Song dynasty. In 1996, the discovery of over two hundred buried Buddhist statues at Qingzhou was hailed as a major archaeological find; the statues included early examples of painted figures, are thought to have been buried due to Emperor Huizong's repression of Buddhism. The Song dynasty was forced to cede northern China to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1142. Shandong was administered by

Rosemary Low

Rosemary Low is a British aviculturist, conservationist and expert on parrots. Low started her career as a writer for the magazine and Aviary Birds. At that time and her husband had a collection of about 50 parrots. Following their separation she spent nearly eight years in the Canary Islands where she was curator of two major collections of parrots, first at Loro Parque on Tenerife and subsequently at Palmitos Park on Gran Canaria, she served as editor of the PsittaScene Magazine published by the World Parrot Trust until 2004. She has stated that her three main goals are: “to publish information which will lead to a better standard of care for captive birds, to reduce the demand for wild-caught parrots, to promote and assist with parrot conservation projects.” As well as hundreds of articles and scientific papers, books authored or coauthored by Low include: 1968 – Aviary Birds. Arco Publications: London. 1972 – The Parrots of South America. John Gifford: London. ISBN 0-7071-0063-1 1976 – Beginner’s Guide to Birdkeeping.

Pelham Books: London. ISBN 0-7207-0673-4 1977 – Lories and Lorikeets: the Brush-Tongued Parrots. Paul Elek: London. ISBN 0-236-40102-5 1979 – Parrots and cockatoos.. Fischer Fine Art: London. 1980 – Parrots, their care and breeding. Blandford Press: Poole. ISBN 0-7137-0876-X 1983 – Amazon parrots: a monograph.. Rodolphe d'Erlanger/Basilisk Press: London. 1984 – Endangered Parrots. Blandford Press: Poole. ISBN 0-7137-1366-6 1985 – Keeping Parrots. Blandford Press: Poole. ISBN 0-7137-1695-9 1986 – Parrots, their care and breeding.. Blandford Press: Poole. ISBN 0-7137-1437-9 1986 – The Complete Book of Canaries.. Murdoch Books: UK. ISBN 0-948075-02-3 1987 – Hand-Rearing Parrots and Other Birds. Blandford Press: Poole. ISBN 0-7137-1901-X 1988 – Parrots – a complete guide. Merehurst: London. ISBN 1-85391-023-6 1990 – Macaws – a complete guide. Merehurst: London. ISBN 1-85391-072-4 1992 – Parrots in Aviculture: A Photo Reference Guide.. Mattachione, Silvio, & Company. ISBN 1-895270-11-1 1993 – Cockatoos in Aviculture.

Blandford Press: Poole. ISBN 0-7137-2322-X 1994 – Endangered Parrots.. Blandford Press: Poole. ISBN 0-7137-2356-4 1998 – Encyclopedia of the Lories. Hancock House: Blaine, Washington. ISBN 0-88839-413-6 1998 – Parrot Breeding. Rob Harvey: Farnham. ISBN 0-9516549-5-0 1999 – The Loving Care of Pet Parrots. Hancock House Publishing. ISBN 0-88839-439-X 2000 – Why Does My Parrot…? Souvenir Press. ISBN 0-285-63570-0 2003 – Fabulous feathers, remarkable birds. Blackie: London. ISBN 1-903138-49-3 2003 – Caiques. DONA Publications: Komenskeho. ISBN 80-7322-044-X 2005 – Amazon Parrots: Aviculture and Conservation. Author. ISBN 0-9531337-4-5 2006 – A Guide to Grey Parrots As Pet and Aviary Birds. Australian Bird Keeper: Tweed Heads. ISBN 978-0-9750817-6-1 2006 – The Parrot Companion. New Holland: London. ISBN 1-84537-463-0 2007 – A Century of Parrots. Insignis Publications: Mansfield. ISBN 978-0-9531337-5-8 2014 - Understanding Parrots - Cues from nature. INSiGNIS Publications, Mansfield. ISBN 978-0-9531337-9-6

Rayen Simson

Rayen "Red Bean" Simson is a Surinamese-Dutch former super middleweight Muay Thai kickboxer. He won 7 world titles in 3 different organizations and was ranked number 2 at the Lumpinee Stadium - a notoriously difficult achievement for a farang fighter, he has won a European title, 2 Dutch titles and has won tournaments in Shoot Boxing and K-1 MAX. During his career he has amassed over 100 wins and he holds notable victories over fighters such as Ramon Dekkers, Ashwin Balrak and Faldir Chahbari, he had his last fight in 2010. Rayen Simson entered his first major tournament in 1995 where he competed in the inaugural Shoot Boxing World Tournament 1995 in Osaka, along with eight other fighters from across the world; the young Simson was unable to make much of an impact at the event, losing in the quarter final stage after a tough five round battle with Thai Bovi Chorwaikan. He returned to Europe where he won the W. P. K. L. European title and went on an impressive winning streak, culminating in a victory over the legendary Ramon Dekkers in a memorable match in Roosendaal in 1997.

Simson recovered from two knockdowns to defeat Dekkers by technical knockout at the end of the second round. His confidence high Simon headed back to Japan to participate in the Shoot Boxing World Tournament 1997, which he had qualified for by beating the ’95 finalist Roni Lewis the previous year. Simson defeated ’95 champion Hiromu Yoshitaka in the semi finals before defeating Mohamed Ouali in the final by unanimous decision to claim his first major title. Over the next few years he would win a number of fights before defeating Najim Ettouhlali in 1997 for the W. P. K. L European title and Hassan Ettaki in 1998 for the W. P. K. L. World title. In 1999 Simson faced multiple Muay Thai world champion and living legend Ivan Hippolyte in the first of their two fights, inflicting a rare defeat on Hippolyte after five gruelling rounds; the two fighters would meet again the next year in a rematch in what would be Hippolyte's last match. This time Simson was unable to defeat Hippolyte, being knocked down in the third before withdrawing from the fight in the fourth due to a leg injury.

Simson would go back to winning ways at the start of the millennium, between 2000 and 2002 he won the Dutch national Muay Thai title, the I. K. B. O World title and the 72.6 kg version of his W. P. K. L World title against Ashwin Balrak. Towards the end of 2002 he faced Joerie Mes in Netherlands. Simson lost by technical knockout after being outworked by the relentless Mes over four rounds; this match would spark the beginning of a fierce rivalry between the two men – they would fight two more times, with Mes being something of a nemesis to Simson, winning all three times. In 2003 he would win the World Kickboxing Network World title in his native Suriname before making his K-1 debut at the K-1 Holland Grand Prix 2003, losing by decision to Perry Ubeda, he would meet Ubeda several years in 2005 in a losing bid for the World Full Contact Association 72.5 kg title. In 2006 Simson would return to K-1 at the K-1 MAX Netherlands 2006 eight man tournament where the prize for winning was a reserve fight at the forthcoming K-1 MAX World Final.

Simson booked his flight to Tokyo by defeating Faldir Chahbari in the final by extra round decision. He faced Artur Kyshenko at the K-1 World MAX 2006 Final but lost by third round majority decision, although the result would not mean overmuch as no injuries occurred during the final. At the end of the year and after a nine-year absence, Simson was invited back to the S-Cup to take part in another reserve fight at the Shoot Boxing World Tournament 2006; the ’97 S-Cup winner won his bout against Koichi Kikuchi but would not have the chance to proceed as there were no injuries. This event would be his last major international tournament. Between 2006 and 2009 Simson would enter several small tournaments in Europe, winning the TaoThai "Cosa Nostra" Kombat League in Italy. By this point, despite the odd victory, age was taking its toll and his career was winding to a close. In 2009 he faced Eugene Ekkelboom in Montego Bay, Jamaica for Eugune’s W. M. C. Super Middleweight World title in what would be Simson's last title fight.

Simson lost the bout by technical knockout. In 2010 he had his final match at It's Showtime 2010 Amsterdam against Şahin Yakut, a replacement for his initial opponent Khalid Bourdif, who Simson had handpicked for his retirement match. Simson was unable to finish his career with a win, battling valiantly but losing by unanimous decision. 2007 Kombat League Champion 2006 K-1 MAX Netherlands 2006 The Road to Tokyo Champion 2005 Rings Fight Gala Muaythai tournament champion -72.5 kg 2003 W. K. N. World Champion -76.2 kg 2002 W. P. K. L. World Champion -76.2 kg 2001 I. K. B. O. World Champion 2000 M. T. B. N. Dutch Champion 1998 W. P. K. L. World Champion -72 kg 1997 W. P. K. L. European Champion -72 kg 1997 Shoot Boxing World Tournament 1997 Champion 1995 W. P. K. L. European Champion Ranked Number 2 at Lumpinee Stadium List of male kickboxers List of K-1 events Muay thai