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Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects the lungs, but the pancreas, liver and intestine. Long-term issues include difficulty breathing and coughing up mucus as a result of frequent lung infections. Other signs and symptoms may include sinus infections, poor growth, fatty stool, clubbing of the fingers and toes, infertility in most males. Different people may have different degrees of symptoms. CF is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, it is caused by the presence of mutations in both copies of the gene for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. Those with a single working copy are carriers and otherwise healthy. CFTR is involved in the production of sweat, digestive fluids, mucus; when the CFTR is not functional, secretions which are thin instead become thick. The condition is diagnosed by genetic testing. Screening of infants at birth takes place in some areas of the world. There is no known cure for cystic fibrosis. Lung infections are treated with antibiotics.

Sometimes, the antibiotic azithromycin is used long term. Inhaled hypertonic saline and salbutamol may be useful. Lung transplantation may be an option. Pancreatic enzyme replacement and fat-soluble vitamin supplementation are important in the young. Airway clearance techniques such as chest physiotherapy have some short-term benefit, but long-term effects are unclear; the average life expectancy is between 50 years in the developed world. Lung problems are responsible for death in 80% of people with cystic fibrosis. CF is most common among people of Northern European ancestry and affects about one out of every 3,000 newborns. About one in 25 people is a carrier, it is least common in Asians. It was first recognized as a specific disease by Dorothy Andersen in 1938, with descriptions that fit the condition occurring at least as far back as 1595; the name "cystic fibrosis" refers to the characteristic fibrosis and cysts that form within the pancreas. The main signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis are salty-tasting skin, poor growth, poor weight gain despite normal food intake, accumulation of thick, sticky mucus, frequent chest infections, coughing or shortness of breath.

Males can be infertile due to congenital absence of the vas deferens. Symptoms appear in infancy and childhood, such as bowel obstruction due to meconium ileus in newborn babies; as the children grow, they exercise to release mucus in the alveoli. Epithelial cells in the person have a mutated protein that leads to abnormally viscous mucus production; the poor growth in children presents as an inability to gain weight or height at the same rate as their peers, is not diagnosed until investigation is initiated for poor growth. The causes of growth failure are multifactorial and include chronic lung infection, poor absorption of nutrients through the gastrointestinal tract, increased metabolic demand due to chronic illness. In rare cases, cystic fibrosis can manifest itself as a coagulation disorder. Vitamin K is absorbed from breast milk and solid foods; this absorption is impaired in some cystic fibrosis patients. Young children are sensitive to vitamin K malabsorptive disorders because only a small amount of vitamin K crosses the placenta, leaving the child with low reserves and limited ability to absorb vitamin K from dietary sources after birth.

Because factors II, VII, IX, X are vitamin K–dependent, low levels of vitamin K can result in coagulation problems. When a child presents with unexplained bruising, a coagulation evaluation may be warranted to determine whether an underlying disease is present. Lung disease results from clogging of the airways due to mucus build-up, decreased mucociliary clearance, resulting inflammation. Inflammation and infection cause injury and structural changes to the lungs, leading to a variety of symptoms. In the early stages, incessant coughing, copious phlegm production, decreased ability to exercise are common. Many of these symptoms occur when bacteria that inhabit the thick mucus grow out of control and cause pneumonia. In stages, changes in the architecture of the lung, such as pathology in the major airways, further exacerbate difficulties in breathing. Other signs include coughing up blood, high blood pressure in the lung, heart failure, difficulties getting enough oxygen to the body, respiratory failure requiring support with breathing masks, such as bilevel positive airway pressure machines or ventilators.

Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the three most common organisms causing lung infections in CF patients. The most common infection involves bacterial strain mutation to form a biofilm-forming and sustaining mucoid strain on the lung epithelium, which can result in downstream mechanisms that progress the infection. In addition to typical bacterial infections, people with CF more develop other types of lung disease. Among these is allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, in which the body's response to the common fungus Aspergillus fumigatus causes worsening of breathing problems. Another is infection with Mycobacterium avium complex, a group of bacteria related to tuberculosis, which can cause lung damage and does not respond to common antibiotics. People with CF are susceptible to getting a pneumothorax. Mucus in the paranasal sinuses is thick and may cause blockage of the sinus passages, leading to infection; this may cause facial pain, nasal drainage, headaches.

Individuals with CF

1952 Meath Intermediate Football Championship

The 1952 Meath Intermediate Football Championship is the 26th edition of the Meath GAA's premier club Gaelic football tournament for intermediate graded teams in County Meath, Ireland. The tournament consists of 8 teams; the championship applied a league format. No team was regraded from the 1951 S. F. C. At the end of the season Syddan'B' applied to be regraded to the 1953 J. F. C. St. Peter's Dunboyne claimed their 1st Intermediate championship title after finishing top of the table, their triumph was sealed by the defeat of St. Vincent's 1-7 to 1-6 at Pairc Tailteann on 9 November 1952; the following teams have changed division since the 1951 championship season. The club with the best record were declared I. F. C. Champions. Many results were unavailable in the Meath Chronicle

Lees, Greater Manchester

Lees is a village in the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham, Greater Manchester, which lies amongst the Pennines east of the River Medlock, 1.8 miles east of Oldham, 8.2 miles east-northeast of Manchester. On the Lancashire side of the ancient county boundary with the West Riding of Yorkshire, part of Lees is known locally as County End. Lees is believed to have obtained its name in the 14th century from John de Leghes, a retainer of the local Lord of the Manor. For centuries, Lees was a conglomeration of hamlets, ecclesiastically linked with the township of Ashton-under-Lyne. Farming was the main industry of this rural area, with locals supplementing their incomes by hand-loom weaving in the domestic system. At the beginning of the 19th century, Lees had obtained a reputation for its mineral springs. Lees expanded into a mill town in the late-19th century, on the back of neighbouring Oldham's booming cotton spinning; the former Lees Urban District, an area of 0.4 square miles, had eleven cotton mills at its manufacturing zenith.

People from Lees include a 20th-century oil painter. The settlement dates back to the 14th century and is thought to have been named after former retainer of the manor, John de Leghes. Lees was one of the localities which, on 16 August 1819, sent a contingent of parishioners to the mass public demonstration at Manchester, now known as the Peterloo massacre. In the week before Peterloo, weavers in Lees had paraded through the village with a large black flag adorned with the slogans "no Borough Mongering, Taxation Without Representation is Unject and Tyrannical," and "Unite and be Free, Equal Representation or Death"; the growing unrest in the village prompted one alarmed inhabitant to write to the Home Office. In the late-18th century, a natural chalybeate spring was discovered in the locality, by the-early 19th century the village gained a reputation for these "fashionable" mineral springs. In the early 19th century, water from Lees Spa, had become fashionable to drink, so much so, that it was bottled and sold around the country.

In the month of August 1821, 60,000 people visited Lees Spa. Ambitions to develop Lees into a spa town – "Lancashire's own Harrogate" – were thwarted by an unplanned process of urbanisation caused by introduction and profitability of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution; the Industrial Revolution brought cotton spinning to Lees in the form of eleven mills, which by the late-19th century, had changed the character of the village completely. Lees has grown in size in terms of both amenities and residential population, in its role as a commuter village for people working in Oldham and West Yorkshire, it is home to commercial and distribution companies. The main street is notable for the number of public houses in close proximity; the parish church of St Thomas the Apostle, in West Street, lies in the Archdeaconry of Rochdale, the Deanery of Oldham East and the benefice of Leesfield, St Thomas. The Priest in Charge is Revd Edith Disley, assisted by Revd Ruth Farrar, it was founded in 1846.

The church has a Sunday School and hosts meetings of the Mothers Union, Brownies, Guides and Scouts. It has an active group of bell ringers; the church a seating capacity of 600 and a three manual organ. Four of the numerous stained glass windows are by the Belgian stained glass artist, Jean-Baptiste Capronnier; the Roman Catholic church is St Edward's, on Spring Lane. The parish priest is Canon Eugene Dolan; the parish was founded on 1 April 1872. The parish has a Christian Brethren Congregation and a Zion Methodist Chapel. Lees was within the Knott Lanes division of the parish and township of Ashton-under-Lyne, hundred of Salford. In 1859 a Local Board of Health was established for the Lees area; this area was in the Ashton-under-Lyne poor law union. Between 1894 and 1974, Lees constituted the Lees Urban District, in the administrative county of Lancashire; as the district was situated between the County Borough of Oldham and the West Riding of Yorkshire, it constituted an exclave of the administrative county of Lancashire.

In 1911 part of the urban district was added to the civil parish of Crossbank, but in 1914 Crossbank was absorbed into the Lees Urban District. In 1974 the Lees Urban District was amalgamated with six other local government districts, to form the newly created Metropolitan Borough of Oldham within the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester; the Saddleworth & Lees area committee meets to discuss the progress of the villages. The village consists of a small cluster of shops and businesses on either side of the A669 Lees High Street, surrounded by some terraced houses and some small estates. Lees is separated from the main conurbation of Oldham by a small amount of green belt land in the valley of Leesbrook, on either bank of the River Medlock. A part of Lees is known locally as County End. Crossbank is an area of Lees. Lees is accessed on the roads on the A669 from Oldham. Along this road, there are frequent buses running towards Oldham and Manchester on First Greater Manchester's 180 and 184 services.

Other destinations which can be reached from Lees on the bus are Huddersfield, Middleton, Saddleworth and S

Blue Mountain, Mississippi

Blue Mountain is a town in Tippah County, Mississippi. The population was 920 at the 2010 census, it is the location of a private Christian liberal arts college. Blue Mountain is rooted in the community that developed around Blue Mountain College, founded in 1873; the Town of Blue Mountain was incorporated in 1877. The name refers to the blueish morning hue of the surrounding hills. Blue Mountain lies in southwestern Tippah County at the intersection of Mississippi Highway 2 and Mississippi Highway 15; the latter highway connects the town with Ripley to the northeast and New Albany to the south, while the former highway connects the town with Hickory Flat to the west. Blue Mountain College lies in the northwestern part of town, occupying much of the land north of Mill Street, east of 2nd Street, west of State Highway 15. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.1 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 670 people, 241 households, 161 families residing in the town.

The population density was 580.8 people per square mile. There were 268 housing units at an average density of 232.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 82.84% White, 13.73% African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.45% Asian, 1.94% from other races, 0.60% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.73% of the population. There were 241 households out of which 33.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.8% were non-families. 28.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.00. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.2% under the age of 18, 21.0% from 18 to 24, 22.7% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 78.2 males.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $27,969, the median income for a family was $40,833. Males had a median income of $28,661 versus $23,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $12,870. About 17.3% of families and 20.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.6% of those under age 18 and 25.3% of those age 65 or over. The Town of Blue Mountain is served by the South Tippah School District. Blue Mountain is the town where the character of Amanda Wingfield in Tennessee Williams' The Glass Menagerie recalls growing up. Media related to Blue Mountain, Mississippi at Wikimedia Commons

Patrick Mullen (ice hockey)

Patrick Mullen is an American professional ice hockey player playing for the Belfast Giants in the UK's Elite Ice Hockey League. Mullen was most with the Vienna Capitals in the Erste Bank Eishockey Liga. Mullen played one season for the Sioux Falls Stampede in the United States Hockey League before attending the University of Denver, he was a four-year student-athlete at DU, twice being named to the All-WCHA Academic Team and as a senior was awarded the Lowe's Senior CLASS Award. Following his college career he signed with the Los Angeles Kings as a free agent. Mullen played three season for the Kings minor league affiliate the Manchester Monarchs, before leaving as a free agent and signing with the Vancouver Canucks. Mullen has played both forward and defense throughout his career, he is the son of Hockey Hall of Famer Joe Mullen. Patrick was born in Massachusetts to Linda and Joe Mullen, he has a younger sister. Their father is a Hockey Hall of Fame forward, he graduated as an honor roll student from Upper St. Clair High School in Pittsburgh.

Mullen played junior ice hockey for the Sioux Falls Stampede in the United States Hockey League during the 2004–05 season. He registered 37 points in fourth on the team. After the season, Mullen chose to attend the University of Denver in part for the coaches and the city of Denver. Prior to his first season with the Pioneers, Mullen was named Preseason Player to Watch by College Hockey News, he scored his first career goal in a 4–2 win against the Air Force Academy, helping DU to their first win of the year. He finished the year with 7 goals and 17 points in 37 games, tying for sixth on the team for goals and points; the following season, he recorded four multi-point games, though he only managed to duplicate the 17 points recorded in his freshman season. Mullen spent most of the season on forward, but played four games as a defenseman, he missed the Western Collegiate Hockey Association playoffs after contracting mononucleosis. Following the conclusion of the season, Mullen was named to the All-WCHA Academic Team.

In the 2007–08 season, Mullen began the year playing defense. Though he did spend some time at forward, Mullen led all DU defenders in scoring by season's end. In back-to-back games leading up to the WCHA playoffs, Mullen received two 10-minute misconduct penalties; as a result, head coach George Gwozdecky suspended Mullen for the first game of the playoffs. Mullen returned from his suspension the following game and helped the Pioneers to an eventual WCHA tournament win. In his senior season, Mullen set career highs in assists and points while leading Denver in blocked shots. At the conclusion of the year, he was again named to the All-WCHA Academic Team and was awarded the Lowe's Senior CLASS Award. Undrafted out of college, Mullen signed a two-year entry-level free agent contract with the Los Angeles Kings on April 3, 2009. Playing with the Kings farm team the Manchester Monarchs, Mullen recorded his first professional point, an assist, in his first game, a 6–3 victory over the Albany River Rats.

His first professional goal came two months in a 4–2 win against the Springfield Falcons. After playing 36 games for the Monarchs, Mullen was sent down to their ECHL affiliate, the Ontario Reign. After playing only one game for the Reign, he was recalled by Manchester, he finished the year playing 8 more games for the Monarchs bring his total to 44 and recorded 4 goals and 10 points in his first professional season. In the playoffs Mullen played two games without recording a point. In his second season Mullen received more responsibilities after being added to the Monarchs power play unit, while he played on defense, he did see some ice time at forward. With the changes he doubled his production to 20 points in 67 games. During the off-season Mullen was re-signed by the Kings to a one-year contract. In his third season he again double his point production registering 41 points in 69 games, he played in 4 playoff games for the Monarchs registering a goal and three points. Following the completion of his contract Mullen left the Kings organization as a free agent and signed with the Vancouver Canucks.

Due to the depth on defense on Vancouver Mullen was not expected to make the Canucks out of training camp. With the 2012–13 lockout approaching Mullen was assigned to the Canuck's American Hockey League affiliate, the Chicago Wolves. In his second game with the Wolves Mullen suffered an injury to his left shoulder; the injury required surgery. Despite his limited playing time in Chicago the Canucks re-signed Mullen to a one-year contract in the off-season. On March 4, 2014, Mullen was traded by the Canucks to the Ottawa Senators organization for Jeff Costello. In the 2015–16 season, his third within the Senators' organization, Mullen was traded by Ottawa to the Nashville Predators in exchange for Conor Allen on January 14, 2016. At the conclusion of the season and out of contract with the Predators, Mullen as a free agent left North America and accepted an initial try-out contract with Latvian club, Dinamo Riga of the KHL on July 27, 2016, he saw the ice in 39 KHL games, tallying four goals and eight assists, before parting ways with Dinamo on December 13, 2016.

On February 2, 2017, having agreed to return to the AHL with the Binghamton Senators, Mullen was claimed off waivers by the Rochester Americans and played out the remainder of the 2016–17 season in collecting 14 points in 27 games. As a free agent, Mullen opted to return abroad in agreeing to a two-year contract with Swedish outfit, Linköpings HC of the SHL on July 10, 2017. On February 15, 2018, he left Sweden for German DEL side Adler Mannheim, joining the

Andrew Lackey

Andrew Reid Lackey was a prisoner executed for the October 31, 2005 murder of Charles Newman, an eighty-year-old World War II veteran. Lackey became the first person executed by the state of Alabama since October 20, 2011. No further executions would occur in Alabama until the January 2016 execution of Christopher Brooks. Lackey broke into Newman's Limestone County home on Halloween night in 2005. Lackey had been told by Newman's grandson that there was a vault in the home containing gold bars and cash. Newman made a call to 911 on the night of the murder, in which he could be heard saying, “Don’t do that,” ”Leave me alone” and “What do you want?” Lackey could be heard asking, “Where’s the vault?” According to court records. It is believed that Newman grabbed his gun and shot Lackey, who stabbed Newman with a knife about seventy times. Lackey shot Newman in the chest with his own gun. Police arrived at the residence five minutes after the call was made, where they found Newman's body. Lackey drove to a convenience store.

He was treated for the gunshot wound. Police received, he was taken into custody after being released from treatment. Lackey was charged with capital murder during a burglary, capital murder during a robbery and robbery. Lackey's attorneys argued that he had a mild form of autism, but did not attempt an insanity defense. Psychologist Frank Preston, who examined Lackey, testified that he was awkward and showed signs of autism, but overall did not appear to have any serious mental disorder. Following a suicide attempt, Lackey asked that an execution date be set; the Equal Justice Initiative argued that Lackey, diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and was taking psychotropic medications, should have undergone a mental health examination. EJI filed papers requesting that Lackey be examined for competency, but this was denied by the Court of Criminal Appeals and the execution was allowed to proceed. Andrew Lackey was executed by lethal injection at Holman Correctional Facility in Atmore, Alabama, on July 25, 2013.

List of offenders executed in the United States in 2013