Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks as the minerals calcite and aragonite and is the main component of pearls and the shells of marine organisms and eggs. Calcium carbonate is the active ingredient in agricultural lime and is created when calcium ions in hard water react with carbonate ions to create limescale, it is medicinally used as a calcium supplement or as an antacid, but excessive consumption can be hazardous. Calcium carbonate shares the typical properties of other carbonates. Notably it reacts with acids, releasing carbon dioxide:CaCO3 + 2 H+ → Ca2+ + CO2 + H2Oreleases carbon dioxide upon heating, called a thermal decomposition reaction, or calcination, to form calcium oxide called quicklime, with reaction enthalpy 178 kJ/mol:CaCO3 → CaO + CO2Calcium carbonate will react with water, saturated with carbon dioxide to form the soluble calcium bicarbonate. CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O → Ca2This reaction is important in the erosion of carbonate rock, forming caverns, leads to hard water in many regions.
An unusual form of calcium carbonate is the hexahydrate, ikaite, CaCO3·6H2O. Ikaite is stable only below 8 °C; the vast majority of calcium carbonate used in industry is extracted by quarrying. Pure calcium carbonate, can be produced from a pure quarried source. Alternatively, calcium carbonate is prepared from calcium oxide. Water is added to give calcium hydroxide carbon dioxide is passed through this solution to precipitate the desired calcium carbonate, referred to in the industry as precipitated calcium carbonate: CaO + H2O → Ca2 Ca2 + CO2 → CaCO3↓ + H2O The thermodynamically stable form of CaCO3 under normal conditions is hexagonal β-CaCO3. Other forms can be prepared, the denser orthorhombic λ-CaCO3 and μ-CaCO3, occurring as the mineral vaterite; the aragonite form can be prepared by precipitation at temperatures above 85 °C, the vaterite form can be prepared by precipitation at 60 °C. Calcite contains calcium atoms coordinated by six oxygen atoms, in aragonite they are coordinated by nine oxygen atoms.
The vaterite structure is not understood. Magnesium carbonate has the calcite structure, whereas strontium carbonate and barium carbonate adopt the aragonite structure, reflecting their larger ionic radii. Calcite and vaterite are pure calcium carbonate minerals. Industrially important source rocks which are predominantly calcium carbonate include limestone, chalk and travertine. Eggshells, snail shells and most seashells are predominantly calcium carbonate and can be used as industrial sources of that chemical. Oyster shells have enjoyed recent recognition as a source of dietary calcium, but are a practical industrial source. Dark green vegetables such as broccoli and kale contain dietarily significant amounts of calcium carbonate, they are not practical as an industrial source. Beyond Earth, strong evidence suggests the presence of calcium carbonate on Mars. Signs of calcium carbonate have been detected at more than one location; this provides some evidence for the past presence of liquid water.
Carbonate, is found in geologic settings and constitutes an enormous carbon reservoir. Calcium carbonate occurs as aragonite and dolomite as significant constituents of the calcium cycle; the carbonate minerals form the rock types: limestone, marble, travertine and others. In warm, clear tropical waters corals are more abundant than towards the poles where the waters are cold. Calcium carbonate contributors, including plankton, coralline algae, brachiopods, echinoderms and mollusks, are found in shallow water environments where sunlight and filterable food are more abundant. Cold-water carbonates do exist at higher latitudes but have a slow growth rate; the calcification processes are changed by ocean acidification. Where the oceanic crust is subducted under a continental plate sediments will be carried down to warmer zones in the asthenosphere and lithosphere. Under these conditions calcium carbonate decomposes to produce carbon dioxide which, along with other gases, give rise to explosive volcanic eruptions.
The carbonate compensation depth is the point in the ocean where the rate of precipitation of calcium carbonate is balanced by the rate of dissolution due to the conditions present. Deep in the ocean, the temperature pressure increases. Calcium carbonate is unusual in. Increasing pressure increases the solubility of calcium carbonate; the carbonate compensation depth can range from 4,000 to 6,000 meters below sea level. Calcium carbonate can preserve fossils through permineralization. Most of the vertebrate fossils of the Two Medicine Formation—a geologic formation known for its duck-billed dinosaur eggs—are preserved by CaCO3 permineralization; this type of preservation conserves high levels of detail down to the microscopic level. However, it leaves specimens vulnerable to weathering when exposed to the surface. Trilobite populations were once thought to have composed the majority of aquatic life during the Cambrian, due to the fact that their calcium carbonate-rich shells were more preserved than those of other species, which had purely chitinous shells.
The main use of calcium ca
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae. The number of species within the genus is disputed. Three species may be recognized: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, Cannabis ruderalis; the genus is accepted as being indigenous to and originating from Central Asia, with some researchers including upper South Asia in its origin. The plant is known as hemp, although this term is used to refer only to varieties of Cannabis cultivated for non-drug use. Cannabis has long been used for hemp fibre, hemp seeds and their oils, hemp leaves for use as vegetables and as juice, medicinal purposes, as a recreational drug. Industrial hemp products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber. To satisfy the UN Narcotics Convention, some cannabis strains have been bred to produce minimal levels of tetrahydrocannabinol, the principal psychoactive constituent; some strains have been selectively bred to produce a maximum of THC, the strength of, enhanced by curing the flowers.
Various compounds, including hashish and hash oil, are extracted from the plant. Globally, in 2013, 60,400 kilograms of cannabis were produced legally. In 2014 there were an estimated 182.5 million cannabis users. This percentage has not changed between 1998 and 2014. Cannabis is an annual, flowering herb; the leaves are palmately digitate, with serrate leaflets. The first pair of leaves have a single leaflet, the number increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf, depending on variety and growing conditions. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf; the lower leaf pairs occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant. The leaves have a peculiar and diagnostic venation pattern that enables persons poorly familiar with the plant to distinguish a cannabis leaf from unrelated species that have confusingly similar leaves; as is common in serrated leaves, each serration has a central vein extending to its tip.
However, the serration vein originates from lower down the central vein of the leaflet opposite to the position of, not the first notch down, but the next notch. This means that on its way from the midrib of the leaflet to the point of the serration, the vein serving the tip of the serration passes close by the intervening notch. Sometimes the vein will pass tangent to the notch, but it will pass by at a small distance, when that happens a spur vein branches off and joins the leaf margin at the deepest point of the notch; this venation pattern varies among varieties, but in general it enables one to tell Cannabis leaves from superficially similar leaves without difficulty and without special equipment. Tiny samples of Cannabis plants can be identified with precision by microscopic examination of leaf cells and similar features, but that requires special expertise and equipment. All known strains of Cannabis are wind-pollinated and the fruit is an achene. Most strains of Cannabis are short day plants, with the possible exception of C. sativa subsp.
Sativa var. spontanea, described as "auto-flowering" and may be day-neutral. Cannabis is predominantly dioecious, having imperfect flowers, with staminate "male" and pistillate "female" flowers occurring on separate plants. "At a early period the Chinese recognized the Cannabis plant as dioecious", the Erya dictionary defined xi 枲 "male Cannabis" and fu 莩 "female Cannabis". Male flowers are borne on loose panicles, female flowers are borne on racemes. Many monoecious varieties have been described, in which individual plants bear both male and female flowers. Subdioecy is widespread. Many populations have been described as sexually labile; as a result of intensive selection in cultivation, Cannabis exhibits many sexual phenotypes that can be described in terms of the ratio of female to male flowers occurring in the individual, or typical in the cultivar. Dioecious varieties are preferred for drug production. Dioecious varieties are preferred for textile fiber production, whereas monoecious varieties are preferred for pulp and paper production.
It has been suggested that the presence of monoecy can be used to differentiate licit crops of monoecious hemp from illicit drug crops. However, sativa strains produce monoecious individuals as a result of inbreeding. Cannabis has been described as having one of the most complicated mechanisms of sex determination among the dioecious plants. Many models have been proposed to explain sex determination in Cannabis. Based on studies of sex reversal in hemp, it was first reported by K. Hirata in 1924 that an XY sex-determination system is present. At the time, the XY system was the only known system of sex determination; the X:A system was first described in Drosophila spp in 1925. Soon thereafter, Schaffner disputed Hirata's interpretation, published results from his o
Botany called plant science, plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist; the term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder". Traditionally, botany has included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists study 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants, 20,000 are bryophytes. Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify – and cultivate – edible and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Medieval physic gardens attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance, they were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s onwards.
One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden. These gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, led in 1753 to the binomial system of Carl Linnaeus that remains in use to this day. In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. In the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists exploited the techniques of molecular genetic analysis, including genomics and proteomics and DNA sequences to classify plants more accurately. Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science and technology. Research topics include the study of plant structure and differentiation, reproduction and primary metabolism, chemical products, diseases, evolutionary relationships and plant taxonomy.
Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing staple foods, materials such as timber, rubber and drugs, in modern horticulture and forestry, plant propagation and genetic modification, in the synthesis of chemicals and raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental management, the maintenance of biodiversity. Botany originated as the study and use of plants for their medicinal properties. Many records of the Holocene period date early botanical knowledge as far back as 10,000 years ago; this early unrecorded knowledge of plants was discovered in ancient sites of human occupation within Tennessee, which make up much of the Cherokee land today. The early recorded history of botany includes many ancient writings and plant classifications. Examples of early botanical works have been found in ancient texts from India dating back to before 1100 BC, in archaic Avestan writings, in works from China before it was unified in 221 BC.
Modern botany traces its roots back to Ancient Greece to Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle who invented and described many of its principles and is regarded in the scientific community as the "Father of Botany". His major works, Enquiry into Plants and On the Causes of Plants, constitute the most important contributions to botanical science until the Middle Ages seventeen centuries later. Another work from Ancient Greece that made an early impact on botany is De Materia Medica, a five-volume encyclopedia about herbal medicine written in the middle of the first century by Greek physician and pharmacologist Pedanius Dioscorides. De Materia Medica was read for more than 1,500 years. Important contributions from the medieval Muslim world include Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, Abū Ḥanīfa Dīnawarī's the Book of Plants, Ibn Bassal's The Classification of Soils. In the early 13th century, Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, Ibn al-Baitar wrote on botany in a systematic and scientific manner. In the mid-16th century, "botanical gardens" were founded in a number of Italian universities – the Padua botanical garden in 1545 is considered to be the first, still in its original location.
These gardens continued the practical value of earlier "physic gardens" associated with monasteries, in which plants were cultivated for medical use. They supported the growth of botany as an academic subject. Lectures were given about the plants grown in the gardens and their medical uses demonstrated. Botanical gardens came much to northern Europe. Throughout this period, botany remained subordinate to medicine. German physician Leonhart Fuchs was one of "the three German fathers of botany", along with theologian Otto Brunfels and physician Hieronymus Bock. Fuchs and Brunfels broke away from the tradition of copying earlier works to make original observations of their own. Bock created his own system of plant classification. Physician Valerius Cordus authored a botanically and pharmacologically important herbal Historia Plantarum in 1544 and a pharmacopoeia of lasting importance, the Dispensatorium
Ficus elastica, the rubber fig, rubber bush, rubber tree, rubber plant, or Indian rubber bush, Indian rubber tree, is a species of plant in the fig genus, native to eastern parts of South Asia and southeast Asia. It has become naturalized in Sri Lanka, the West Indies, the US State of Florida, it is a large tree in the banyan group of figs, growing to 30–40 metres tall, with a stout trunk up to 2 metres in diameter. The trunk develops aerial and buttressing roots to anchor it in the soil and help support heavy branches, it has broad shiny oval. The leaves develop inside a sheath at the apical meristem, which grows larger as the new leaf develops; when it is mature, it unfurls and the sheath drops off the plant. Inside the new leaf, another immature leaf is waiting to develop; as with other members of the genus Ficus, the flowers require a particular species of fig wasp to pollinate it in a co-evolved relationship. Because of this relationship, the rubber plant does not produce colourful or fragrant flowers to attract other pollinators.
The fruit is a small yellow-green oval fig 1 centimetre long edible. The natural range of rubber ranges from Nepal in the north to Indonesia, northeastern India and China and Malaysia, it has been introduced in most tropical regions of the world, including Hawaii and the West Indies. In Europe, it can be found in the sheltered gardens of the Côte d'Azur and on the Spanish and Italian coast. In parts of India, people guide the roots of the tree over chasms to form living bridges. Ficus elastica is grown around the world as an ornamental plant, outside in frost-free climates from the tropical to the Mediterranean and inside in colder climates as a houseplant. Although it is grown in Hawaii, the species of fig wasp required to allow it to spread is not present there. Most cultivated plants are produced by vegetative propagation; this can be done by layering. This last method consists in notching the stem of the plant; the wound, which leaves the latex of the plant oozing, is coated with cuttings hormones and wrapped with moist foam.
The whole is covered with a plastic film and left a few months at the end of which new roots have developed from the axillary buds. The stem is weaned and the new plant can be repotted. All parts of the plant contain an abundant milky white latex, tested for use in the manufacture of rubber, but without economic and technical results. In cultivation, it prefers bright sunlight but not hot temperatures, it has a high tolerance for drought, but thrives in wet, tropical conditions. Ornamental hybrids have been derived from Ficus elastica with broader and more upright leaves than the wild form. Many such hybrids exist with variegated leaves. Ficus elastica yields a milky white latex, a chemical compound separate from its sap and carried and stored in different cells; this latex was used to make rubber, but it should not be confused with the Pará rubber tree, the main commercial source of latex for rubber making. Just as with Hevea brasiliensis, the latex of Ficus elastica is an irritant to the eyes and skin and is toxic if taken internally
Cannabaceae is a small family of flowering plants. As now circumscribed, the family includes about 170 species grouped in about 11 genera, including Cannabis and Celtis. Celtis is by far the largest genus, containing about 100 species. Cannabaceae is of the rose order. Members of the family are erect or climbing plants with petalless flowers and dry, one-seeded fruits. Hemp and hop are the only economically important species. Other than a shared evolutionary origin, members of the family have few common characteristics. Members of this family can be erect herbs, or twining herbs. Leaves are more or less palmately lobed or palmately compound and always bear stipules. Cystoliths are always present and some members of this family possess laticifers. Cannabaceae are dioecious; the flowers are actinomorphic and not showy. As an adaptation to this kind of pollination, the calyx is short and there is no corolla. Flowers are grouped to form cymes. In the dioecious plants the masculine inflorescences are long and look like panicles, while the feminine are shorter and bear fewer flowers.
The pistil is made of two connate carpels, the superior ovary is unilocular. The fruit can be a drupe. Classification systems developed prior to the 1990s, such as those of Cronquist and Dahlgren recognized the order Urticales, which included the families Cannabaceae, Celtidaceae, Moraceae and Urticaceae, as circumscribed. Molecular data from 1990s onwards showed that these families were embedded within the order Rosales, so that from the first classification by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group in 1998, they were placed in an expanded Rosales, forming a group, called "urticalean rosids". Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships: Cannabaceae comprises the following genera: Aphananthe Planch. Cannabis L.—Hemp Celtis L. Chaetachme Planch. Gironniera Gaudich. Humulus L.—Hop Lozanella Greenm. Parasponia Miq. Pteroceltis Maxim. Trema Lour. Carbon dating has revealed that these plants may have been used for ritual/medicinal purposes in Xinjiang, China as early as 494 B. C. Hop has been the predominant bittering agent of beer for hundreds of years.
The flowers' resins are responsible for beer's bitterness and their ability to extend shelf life due to some anti-microbial qualities. The young shoots are used as vegetable; some plants in the genus Cannabis are cultivated as hemp for the production of fiber, as a source of cheap oil, for their nutritious seeds, or their edible leaves. Others are cultivated for recreational use as marijuana. Several selectively bred "strains" have been produced for both higher and lower yields of THC, other cannabinoids, as well as terpenes with desired flavors or aromas, such as blueberry, strawberry, or citrus. Many trees in the genus Celtis are grown for landscaping and ornamental purposes. Cannabaceae of Mongolia in FloraGREIF
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula n, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β linked D-glucose units. Cellulose is an important structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes; some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms. Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth; the cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50%, that of dried hemp is 57%. Cellulose is used to produce paperboard and paper. Smaller quantities are converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and rayon. Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under development as a renewable fuel source. Cellulose for industrial use is obtained from wood pulp and cotton; some animals ruminants and termites, can digest cellulose with the help of symbiotic micro-organisms that live in their guts, such as Trichonympha. In human nutrition, cellulose is a non-digestible constituent of insoluble dietary fiber, acting as a hydrophilic bulking agent for feces and aiding in defecation.
Cellulose was discovered in 1838 by the French chemist Anselme Payen, who isolated it from plant matter and determined its chemical formula. Cellulose was used to produce the first successful thermoplastic polymer, celluloid, by Hyatt Manufacturing Company in 1870. Production of rayon from cellulose began in the 1890s and cellophane was invented in 1912. Hermann Staudinger determined the polymer structure of cellulose in 1920; the compound was first chemically synthesized by Kobayashi and Shoda. Cellulose has no taste, is odorless, is hydrophilic with the contact angle of 20–30 degrees, is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, is chiral and is biodegradable, it was shown to melt at 467 °C in 2016. It can be broken down chemically into its glucose units by treating it with concentrated mineral acids at high temperature. Cellulose is derived from D-glucose units; this linkage motif contrasts with that for α-glycosidic bonds present in glycogen. Cellulose is a straight chain polymer. Unlike starch, no coiling or branching occurs and the molecule adopts an extended and rather stiff rod-like conformation, aided by the equatorial conformation of the glucose residues.
The multiple hydroxyl groups on the glucose from one chain form hydrogen bonds with oxygen atoms on the same or on a neighbor chain, holding the chains together side-by-side and forming microfibrils with high tensile strength. This confers tensile strength in cell walls, where cellulose microfibrils are meshed into a polysaccharide matrix. Compared to starch, cellulose is much more crystalline. Whereas starch undergoes a crystalline to amorphous transition when heated beyond 60–70 °C in water, cellulose requires a temperature of 320 °C and pressure of 25 MPa to become amorphous in water. Several different crystalline structures of cellulose are known, corresponding to the location of hydrogen bonds between and within strands. Natural cellulose is cellulose I, with structures Iα and Iβ. Cellulose produced by bacteria and algae is enriched in Iα while cellulose of higher plants consists of Iβ. Cellulose in regenerated cellulose fibers is cellulose II; the conversion of cellulose I to cellulose II is irreversible, suggesting that cellulose I is metastable and cellulose II is stable.
With various chemical treatments it is possible to produce the structures cellulose III and cellulose IV. Many properties of cellulose depend on its chain length or degree of polymerization, the number of glucose units that make up one polymer molecule. Cellulose from wood pulp has typical chain lengths between 1700 units. Molecules with small chain length resulting from the breakdown of cellulose are known as cellodextrins. Cellulose contains 44.44% carbon, 6.17% hydrogen, 49.39% oxygen. The chemical formula of cellulose is n where n is the degree of polymerization and represents the number of glucose groups. Plant-derived cellulose is found in a mixture with hemicellulose, lignin and other substances, while bacterial cellulose is quite pure, has a much higher water content and higher tensile strength due to higher chain lengths. Cellulose is soluble in Schweizer's reagent, cupriethylenediamine, cadmiumethylenediamine, N-methylmorpholine N-oxide, lithium chloride / dimethylacetamide; this is used in the production of regenerated celluloses from dissolving pulp.
Cellulose is soluble in many kinds of ionic liquids. Cellulose consists of amorphous regions. By treating it with strong acid, the amorphous regions can be broken up, thereby producing nanocrystalline cellulose, a novel material with many desirable properties. Nanocrystalline cellulose was used as the filler phase in bio-based polymer matrices to produce nanocomposites with superior thermal and mechanical properties. Given a cellulose-containing material, the carbohydrate portion that does not dissolve in a 17.5% solution of sodium hydroxide at 20 °C is α cellulose, true cellulose. Acidification of the extract precipitates β cellulose; the portion that dissolves in base but does not precipitate with acid is γ cellulose. Cellulose can be assayed using a method described by Updegraff in 1969, where the fiber is dissolved in acetic and nitric acid to remov