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Cytidine is a nucleoside molecule, formed when cytosine is attached to a ribose ring via a β-N1-glycosidic bond. Cytidine is a component of RNA. If cytosine is attached to a deoxyribose ring, it is known as a deoxycytidine. Cytidine is a crystalline powder, it is soluble in water, but only soluble in ethanol. Dietary sources of cytidine include foods with high RNA content, such as organ meats, Brewer's yeast, as well as pyrimidine-rich foods such as beer. During digestion, RNA-rich foods are broken-down into ribosyl pyrimidines, which are absorbed intact. In humans, dietary cytidine is converted into uridine, the compound behind cytidine's metabolic effects. There are a variety of cytidine analogues with useful pharmacology. For example, KP-1461 is an anti-HIV agent that works as a viral mutagen, zebularine exists in E. coli and is being examined for chemotherapy. Low doses of azacitidine and its analog decitabine have shown results against cancer through epigenetic demethylation. In addition to its role as a pyrimidine component of RNA, cytidine has been found to control neuronal-glial glutamate cycling, with supplementation decreasing midfrontal/cerebral glutamate/glutamine levels.

As such, cytidine has generated interest as a potential glutamatergic antidepressant drug. Cytidine MS Spectrum

1956 Tasmanian state election

The Tasmanian state election, 1956 was held on 13 October 1956 in the Australian state of Tasmania to elect 30 members of the Tasmanian House of Assembly. The election used the Hare-Clark proportional representation system — six members were elected from each of five electorates; the 1955 election had resulted in a parliamentary deadlock between the Labor and Liberal parties, although Robert Cosgrove remained Premier of Tasmania. On 11 September 1956, Cosgrove's minister for housing, Carrol Bramich, resigned from the ALP following an internal row, party switching and giving the Liberal opposition a majority. Cosgrove obtained a dissolution of parliament from the Governor of Tasmania, an election was called for 13 October; the electorate of Darwin had been renamed in 1955 to Braddon, after former Premier Sir Edward Braddon. Following the 1956 election, the ALP and Liberals remained in a 15-seat deadlock. Despite Bramich's defection to the Liberals, Labor picked up a seat in Bramich's electorate of Braddon, maintaining the status quo with Cosgrove and the ALP still in power.

The subsequent election in 1959 saw the number of seats in the Tasmanian House of Assembly increased to 35, which would prevent the kind of deadlock which resulted from having an number of seats in the house. Members of the Tasmanian House of Assembly, 1956–1959 Candidates of the Tasmanian state election, 1956 Assembly Election Results, 1956, Parliament of Tasmania. Report on Parliamentary Elections, 1956, Tasmanian Electoral Commission

Rudolf Kanzler

Rudolf Kanzler was a German surveyor and politician, involved in the organisation of Freikorps units after World War I. A Roman Catholic, Kanzler was thus a member of the Centre Party and served this party in the Landtag of Bavaria as representative for Lichtenfels from 1905 to 1918. Noted for his anti-communism he organised a Bürgerwehr or militia against the communists in Rosenheim in 1919; this group grew into the Freikorps Chiemgau, for a time the largest single Freikorps in Germany, under the command of Kanzler who became known as the'White General'. Kanzler became an ally of the rightist militant Georg Escherich and soon led his own Organisation Kanzler or'Orka' in imitation of Escherich's Orgesch. Like his ally he became close to Richard Steidle in Austria and helped him in the organisation of the Heimwehr. Kanzler stood down from his Freikorps roles in 1921 and became a member of Carl Spruner von Mertz's Bayerischer Heimat- und Königsbund, a monarchist group, outlawed in 1933 after the formation of the Nazi Party regime.

Indeed, Kanzler had been an early leader of this group, which - beyond a nostalgically sentimental attachment to the House of Wittelsbach - had little function, before giving way to General von Krafft. Kanzler had little in common with the Nazis and was jailed for treason during the Third Reich for attempting to promote monarchism and for co-operating with the Black Front of Otto Strasser. Following his death, on his 83rd birthday, he was buried in his home town of Wasserburg am Inn

Sarah Potts (Shortland Street)

Dr. Sarah Marjorie Potts is a fictional character on the New Zealand soap opera Shortland Street, portrayed by Amanda Billing from her first appearance in September 2004 until the character's on-screen death in August 2014. Arriving as a love interest for established character, Sarah became the centre of a high-profile storyline when it was revealed her young brother Daniel was in fact her illegitimate son. Sarah and Craig's romance carried on for four years and climaxed in what has been described as "Shortland Street's steamiest scene." Sarah's romance storyline's again took a high-profile role with her pairing to TK Samuels in 2006. Over the next 8 years the two were involved in a "will they-won't they" situation that involved the two getting married, having a child, engaged for a second time. Public interest was high for the romance and boosted the show some of its highest ratings. In 2008 the character was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in a storyline producers intended to use to explore the long-term effects of the illness and help educate New Zealanders.

The character of Sarah has seen high acclaim for Billing's acting. She has been nominated and won multiple awards including a nomination in the New Zealand Television Awards for "Best Actress"; the characters diagnosis with multiple sclerosis has seen huge acclaim, with sufferers and health advocates praising the show for bringing the illness to such a high-profile programme. Amanda Billing auditioned for the roles of lesbian nurse Maia Jeffries and the ill fated Avril Luchich before she was offered the role of Sarah in early 2004. Sarah made her debut on 14 September 2004; the character was described as "a good looking and driven woman in her early 30s" and was "liked, easy-going and good-humoured". In the casting of Sarah, it was suggested that producers were carrying on the tradition of placing talented unknowns in starring roles. Sarah was written off the show in late 2010, her exit storyline was purposefully ambiguous. Billing struggled to keep the secret from the public and was hugely relieved when Sarah returned onscreen in March 2011.

In late 2013 producers decided to retire the character of Sarah. They decided it was best to kill her off as the character of TK Samuels could develop further romantic connections without fans opposing to it due to Sarah still being alive. Billing was informed in March 2014, she described the writing off process as one that had a lot of "stuff that plays into it" and noted some of it she understood, whilst a lot of it she did not. She hoped. One of Sarah's final scenes that saw her say goodbye to her toddler daughter Tillie proved difficult to film due to the cast and crew crying. Billing was celebrated with a large cast party; the publicity department worked hard to ensure the departure would not be leaked to the press following previous leaks on the departures of Teuila Blakely and Beth Allen, something Billing found hard to keep a secret. The character was killed off during scenes airing on 18 August 2014. Sarah won a job working in ED under Craig Valentine, they dated but broke up when it was scandalously revealed that Sarah's brother Daniel, was in fact her son.

Despite being attracted to Craig, she married Andrew Solomon but their marriage was annulled after Andrew left Sarah to be with his ex-girlfriend and children. Sarah dated a schoolboy and conman Hamish, she continually found herself attracted to Craig and started to date him before the two broke up due to his anger problems. They broke up when Craig cheated on Sarah with Huia, impregnating her. Huia's cousin TK Samuels comforted her through the ordeal and when Craig readmitted his love, Sarah was faced with a tough decision between Craig and TK. Sarah made a decision and in December 2006 asked TK to marry her; the couple married in mid-2007 and decided to have kids. However, in 2008 after being diagnosed with Multiple sclerosis the couple suffered a shock when they learnt Sarah's baby would be born with a deathly illness and it was terminated. In 2009 Brooke Freeman manipulated Sarah into thinking the two separated, she rebounded to Maxwell Avia but the two broke up in 2010 and Sarah had a one-night stand with TK shortly before leaving to work in America.

Sarah made a surprise return to Shortland Street in March 2011 and announced she was pregnant with TK's child, a girl. Sarah clashed with his new fiance Roimata Ngatai. In July 2011 Sarah gave birth to daughter, Matilda Mareikura "Tillie" Potts after leaving TK's wedding. Sarah began to date Daniel's carer Zac Smith and accepted more administrative positions at the hospital. However, after 8 months of dating, Sarah discovered Zac had been having a long-term affair behind her back with her friend Vasa Levi and they broke up. In 2013 Sarah lost her job to her friend Harper Whitley and ended up reconciling with TK after nearly 4 years apart, their relationship was put to the test when Sarah accidentally reversed over Tillie in her truck, but the two remained together. In

Niebla lobulata

Niebla lobulata is a fruticose lichen that grows on rocks in the fog regions along the Pacific Coast of Baja California, from Bahía de San Quintín to Vizcaíno Peninsula and offshore islands, Isla San Martín, Guadalupe Island. The epithet, lobulata is in reference to the lobed margins of the thallus branches. Niebla lobulata is distinguished by a thallus divided into strap-shaped branches from a basal holdfast, the branches not more than 20 in number, wide spreading above a short tapered and narrow base dividing into similar branches, the branch margins wavy, and/or lobed, or lacerated, the whole thallus not more than 7 cm high; the species recognized by containing sekikaic acid, by a thin cortex, 35–75 µm thick, eroding near base, covering a fistulose medulla, which seems related to the contorted appearance of the branches. The species is most similar to Niebla undulata, which differs by having the lichen substance of divaricatic acid, instead of sekikaic acid. Niebla lobulata was first recognized as distinct from other species in the genus while collecting samples for chemopreventive agents and for anticancer screening on the Vizcaíno Peninsula near Arroyo San Andrés.

A 400 gram sample of was collected among flowering plants Pachycormus discolor, Encelia stenophylla, Eriogonum encelioides, Eriogonum pondii, Salvia cedrosensis, Petalonyx linearis, Rhus lentii and various other lichens and one desert mushroom identified as having affinity to Battarraea phalloides. The species was found growing with Niebla usneoides, which contains sekikaic acid but differs in having isidia. Niebla lobulata has been included under a broad species concept,. Further comparisons between the two species concepts are given in a review. Niebla lobulata in Index FungorumWorld Botanical Associates, Niebla lobulata, retrieved 28 Dec 2014,

State of Denial

State of Denial: Bush at War, Part III is a book by Bob Woodward due to be published October 2, 2006, that examines how the George W. Bush administration managed the Iraq War after the 2003 invasion, it follows Bush at War and Plan of Attack. Based on interviews with a number of people in the Bush administration, the book makes a number of allegations about the administration. Newsweek magazine presented a special excerpt of the book. Assistant Managing Editor Evan Thomas and Senior White House Correspondent Richard Wolffe reported on the potential fallout for Bush and US Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and analyzed the administration's response. According to Woodward's book: Andrew Card resigned because of concerns about how the public would perceive the administration's handling of Iraq in the future and that he had twice tried to persuade Bush to replace Rumsfeld. Former US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger met with Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney to offer advice on the War in Iraq.

Kissinger confirmed in recorded interviews with Woodward that the advice was the same as he had given in an August 12, 2005, column in the Washington Post: "Victory over the insurgency is the only meaningful exit strategy." CIA Director George Tenet and J. Cofer Black met with then-National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice on July 10, 2001, to warn her about an imminent Al Qaeda attack and were disappointed Rice wasn't alarmed enough by the warning, although Rice's friend Philip D. Zelikow says in the book that the warning wasn't specific enough to enable the government to take a specific action to counter it. Tony Blair complained that the US government denied UK security services access to intelligence. After Bush signed a directive ordering that "NOFORN would no longer apply to the British and Australians when they were planning for combat operations, training with the Americans or engaged in counterterrorism activities", officials within the Pentagon instead began creating a parallel SIPRNet to which classified information would be copied over after review.

Although members of the Bush administration publicly said the situation in Iraq was improving, internal reports and memos distributed between various government agencies, including the White House and The Pentagon, acknowledged the situation was worsening. Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid said of Bush, "I just can't stand him". Reid so dislikes Bush that he can't bear watching his speeches, instead having aides brief him on them afterward. Condoleezza Rice hired old friend Philip D. Zelikow to give her a detailed report. On February 10, 2005, two weeks after Rice became Secretary of State, Zelikow gave her a 15-page, single-spaced memo. Zelikow wrote: "At this point Iraq remains a failed state shadowed by constant violence and undergoing revolutionary political change." Robert D. Blackwill, the National Security Council's top official for Iraq, was disturbed by what he considered the inadequate number of troops on the ground there, he told Stephen J. Hadley, her deputy, that the NSC needed to do a military review.

Rice had made it clear that her authority did not extend to Rumsfeld or the military, the matter was dropped. When Hadley replaced Rice as National Security Advisor, he assessed the problems from the first term, he told a "colleague" on February 5, 2005, "I give us a B-minus for policy development and a D-minus for policy execution." General John P. Abizaid, head of US forces in Iraq, visited US Representative John P. Murtha in Murtha's office and held up his index finger about a quarter of an inch from his thumb, telling Murtha "We're that far apart" on Iraq policy. "One of Kissinger's private criticisms of Bush was that he had no mechanism in place, or an inclination, to consider the downsides of impending decisions. Alternative courses of action were considered." These are some of the speculated sources: "Andrew Card, who gives Woodward most of his Oval Office material as far as I can tell, is written up as some kind of hero for engineering his own removal as White House chief of staff," wrote Rich Lowry, editor of National Review.

"From what I have read, there is no acknowledgment that some of Bush's difficulties might have been Card's doing, the advantage of being a Woodward source." The former Saudi Arabian ambassador Prince Bandar bin Sultan George Tenet, former director of the CIA Former Deputy Secretary of State Richard L. Armitage Brent Scowcroft, national security adviser to President George H. W. Bush Jay Garner, former head of the Iraq postwar planning office US Representative John Murtha is cited by Woodward as a source. Donald Rumsfeld State of Denial Reviews at Neoconservative commentator and former speechwriter for President George W. Bush David Frum stated: "Woodward characters are always saying things like'We've got to get this on track' and'Fix it.' Bold, decisive -- and Woodward loves reporting this decisiveness. But when t