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Cytosine is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine and thymine. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with two substituents attached; the nucleoside of cytosine is cytidine. In Watson-Crick base pairing, it forms three hydrogen bonds with guanine. Cytosine was discovered and named by Albrecht Kossel and Albert Neumann in 1894 when it was hydrolyzed from calf thymus tissues. A structure was proposed in 1903, was synthesized in the laboratory in the same year. In 1998 cytosine was used in an early demonstration of quantum information processing when Oxford University researchers implemented the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on a two qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computer. In March 2015, NASA scientists reported the formation of cytosine, along with uracil and thymine, from pyrimidine under the space-like laboratory conditions, of interest because pyrimidine has been found in meteorites although its origin is unknown. Cytosine can be found as part of RNA, or as a part of a nucleotide.

As cytidine triphosphate, it can act as a co-factor to enzymes, can transfer a phosphate to convert adenosine diphosphate to adenosine triphosphate. In DNA and RNA, cytosine is paired with guanine. However, it is inherently unstable, can change into uracil; this can lead to a point mutation if not repaired by the DNA repair enzymes such as uracil glycosylase, which cleaves a uracil in DNA. Cytosine can be methylated into 5-methylcytosine by an enzyme called DNA methyltransferase or be methylated and hydroxylated to make 5-hydroxymethylcytosine; the difference in rates of deamination of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine forms the basis of bisulfite sequencing. When found third in a codon of RNA, cytosine is synonymous with uracil, as they are interchangeable as the third base; when found as the second base in a codon, the third is always interchangeable. For example, UCU, UCC, UCA and UCG are all serine, regardless of the third base. Active enzymatic deamination of cytosine or 5-methylcytosine by the APOBEC family of cytosine deaminases could have both beneficial and detrimental implications on various cellular processes as well as on organismal evolution.

The implications of deamination on 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, on the other hand, remains less understood. Cytosine has not been found in meteorites, which suggests the first strands of RNA and DNA had to look elsewhere to obtain this building block. Cytosine formed within some meteorite parent bodies, however did not persist within these bodies due to an effective deamination reaction into uracil. Cytosine MS Spectrum EINECS number 200-749-5 Shapiro R. "Prebiotic cytosine synthesis: a critical analysis and implications for the origin of life". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 96: 4396–401. Bibcode:1999PNAS...96.4396S. Doi:10.1073/pnas.96.8.4396. PMC 16343. PMID 10200273

Spanish–Italian Amphibious Battlegroup

The Spanish–Italian Amphibious Battlegroup is one of 18 European Union battlegroups. It consists of 1500 Marines with manpower contributed from the participating countries. From January until June 2009, it was on the EU Battlegroup standby roster; the unit uses a modular organization. The primary core of the unit is made up by the Spanish Brigada de Infantería de Marina and the Italian San Marco Marine Brigade, it has attached units from the Spanish and Italian Navies: Aircraft Carriers: Cavour LHA L-61 Juan Carlos I Giuseppe Garibaldi Landing Ships: L-51 Galicia L-52 Castilla L-9892 San Giorgio L-9893 San Marco L-9894 San Giusto Fuerza Anfibia Hispano Italiana Forza Anfibia Italo-Spagnola

Yamba, New South Wales

Yamba is a locality in northern New South Wales, Australia at the mouth of the Clarence River. The first European to visit the area was Matthew Flinders, who stopped in Yamba Bay for six days in July 1799; the town economy is based on fishing and tourism, but has a diverse range of influences, due to the'Sea Change' phenomena and the large number of baby boomers who are starting to retire to the warmer climates. In 2017, Yamba had a population of 6,135, but as a popular tourist destination, it can triple its population in the holiday period. In 2009 Yamba was voted the number 1 town in Australia by Australian Traveller Magazine. Yamba is known to have experienced the natural phenomenon known as sea foam; the Yaegl and Bundjalung people are the traditional custodians of the coastal areas around Yamba and Maclean. The ancestors of the present day Yaegl people lived around the mouth of the Clarence River and spoke Yaygirr, related to Gumbaynggirr. There is evidence the Yaygirr had a developed material culture.

Matthew Flinders described large bark huts with rounded passageway entrances to protect dwellers from wind and rain. Captain Perry described canoes of a superior construction. In 1799 Matthew Flinders landed on the present southern headland at Yamba. He’d been despatched from Sydney to find a new Eden, but from his vantage point atop a craggy promontory, now Pilot Head, he dismissed the turbulent estuary as dangerous and unworthy of further examination, sailed away. In the 1830s, timber harvesting commenced. In 1861, the townsite was surveyed, by October 1862 construction of the breakwater Clarence River Heads Post Office was completed. Named Shoal Bay in 1885, it was renamed Yamba with a population of approx 340. In 1908 the Yamba Surf Lifesaving Club is one of the oldest surf clubs in the world. Yamba began to develop as a tourist destination in the 1930s following the arrival of the railway line at nearby Grafton. Guesthouses were replaced by motels and holiday apartments following the sealing of the main road in 1958, with visitors now able to use bridges rather than punts and ferries.

Fishing and oyster industries were established in the 1880s, with prawn trawling pioneered in the 1940s. Sugar cane farming is now the major cropping industry in the region following full mechanisation of the cane cutting process in 1978. Riverboats and steamers that plied between Grafton and Sydney were replaced by rail and better road connections from the 1970s. There are two theories as to the meaning of Yamba, one being that it is the local Aboriginal word for "headland". However, J. S. Ryan, following R. L. Dawson's early Recollections and Records of the Clarence Aborigines, believes the most derivation is an Aboriginal word yumbah meaning a rough edible shellfish the size of a man's hand that clings to rocks and is similar to an oyster. Since 1 December 2011, the Port of Yamba has been managed by the Sydney Ports Corporation, which on 1 July 2014 became the Port Authority of New South Wales, a corporation owned by the Government of New South Wales; the major export from the port is timber.

There are regular general cargo services from Yamba to Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island, New Zealand. In year ended 30 June 2012, the port handled 6,000 tonnes of cargo and vessels up to 120 metres in length. In addition to the Port wharf, Yamba has owned slipway and repair wharves. Yamba is surrounded by the Clarence River, Pacific Ocean and rural land; the town is within reach of Ballina and Grafton. Yamba is only an hour from Byron Bay, two hours from Coffs Harbour and the Gold Coast and three hours from Brisbane, it is a two-hour flight from Sydney. Yamba boasts eleven beaches within the 2464 postcode: Whiting, Yamba, Convent/McKittricks, Flat Rock, Barri. Nearby beaches to the north include Woody Head, Iluka Bluff, Back Beach, to the south Green Point, Angourie Bay, Angourie Point, Back Beach, Shelley and Plumbago. Yamba has a humid subtropical climate; the town has a relaxed lifestyle with access to two pubs and two clubs, The Pacific Hotel and Yamba Shores Tavern, a golf Club and a bowling club all with regular live performances.

Yamba has sporting and recreation groups such as the Yamba Buccaneers rugby union club and the Yamba Breakers football club, the Yamba Community Heated Pool and Raymond Laurie Sports Centre, plus restaurants, a YHA, cafes, internet facilities, primary schools, golf course, post office, bowling greens and a large deep-water marina. Peak tourist seasons are Dec/Jan, mid year and October. Yamba is home to the Lower Clarence and Surrounds FM Community Radio Station TLC FM 100.3. At the northern tip of Pippi beach is "Lovers Point Rock Wall". Between May - October whales can be seen passing by. Dolphins are plentiful all around Yamba and can be observed swimming and fishing quite close to shore. Other attractions include Yamba Lighthouse known as Clarence River Light, Story House museum, the ferry to Iluka on the northern banks and Bundjalung National Parks and the surf beach at Angourie. There are a number of local restaurants and boast cruises available. Popular activities include fishing, kayaking, bike riding and camping.

Located at Ford Park on the 4th Sunday of every month, the Yamba River Markets showcases local musicians, fresh produce from local farmers, food stalls, arts and craft tents. Once a year Yamba hosts "Surfing

Sally Thurer

Born in Boston, Sally Thurer received her MFA in graphic design at The Yale School of Art. She started her career at Mass Appeal Magazine and acted as art director until 2007 when she became creative director of their new title, Missbehave from 2007—2009, she is an image maker producing illustrations, wrapping paper and digital prints for fabric. Some of her work can be seen in The New York Times, Lucky Peach, The Village Voice, Bloomberg View and on MTV She is the former Head of Experiential Methodology and Critical Theory at MTV. Thurer has made illustrations for such media as The Fader, she likes making pedagogical account on Instagram. She worked with the likes of Tommy Boy Records, Volume/C-Lab. Shadow Rose, Digital fabric patterns & seasonal brand identity Acid Surf Roboshop iPad Fashion Story for Bullett Magazine #!#!#!#!#!#!#!# NYC Food Film Festival, POSTER AND VIDEO Official website

Cricovul Dulce

The Cricovul Dulce or Cricov is a left tributary of the river Ialomița in Romania. It discharges into the Ialomița near Șirna, it flows through the towns and villages Valea Lungă-Cricov, Iedera de Jos, Ion Luca Caragiale, Vlădeni, Băltița, Hăbud and Crivățu. Its length is 80 km and its basin size is 579 km2. Part of the water from the river Prahova is diverted towards the Cricovul Dulce by the canal Iazul Morilor Prahova; the following rivers are tributaries to the river Cricovul Dulce: Left: Sultan, Valea Ursului, Provița Right: Strâmbul, Neagra Prefectura Dâmbovița Trasee turistice – județul Dâmbovița


Kołaczyce is a town in Jasło County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, in south-eastern Poland. It is the seat of the gmina called Gmina Kołaczyce, it lies 8 kilometres north of Jasło and 48 km south-west of the regional capital Rzeszów. Kołaczyce was first mentioned in 1339, gained town rights in 1354 to lose them in 1919, it regained town status on 1 January 2010, along with five other Polish localities. The village of Kolaczyce was founded in late 13th century, as property of the Benedictine Abbey from Tyniec. In 1339, it received town charter from King Kazimierz Wielki. At that time, it was part of Sandomierz Voivodeship, in which it remained for the next 400 years, until the first partition of Poland. In 1474, Kolaczyce was burned to the ground by a Hungarian raid commanded by Thomas Tarczay. In 1546, the town burned in a great fire, while in 1657, it was destroyed by Transilvanian forces of George II Rakoczi. In the past, Kolaczyce was spelled Colanthicze 1330, Colaczicze 1358. In 1772, Kolaczyce was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, remained in Austrian Galicia until November 1918.

In 1919, it lost its town status, regaining it in 2010. In the 19th century, Kolaczyce was famous for its shoe makers, which annually made app. 40 000 pairs of shoes. In the Second Polish Republic, Kolaczyce belonged to Krakow Voivodeship. During World War II, the village suffered from heavy destruction. During the Second World War, Nazis gathered 260 Jews from the nearby town of Brzostek, surrounding villages, marched them a few miles south along the road No. 73, and—having escorted them in groups of ten to a spot in the Podzamcze forest—killed them and buried in a mass grave. The place is marked by a memorial unveiled on 17 June 2012. Market square with a fountain and 19th-century houses, St. Ann parish church with a 1632 holy water font, Roadside chapel, A figure of Our Lady in the market square, World War I and World War II cemeteries. Information about the unveiling ceremony on Kołaczyce Community website