Karel Čapek was a Czech writer and critic. He has become best known for his science fiction, including his novel War with the Newts and play R. U. R. which introduced the word robot. He wrote many politically charged works dealing with the social turmoil of his time. Influenced by American pragmatic liberalism, he campaigned in favor of free expression and opposed the rise of both fascism and communism in Europe. Though nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature seven times, Čapek never received it. However, several awards commemorate his name, such as the Karel Čapek Prize, awarded every other year by the Czech PEN Club for literary work that contributes to reinforcing or maintaining democratic and humanist values in society, he played a key role in establishing the Czechoslovak PEN Club as a part of International PEN.Čapek died on the brink of World War II as the result of a lifelong medical condition, but his legacy as a literary figure became well established after the war. Karel Čapek was born in 1890 in the Bohemian mountain village of Malé Svatoňovice.
However, six months after his birth, the Čapek family moved to their own house in Úpice. His father, Antonín Čapek, worked as a doctor at the local textile factory. Antonín was a energetic person. Despite opposing his father's materialist and positivist views, Karel Čapek loved and admired his father calling him “a good example... of the generation of national awakeners.” Karel's mother, Božena Čapková, was a homemaker. Unlike her husband she did not like life in the country and she suffered from long-term depressions. Despite that, she assiduously collected and recorded local folklore, such as legends, songs or stories. Karel was the youngest of three siblings, he would maintain an close relationship with his brother Josef, a successful painter and working with him throughout his adult life. His sister, was a talented pianist who become a writer and published several memoirs about Karel and Josef. After finishing elementary school in Úpice, he moved with his grandmother to Hradec Králové, where he attended high school.
Two years he was expelled for taking part in an illegal students' club. Čapek described the club as a “very non-murderous anarchist society.” After this incident he moved to Brno with his sister and attempted to finish high school there, but two years he moved again, to Prague, where he finished high school at the Academic Grammar School in 1909. During his teenage years Čapek became enamored with the visual arts Cubism, which influenced his writing. After graduating from high school, he studied philosophy and aesthetics in Prague at Charles University, but he spent some time at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin and at the Sorbonne in Paris. While he was still a university student, he wrote some works on contemporary literature, he graduated with a doctorate of philosophy in 1915. Exempted from military service due to the spinal problems that would haunt him his whole life, Čapek observed World War I from Prague, his political views were affected by the war, as a budding journalist he began to write on topics like nationalism and consumerism.
Through social circles, the young author developed close relationships with many of the political leaders of the nascent Czechoslovak state, including Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, Czechoslovak patriot and the first President of Czechoslovakia, his son Jan, who would become foreign secretary. T. G. Masaryk was a regular guest at Čapek's "Friday Men" garden parties for leading Czech intellectuals. Čapek was a member of Masaryk's Hrad political network. Their frequent conversations on various topics served as the basis for Čapek's Talks with T. G. Masaryk. Čapek began his writing career as a journalist. With his brother Josef, he worked as an editor for the Czech paper Národní listy from October 1917 to April 1921. Upon leaving, he and Josef joined the staff of Lidové noviny in April 1921.Čapek's early attempts at fiction were short stories and plays for the most part written with his brother Josef. Čapek's first international success was R. U. R. A dystopian work about a bad day at a factory populated with sentient androids.
The play was translated into English in 1922, was being performed in the UK and America by 1923. Throughout the 1920s, Čapek worked in many writing genres, producing both fiction and non-fiction, but worked as a journalist. In the 1930s, Čapek's work focused on the threat of brutal national socialist and fascist dictatorships, he became a member of International PEN and established, was the first president of, the Czechoslovak PEN Club. In 1935 Karel Čapek married actress Olga Scheinpflugová, after a long acquaintance. In 1938 it became clear that the Western allies, namely France and the United Kingdom, would fail to fulfil the pre-war agreements, they refused to defend Czechoslovakia against Nazi Germany. Although offered the chance to go to exile in England, Čapek refused to leave his country – though the Nazi Gestapo had named him "public enemy number two". While repairing flood damage to his family's summer house in Stará Huť, he contracted a common cold; as he had suffered all his life from spondyloarthritis and was a heavy smoker, Karel Čapek died of pneumonia, on 25 December 1938.
The Gestapo was not aware of his death. Several months just after the German invasion of Czechoslovakia, Nazi age
Jaroslav Velinský was a Czech science fiction and detective writer, publisher and musician. In the folk arena and among sci-fi friends and fans he was known as Kapitán Kid. Velinský was born in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in 1932. A player of both banjo and swing guitar, he wrote more than 50 country and folk songs, including "Jenofefa", "Krinolina" and "Mary Celeste", was one of the founders of the Czech folk festival, Porta, his science-fiction books included Engerlings, Notes from Garth and Continent of Unlimited Possibilities. He was an honorary member of a science-fiction club, he wrote eight staged theater plays and more than 30 detective novels based around a detective named Ota Fink, including Dark Well, Man-eater, Death of a Midget, Lady with a Green Elephant, Very Long Stairs, Murderer's Road, Estimated Solution and others. Velinský founded a one-man publishing house, the Club of Friends of Captain Kid, the club referring to readers of his books and fans of his music, he used the club's data and close contact with his audience to better plan his production.
This concerned not just published books and CDs, but deciding between writing music or literature and selecting themes. The result was a publishing house producing new original books and songs "on demand", he was a miner and graphic artist. Velinský died of lung cancer in Ústí nad Labem in February 2012, aged 79. Kkkk.cz
Salamanders are a group of amphibians characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults. All present-day salamander families are grouped together under the order Urodela. Salamander diversity is most abundant in the Northern Hemisphere and most species are found in the Holarctic ecozone, with some species present in the Neotropical zone. Salamanders have more than four toes on their front legs and five on their rear legs, but some species have fewer digits and others lack hind limbs, their permeable skin makes them reliant on habitats in or near water or other cool, damp places. Some salamander species are aquatic throughout their lives, some take to the water intermittently, others are terrestrial as adults, they are capable of regenerating lost limbs, as well as other damaged parts of their bodies. Researchers hope to reverse engineer the remarkable regenerative processes for potential human medical applications, such as brain and spinal cord injury treatment or preventing harmful scarring during heart surgery recovery.
Members of the family Salamandridae are known as newts and lack the costal grooves along the sides of their bodies typical of other groups. The skin of some species contains the powerful poison tetrodotoxin. Salamanders lay eggs in water and have aquatic larvae, but great variation occurs in their lifecycles; some species in harsh environments reproduce while still in the larval state. The skin lacks scales and is moist and smooth to the touch, except in newts of the Salamandridae, which may have velvety or warty skin, wet to the touch; the skin may be drab or brightly colored, exhibiting various patterns of stripes, spots, blotches, or dots. Male newts become colored during the breeding season. Cave species dwelling in darkness lack pigmentation and have a translucent pink or pearlescent appearance. Salamanders range in size from the minute salamanders, with a total length of 2.7 cm, including the tail, to the Chinese giant salamander which reaches 1.8 m and weighs up to 65 kg. Most, are between 10 and 20 cm in length.
An adult salamander resembles a small lizard, having a basal tetrapod body form with a cylindrical trunk, four limbs, a long tail. Except in the family Salamandridae, the head and tail have a number of vertical depressions in the surface which run from the mid-dorsal region to the ventral area and are known as costal grooves, their function seems to be to help keep the skin moist by channeling water over the surface of the body. Some aquatic species, such as sirens and amphiumas, have reduced or absent hind limbs, giving them an eel-like appearance, but in most species, the front and rear limbs are about the same length and project sidewards raising the trunk off the ground; the feet are broad with short digits four on the front feet and five on the rear. Salamanders do not have claws, the shape of the foot varies according to the animal's habitat. Climbing species have elongated, square-tipped toes, while rock-dwellers have larger feet with short, blunt toes; the tree-climbing salamander has plate-like webbed feet which adhere to smooth surfaces by suction, while the rock-climbing Hydromantes species from California have feet with fleshy webs and short digits and use their tails as an extra limb.
When ascending, the tail props up the rear of the body, while one hind foot moves forward and swings to the other side to provide support as the other hind foot advances. In larvae and aquatic salamanders, the tail is laterally flattened, has dorsal and ventral fins, undulates from side to side to propel the animal through the water. In the families Ambystomatidae and Salamandridae, the male's tail, larger than that of the female, is used during the amplexus embrace to propel the mating couple to a secluded location. In terrestrial species, the tail moves to counterbalance the animal as it runs, while in the arboreal salamander and other tree-climbing species, it is prehensile; the tail is used by certain plethodontid salamanders that can jump, to help launch themselves into the air. The tail is used as a storage organ for proteins and lipids, it functions as a defense against predation, when it may be lashed at the attacker or autotomised when grabbed. Unlike frogs, an adult salamander is able to regenerate its tail when these are lost.
The skin of salamanders, in common with other amphibians, is thin, permeable to water, serves as a respiratory membrane, is well-supplied with glands. It has cornified outer layers, renewed periodically through a skin shedding process controlled by hormones from the pituitary and thyroid glands. During moulting, the skin breaks around the mouth, the animal moves forwards through the gap to shed the skin; when the front limbs have been worked clear, a series of body ripples pushes the skin towards the rear. The hind limbs are extracted and push the skin farther back, before it is freed by friction as the salamander moves forward with the tail pressed against the ground; the animal then eats the resulting sloughed skin. Glands in the skin discharge mucus which keeps the skin moist, an important factor in skin respiration and thermoregulation; the sticky layer helps protect against bacterial infections and molds, reduces friction when swimming, makes the animal slippery and more difficult for predators to catch.
Granular glands scattered on the upper surface the head and tail, produce repel
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia, was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. From 1948 to 1990, Czechoslovakia was part of the Eastern Bloc with a command economy, its economic status was formalized in membership of Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the Warsaw Pact of May 1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by several other Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over Europe, Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the Velvet Revolution. In 1993, Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign states of Slovakia.
Form of state1918 – 1938: A democratic republic championed by Tomáš Masaryk. 1938 – 1939: After annexation of Sudetenland by Nazi Germany in 1938, the region turned into a state with loosened connections among the Czech and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, the Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland. 1939 – 1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom, United States and their Allies. Czechoslovakia adhered to the Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United Nations. 1946 – 1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union. 1948 – 1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic.
It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. 1969 – 1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic. 1990 – 1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic, reverted to a democratic republic. NeighboursAustria 1918 – 1938, 1945 – 1992 Germany Hungary Poland Romania 1918 – 1938 Soviet Union 1945 – 1991 Ukraine 1991 – 1992 TopographyThe country was of irregular terrain; the western area was part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was composed of the northern reaches of the Carpathian Mountains and lands of the Danube River basin. ClimateThe weather is mild summers. Influenced by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather. 1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia /Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia 1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic, or Czechoslovakia 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, or Czechoslovakia April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, or Československo and Česko-Slovensko.
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, who served as its first president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935, he was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš. The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat, first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had founded in 1889 with Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl. During World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions, fought with the Allies in France and Italy, while large numbers deserted to Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with Slovakia. With Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk visited several Western countries and won support from influential publicists. Bohemia and Moravi
Ondřej Neff is a Czech science fiction writer and journalist. He is the founder of Neviditelný pes, one of the earliest and most popular Czech daily news/comments websites, Digineff, a website about digital photography for amateurs, his father Vladimír Neff was author of many historical novels. Ondřej Neff has supported Czech President Václav Klaus in his fight against environmentalism, he described his opinions, for example, in the article Klaus versus the Warming Ideology Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. 1978 Holky se perou jinak 1980 Klukoviny a tátoviny 1981 Tajná kniha o fotografii 1983 A včely se vyrojily 1987 Večery u krbu 1991 Černobílé hodinky 1997 – 1999 Neviditelný pes 1978 Podivuhodný svět Julese Vernea 1981 Něco je jinak 1985 Tři eseje o české sci-fi 1987 Všechno je jinak 1999 Jak blufovat o sci-fi 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999 Klon 1984 Jádro pudla 1985 Vejce naruby, a collection of short stories, including: Bílá hůl ráže 7,62 – a horror story describes an alien invasion through hijacking a visual signal coming from an interstellar probe captured by the aliens.
The modified signal triggers a process similar to a buffer overflow in a human brain, rewriting the victim's DNA and turning it into a copy of the alien attacker. A similar theme was used independently by David Langford in the short story "BLIT". Zelená je barva naděje – describes an invention of an apparatus used for reading animal's minds and presenting them to humans in image form; the inventor tests the device on his friends' aquarium, causing much distress and anger because the apparatus shows the aquarium fish dreaming about killing and eating the humans, dominating the world. Strom – a vision of a society after a near-miss ecological catastrophe, avoided only thanks to draconian laws of environment protection that put the nature and its preservation well above human life; the characters, last dwellers of a small village, are fighting a losing battle for their homes against a growing forest, as the laws prevent them from harming any tree. 1987 Čtvrtý den až navěky 1988 Měsíc mého života 1989 Pole šťastných náhod 1989 Čarodějův učeň 1990 Zepelín na Měsíci 1991 Vesmír je dost nekonečný 1991 Šídlo v pytli 1992 – 1995 Milénium – three parts: Země ohrožená, Země bojující, Země vítězná 1997 Reparátor 1997 Bůh s. r. o.
1998 Tma 2003 Pravda o pekle 2003 Tma 2.0 2004 Dvorana zvrhlosti 2006 Rock mého života 2007 Tušení podrazu 1988 Arnal a dva dračí zuby 1990 Štěstí, Slavkovská romance, Příhoda na mostě 1992 Silvestrovský speciál 1993 Noc upírů from 1996 comic strip Bart sám doma 1984 Portonský dryák 1985 Počkej, Hektore 1987 Velká solární 1988 Ano, jsem robot 1991 Havárie Drakkaru 1990 Zvíře z hvězd 1996 Válka světů 1988 Michal Strogov aneb Carův kurýr 1991 Honba za meteorem 1986 Cesta kolem světa za 80 dní 1995 20 000 mil pod mořem 1996 Vynález zkázy Comics Pérák. Many fan convention talks, in the 1980s about English-language SF Translation of William Gibson's Neuromancer SF stories in anthologies: Lidé ze souhvězdí Lva, Železo přichází z hvězd, Lety zakázanou rychlostí, Let na Měsíc etc. Overview of his 1990s work in a USENET post about Czech SF
The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen; the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii"; the current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas; when the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lac
Aldous Leonard Huxley was an English writer and philosopher. He authored nearly fifty books—both novels and non-fiction works—as well as wide-ranging essays and poems. Born into the prominent Huxley family, he graduated from Balliol College with an undergraduate degree in English literature. Early in his career, he published short stories and poetry and edited the literary magazine Oxford Poetry, before going on to publish travel writing and screenplays, he spent the latter part of his life in the United States, living in Los Angeles from 1937 until his death. By the end of his life, Huxley was acknowledged as one of the foremost intellectuals of his time, he was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature seven times and was elected Companion of Literature by the Royal Society of Literature in 1962. Huxley was a pacifist, he grew interested in philosophical mysticism and universalism, addressing these subjects with works such as The Perennial Philosophy —which illustrates commonalities between Western and Eastern mysticism—and The Doors of Perception —which interprets his own psychedelic experience with mescaline.
In his most famous novel Brave New World and his final novel Island, he presented his vision of dystopia and utopia, respectively. Huxley was born in Godalming, England, in 1894, he was the third son of the writer and schoolmaster Leonard Huxley, who edited Cornhill Magazine, his first wife, Julia Arnold, who founded Prior's Field School. Julia was the niece of the sister of Mrs. Humphry Ward. Aldous was the grandson of Thomas Henry Huxley, the zoologist and controversialist, his brother Julian Huxley and half-brother Andrew Huxley became outstanding biologists. Aldous had another brother, Noel Trevelyan Huxley, who committed suicide after a period of clinical depression; as a child, Huxley's nickname was "Ogie", short for "Ogre". He was described by his brother, Julian, as someone who " the strangeness of things". According to his cousin and contemporary, Gervas Huxley, he had an early interest in drawing. Huxley's education began in his father's well-equipped botanical laboratory, after which he enrolled at Hillside School near Godalming.
He was taught there by his own mother for several years. After Hillside he went on to Eton College, his mother died in 1908, when he was 14. He contracted the eye disease keratitis punctata in 1911; this "ended his early dreams of becoming a doctor." In October 1913, Huxley entered Balliol College, where he studied English literature. He volunteered for the British Army for the Great War, his eyesight partly recovered. He edited Oxford Poetry in 1916, in June of that year graduated BA with first class honours, his brother Julian wrote: I believe his blindness was a blessing in disguise. For one thing, it put paid to his idea of taking up medicine as a career... His uniqueness lay in his universalism, he was able to take all knowledge for his province. Following his years at Balliol, being financially indebted to his father, decided to find employment, he taught French for a year at Eton College, where Eric Blair and Steven Runciman were among his pupils. He was remembered as being an incompetent schoolmaster unable to keep order in class.
Blair and others spoke of his excellent command of language. Huxley worked for a time during the 1920s at Brunner and Mond, an advanced chemical plant in Billingham in County Durham, northeast England. According to the introduction to the latest edition of his science fiction novel Brave New World, the experience he had there of "an ordered universe in a world of planless incoherence" was an important source for the novel. Huxley completed his first novel at the age of 17 and began writing in his early twenties, establishing himself as a successful writer and social satirist, his first published novels were social satires, Crome Yellow, Antic Hay, Those Barren Leaves, Point Counter Point. Brave New World was his fifth novel and first dystopian work. In the 1920s he was a contributor to Vanity Fair and British Vogue magazines. During the First World War, Huxley spent much of his time at Garsington Manor near Oxford, home of Lady Ottoline Morrell, working as a farm labourer. There he met several Bloomsbury Group figures, including Bertrand Russell, Alfred North Whitehead, Clive Bell.
In Crome Yellow he caricatured the Garsington lifestyle. Jobs were scarce, but in 1919 John Middleton Murry was reorganising the Athenaeum and invited Huxley to join the staff, he accepted and married the Belgian refugee Maria Nys at Garsington. They lived with their young son in Italy part of the time during the 1920s, where Huxley would visit his friend D. H. Lawrence. Following Lawrence's death in 1930, Huxley edited Lawrence's letters. Works of this period included important novels on the dehumanising aspects of scientific progress, most famously Brave New World, on pacifist themes. In Brave New World, set in a dystopian London, Huxley portrays a society operating on the principles of mass production and Pavlovian conditioning. Huxley was influenced by F. Matthias Alexander, included him as a character in Eyeless in Gaza. Beginning in this period, Huxley began to write and edit non-fiction works on pacifist issues, i