First Steps (1947 film)
First Steps is a 1947 short documentary film about the treatment of children with disabilities. Produced for the Department of Social Affairs of the United Nations by Frederic House Inc. the film was distributed by the National Film Board of Canada. First Steps, directed by Leo Seltzer, won the Documentary Short Subject Oscar at the 20th Academy Awards in 1948 for the United Nations Division of Films and Visual Education. In 1947, accidents, crime and other anti-social forces ravage young children crippled by paralysis. Occupational therapy for children takes the form of both work. Specialists set up a training program designed to give the children practice in the handling of toys, hobby materials and utensils; the program proves to be transforming. With care and attention from adults, the children demonstrate how they can become normal citizens, useful to themselves and to society. One of the children from the program is able to show his parents. First, he is can move his legs after a regimen of walking exercises, he stands and takes his first unaided steps, able to walk alone down a crowded city street.
First Steps was filmed in a summer camp in New York State by Frederic House Inc. under the supervision of the United Nations Department of Public Information. The children were under the medical supervision of Dr. H. Purushottam; the occupational therapists introduced different techniques of physiotherapy, taking into account their minds and emotions in addition to their bodies. Adult workers offered not only massage and therapy, but love and understanding, sometimes using music as a catalyst; the techniques highlight the need to take a holistic approach on children with disabilities. First Steps was distributed by the National Film Board of Canada, although the information is considered "dated", the film is still shown on social media with United Nations messages preceding the film; the United Nations Division of Films and Visual Education won the Documentary Short Subject Oscar for First Steps at the 20th Academy Awards in 1948. The Academy Award for First Steps still resides at UN Headquarters in New York.
The Academy Film Archive preserved First Steps in 2005. NFB Web page. First Steps on YouTube
National Film Registry
The National Film Registry is the United States National Film Preservation Board's selection of films deserving of preservation. The NFPB, established by the National Film Preservation Act of 1988, was reauthorized by acts of Congress in 1992, 1996, 2005, again in October 2008; the NFPB's mission, to which the NFR contributes, is to ensure the survival and increased public availability of America's film heritage. The 1996 law created the non-profit National Film Preservation Foundation which, although affiliated with the NFPB, raises money from the private sector; the NFPB adds to the NFR up to 25 "culturally or aesthetically significant films" each year, showcasing the range and diversity of American film heritage to increase awareness for its preservation. A film becomes eligible for inclusion ten years after its original release. For the first selection in 1989, the public nominated 1,000 films for consideration. Members of the NFPB developed individual ballots of possible films for inclusion.
The ballots were tabulated into a list of 25 films, modified by Librarian of Congress James H. Billington and his staff at the Library for the final selection. Since 1997, members of the public have been able to nominate up to 50 films a year for the NFPB and Librarian to consider; the NFR includes films ranging from Hollywood classics to orphan films. A film is not required to be feature-length, nor is it required to have been theatrically released in the traditional sense. In addition, television programs and foreign films are not excluded from consideration, although American films are given preference; the Registry contains newsreels, silent films, student films, experimental films, short films, music videos, films out of copyright protection or in the public domain, film serials, home movies, documentaries and independent films. As of the 2018 listing, there are 750 films in the Registry; the earliest listed film is Newark Athlete, the most recent is Brokeback Mountain. Counting the 11 multi-year serials in the NFR once each by year of completion, the year with the most films selected is 1939, with 19 films from that year chosen.
The time between a film's debut and its selection varies greatly. The longest span is 121 years; the shortest span is the minimum 10 years. This table is through the 2018 induction list. For purposes of this list, multi-year serials are counted only once by year of completion. Category:United States National Film Registry films National Recording Registry These Amazing Shadows, a 2011 documentary film that tells the history and importance of the registry National Film Registry homepage Classic Movie Hub: National Film Registry List These Amazing Shadows site for Independent Lens on PBS
United States Department of Justice
The United States Department of Justice known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U. S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration; the Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, the Drug Enforcement Administration. The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters, running the federal prison system; the department is responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet.
The current Attorney General is William Barr. The office of the Attorney General was established by the Judiciary Act of 1789 as a part-time job for one person, but grew with the bureaucracy. At one time, the Attorney General gave legal advice to the U. S. Congress as well as the President, but in 1819 the Attorney General began advising Congress alone to ensure a manageable workload; until March 3, 1853, the salary of the Attorney General was set by statute at less than the amount paid to other Cabinet members. Early Attorneys General supplemented their salaries by running private law practices arguing cases before the courts as attorneys for paying litigants. Following unsuccessful efforts to make Attorney General a full-time job, in 1869, the U. S. House Committee on the Judiciary, led by Congressman William Lawrence, conducted an inquiry into the creation of a "law department" headed by the Attorney General and composed of the various department solicitors and United States attorneys. On February 19, 1868, Lawrence introduced a bill in Congress to create the Department of Justice.
President Ulysses S. Grant signed the bill into law on June 22, 1870. Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as America's first Solicitor General the same week that Congress created the Department of Justice; the Department's immediate function was to preserve civil rights. It set about fighting against domestic terrorist groups, using both violence and litigation to oppose the 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments to the Constitution. Both Akerman and Bristow used the Department of Justice to vigorously prosecute Ku Klux Klan members in the early 1870s. In the first few years of Grant's first term in office there were 1000 indictments against Klan members with over 550 convictions from the Department of Justice. By 1871, there were 3000 indictments and 600 convictions with most only serving brief sentences while the ringleaders were imprisoned for up to five years in the federal penitentiary in Albany, New York; the result was a dramatic decrease in violence in the South.
Akerman gave credit to Grant and told a friend that no one was "better" or "stronger" than Grant when it came to prosecuting terrorists. George H. Williams, who succeeded Akerman in December 1871, continued to prosecute the Klan throughout 1872 until the spring of 1873 during Grant's second term in office. Williams placed a moratorium on Klan prosecutions because the Justice Department, inundated by cases involving the Klan, did not have the manpower to continue prosecutions; the "Act to Establish the Department of Justice" drastically increased the Attorney General's responsibilities to include the supervision of all United States Attorneys under the Department of the Interior, the prosecution of all federal crimes, the representation of the United States in all court actions, barring the use of private attorneys by the federal government. The law created the office of Solicitor General to supervise and conduct government litigation in the Supreme Court of the United States. With the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act in 1887, the federal government took on some law enforcement responsibilities, the Department of Justice tasked with performing these.
In 1884, control of federal prisons was transferred to the new department, from the Department of Interior. New facilities were built, including the penitentiary at Leavenworth in 1895, a facility for women located in West Virginia, at Alderson was established in 1924. In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order which gave the Department of Justice responsibility for the "functions of prosecuting in the courts of the United States claims and demands by, offsenses against, the Government of the United States, of defending claims and demands against the Government, of supervising the work of United States attorneys and clerks in connection therewith, now exercised by any agency or officer..." The U. S. Department of Justice building was completed in 1935 from a design by Milton Bennett Medary. Upon Medary's death in 1929, the other partners of his Philadelphia firm Zantzinger and Medary took over the project. On a lot bordered by Constitution and Pennsylvania Avenues and Ninth and Tenth Streets, Northwest, it holds over 1,000,000 square feet of space.
The sculptor C. Paul Jennewein served as overall design consultant for the entire building, contributing more than 50 separate sculptural elements inside and outside. Various efforts, none successful, have been made to determine the original intended meaning of the Latin motto appearing on the Department of Justice s
Glass (1958 film)
Glass is a 1958 Dutch short documentary film by director and producer Bert Haanstra. The film won the Oscar for Documentary Short Subject in 1959; the film is about the glass industry in the Netherlands. It contrasts the handmade crystal from the Royal Leerdam Glass Factory with automated bottle making machines. Short segments of artisans making various glass goods by hand are joined with those of mass production, it is acclaimed to be the perfect short documentary. Glas on IMDb Glas on Aeon
Why Man Creates
Why Man Creates is a 1968 animated short documentary film that discusses the nature of creativity. It was written by Saul Bass and Mayo Simon, directed by Saul Bass, it won the Academy Award for Documentary Short Subject. An abbreviated version of it ran on the first broadcast of CBS' 60 Minutes on September 24, 1968. Why Man Creates focuses on the creative process and the different approaches taken to that process, it is divided into eight sections: The Edifice, Fooling Around, The Process, Judgment, A Parable, The Search, The Mark. In 2002, this film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant." The Edifice begins with early humans hunting. They attempt to conquer their prey with stones, but fail, so they begin to use spears and bait, they kill their prey and it turns into a cave painting, upon which a building begins to be built. Throughout the rest of the section, the camera tracks upward as the edifice grows taller.
Early cavemen begin to discover various things such as the lever, the wheel, ladders and fire. It cuts to clips of early societies and civilizations, it depicts the advent of organized labor. It cuts to the Great Pyramids at Giza and depicts the creation of writing. Soon an army begins to move across the screen chanting, "Bronze", but they are overrun by an army chanting, "Iron"; the screen depicts early cities and civilizations. This is followed by a black screen with one man in traditional Greek clothing who states, "All was in chaos'til Euclid arose and made order." Next, various Greek achievements in mathematics are depicted as Greek columns are built, around which Greeks discuss items, including, "What is the good life and how do you lead it?" "Who shall rule the state?" "The Philosopher King." "The aristocrat." "The people." "You mean all the people?" "What is the nature of the Good? What is the nature of justice?" "What is happiness?" A man in a bird costume attempts to fly, a possible reference to Icarus.
The culture of ancient Greece fades into the armies of Rome. The organized armies surround the great Roman architecture as they chant, "Hail Caesar!" A man at a podium states, "Roman law is now in session", when he bangs his gavel, the architecture collapses. Dark soldiers begin to pop up from the rubble and cover the whole screen with darkness symbolizing the Dark Ages; the Dark Ages consist of inaudible mumblings. At one point, a light clicks on and an Arab mathematician says, "Allah be praised. I've invented the zero." At which point his colleague responds, "What?" and he says "Nothing, nothing." Next come cloistered monks who sing in Gregorian Chant: "What is the shape of the Earth? Flat. What happens when you get to the edge? You fall off. Does the earth move? Never." The scene brightens and shows a stained glass window. Various scientists open stained glass doors and say things such as, "The Earth moves." "The Earth is round." "The blood circulates." "There are worlds smaller than ours." "There are worlds larger than ours."
Each time one opens a door, a large, hairy arm slams. The stained glass breaks in the wake of the new enlightenment. Next, Michelangelo and da Vinci are depicted; the steam engine is invented, gears and belts begin to cover everything. The light bulb and steam locomotive are created. Darwin is referred to as two men hit each other with their canes arguing; the telegraph is invented and psychology created. Next, a small creature hops across the screen saying, "I'm a bug, I'm a germ, I'm a bug, I'm a germ... Louis Pasteur. I'm not a bug, I'm not a germ..." The musicians Tchaikovsky and Beethoven are depicted. Alfred Nobel invents dynamite. Next, the cartooning shows the great speeches and documents on government and society from the American Revolution onward with quotes such as, "All men are created equal...", "Life and the pursuit of happiness", "And the government, by the people...", etc. and ends with "One world." The building stops and the Wright brothers' plane lands on top of it. It is covered in more advanced planes, in cars, in televisions, in early computers.
At the top is a radioactive atom which envelops a man in smoke. The edifice ends with that man yelling, "Help." Fooling Around displays a random series of the creative ideas which come from them. The Process displays a man, making artwork from a series of geometrical figures; each time he attempts to keep them in place, they move and rearrange themselves, or collapses altogether on the man. He tries many different approaches to the problem. In between. There are three quotations from Thomas Edison, Ernest Hemingway, Albert Einstein on what one has to do to solve problems, he accepts a working configuration and calls his wife to look at it. She says, "All it needs is an American flag." Judgment is a series of reactions to the creation from The Process. It displays their criticisms of it, such as "It represents the decline of Western culture...", only a few support it. A cowboy is the human target. A lady voices a sound of approval. A Parable begins at a ping-pong ball factory; each ball is made in the same way, machines test them to get rid of anomalies.
As the balls are being tested for their bounce levels, one bounces much higher than the rest. It is placed in a chute, it proceeds to bounce across town to a park. A cluster of ping-pong balls gather around it, it keeps bouncing higher and higher, until it doesn't come back
United States Attorney General
The United States Attorney General is the chief lawyer of the federal government of the United States, head of the United States Department of Justice per 28 U. S. C. § 503, oversees all governmental legal affairs. Under the Appointments Clause of the United States Constitution, the officeholder is nominated by the President of the United States and appointed with the advice and consent of the United States Senate; the U. S. Constitution provides that civil officers of the United States, which would include the U. S. Attorney General, may be impeached by Congress for treason, bribery or high crimes and misdemeanors; the United States Attorney General may be removed at will by the President of the United States under the Supreme Court decision Myers v. United States, which found that executive branch officials may be removed without the consent of any entity. In cases of the federal death penalty, the power to seek the death penalty rests with the U. S. Attorney General; the current Attorney General is William Barr.
Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789 which, among other things, established the Office of the Attorney General. The original duties of this officer were "to prosecute and conduct all suits in the Supreme Court in which the United States shall be concerned, to give his advice and opinion upon questions of law when required by the President of the United States, or when requested by the heads of any of the departments"; the Department of Justice was established in 1870 to support the Attorney General in the discharge of their responsibilities. The Attorney General, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense are regarded as the four most important Cabinet officials in the United States because of the significance and age of their respective departments, it is the practice for the Attorney General, along with many other public officials, to give resignation with effect on the Inauguration Day of a new President. The Deputy Attorney General, required to tender their resignation, is requested to stay on and act as Attorney General pending the confirmation by the Senate of the new Attorney General.
For example, on the inauguration of President Donald Trump on January 20, 2017, the tenure of the Attorney General Loretta Lynch was brought to an end, the Deputy Attorney General Sally Yates, who had tendered her resignation, was asked to stay on and be Acting Attorney General until the confirmation of the new Attorney General Jeff Sessions, nominated for the office in November 2016 by then-President-elect Donald Trump. Parties Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Status As of April 2019, there are ten, living former US Attorneys General, the oldest being Ramsey Clark; the most recent Attorney General to die was Janet Reno on November 7, 2016. William Barr, who served from 1991-1993, returned to the post and is serving, excluding him from this list. U. S. C. Title 28, §508 establishes the first two positions in the line of succession, while allowing the Attorney General to designate other high-ranking officers of the Department of Justice as subsequent successors. Furthermore, an Executive Order defines subsequent positions, the most recent from March 31, 2017, signed by President Donald Trump.
The current line of succession is: United States Deputy Attorney General United States Associate Attorney General Other Officers designated by the Attorney General: Solicitor General of the United States Assistant Attorney General, Antitrust Division Assistant Attorney General, Civil Division Assistant Attorney General, Civil Rights Division Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division Assistant Attorney General, National Security Division Assistant Attorney General and Natural Resources Division Assistant Attorney General, Justice Management Division Assistant Attorney General, Tax Division Assistant Attorney General, Office of Justice Programs Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal Counsel Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal Policy Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legislative Affairs United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia United States Attorney for the Eastern District of North Carolina United States Attorney for the Northern District of Texas United States Deputy Attorney General United States Associate Attorney General United States Assistant Attorney General United States Solicitor General List of living former members of the United States Cabinet Executive Order 13787 for "Providing an Order of Succession Within the Department of Justice" Official website
If You Love This Planet
If You Love This Planet is a 1982 short documentary film recording a lecture given to SUNY Plattsburgh students by physician and anti-nuclear activist Dr. Helen Caldicott about the dangers posed by nuclear weapons; the movie was directed by Terre Nash and produced by Edward Le Lorrain for Studio D, the women's studio of the National Film Board of Canada. Studio D head Kathleen Shannon was executive producer. Released during the term of the Reagan administration and at the height of Cold War nuclear tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union, If You Love This Planet was designated as "foreign political propaganda" by the U. S. Department of Justice and suppressed in the United States; the subsequent uproar over that action gave the film a publicity boost. CBC refused to air the film, claiming it was biased, it appears that the first cinema showing of the film in Britain did not occur until April 2008, when it was screened by the London Socialist Film Co-op. The film goes into depth describing in easy-to-understand language the scientific and medical consequences of ozone depletion, the greenhouse effect, toxic chemical pollution, species extinction, food contamination, nuclear waste, the constant threat of nuclear warfare.
A physician by training, Caldicott prescribes a cause for hope. She suggests we organize politically, learn energy efficiency, make corporations and governments accountable for what they do, she argues our love for the Earth itself should be our greatest strength in our fight for the planet. The film inspired Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau’s World Peace Tour to reduce nuclear arms; the film was loved and reviewed by newspapers such as the Los Angeles Times, East Bay Express, the Seattle Times. The film received praise from activist/filmmaker Naomi Klein, actress Meryl Streep has said that “Helen Caldicott has been my inspiration to speak out.” Nuclear Age and the Cold War, Social Issues, Sciences and Illness. Helen Caldicott, M. D. wrote a book of the same name, If You Love This Planet: A Plan to Heal the Earth. A new edition of this book was published by W. W. Norton in September 2009. Dr. Caldicott hosted. From July 2008 to November 2012, it ran to 216 editions; the program was first aired by Pacifica Radio station KPFT-FM in Houston and played weekly on dozens of U.
S. Canadian, Australian stations. Episodes are archived at radio4all.net. The series focused on the threats to human survival posed by nuclear weapons, nuclear power, global warming, pollution and other public health issues. Eight Minutes to Midnight: A Portrait of Dr. Helen Caldicott, a 1981 feature-length documentary film If You Love This Planet on IMDb Watch If You Love this Planet at NFB.ca If You Love This Planet at AllMovie If You Love This Planet Radio Program Full film at Documentary.net