International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association in the late 19th century as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language; the IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign language students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators and translators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of oral language: phones, phonemes and the separation of words and syllables. To represent additional qualities of speech, such as tooth gnashing and sounds made with a cleft lip and cleft palate, an extended set of symbols, the extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet, may be used. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two basic types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a single letter, or with a letter plus diacritics, depending on how precise one wishes to be.
Slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription. Letters or diacritics are added, removed or modified by the International Phonetic Association; as of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters, 52 diacritics and four prosodic marks in the IPA. These are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA. In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, formed what would come to be known from 1897 onwards as the International Phonetic Association, their original alphabet was based on a spelling reform for English known as the Romic alphabet, but in order to make it usable for other languages, the values of the symbols were allowed to vary from language to language. For example, the sound was represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, thus providing the base for all future revisions.
The idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, Passy. Since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After revisions and expansions from the 1890s to the 1940s, the IPA remained unchanged until the Kiel Convention in 1989. A minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives; the alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap. Apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted of renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces. Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990 and adopted by the International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association in 1994; the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex.
This means that: It does not use combinations of letters to represent single sounds, the way English does with ⟨sh⟩, ⟨th⟩ and ⟨ng⟩, or single letters to represent multiple sounds the way ⟨x⟩ represents /ks/ or /ɡz/ in English. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do "hard" and "soft" ⟨c⟩ or ⟨g⟩ in several European languages; the IPA does not have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as "selectiveness". Among the symbols of the IPA, 107 letters represent consonants and vowels, 31 diacritics are used to modify these, 19 additional signs indicate suprasegmental qualities such as length, tone and intonation; these are organized into a chart. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet. For this reason, most letters modifications thereof; some letters are neither: for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a dotless question mark, derives from an apostrophe.
A few letters, such as that of the voiced pharyngeal fricative, ⟨ʕ⟩, were inspired by other writing systems. Despite its preference for harmonizing with the Latin script, the International Phonetic Association has admitted other letters. For example, before 1989, the IPA letters for click consonants were ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ʇ⟩, ⟨ʗ⟩, ⟨ʖ⟩, all of which were derived either from existing IPA letters, or from Latin and Greek letters. However, except for ⟨ʘ⟩, none of these letters were used among Khoisanists or Bantuists, as a result they were replaced by the more widespread symbols ⟨ʘ⟩, ⟨ǀ⟩, ⟨ǃ⟩, ⟨ǂ⟩, ⟨ǁ⟩ at the IPA Kiel Convention in 1989. Although the IPA diacritics are featural, there is little systemicity in the letter forms. A retroflex articulation is indicated with a right-swinging tail, as in ⟨ɖ ʂ ɳ⟩, implosion by a top hook, ⟨ɓ ɗ ɠ⟩, but other pseudo-featural elements are due to haphazard derivation and coincidence. For example, all nasal consonants but uvular ⟨ɴ⟩ are based on the form ⟨n⟩: ⟨m ɱ n ɳ ɲ ŋ⟩.
However, the similarity between ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ is a historical accident. Some of the new letters were ordinary Latin letters tu
The đồng has been the currency of Vietnam since May 3, 1978. Issued by the State Bank of Vietnam, it is represented by the symbol "₫", it was subdivided into 10 hào, which were further subdivided into 10 xu, neither of which are now used. Since 2012 the use of coins has decreased and since 2014 coins are not accepted in retail, but will still be accepted in some, but not all, banks; the word đồng is from a loanword from the Chinese tóng qián. The term refers to Chinese bronze coins used as currency during the dynastic periods of China and Vietnam; the term hào is a loanword from the Chinese háo, meaning a tenth of a currency unit. The term xu comes from French sous meaning "penny"; the sign is encoded U+20AB ₫ DONG SIGN. In 1946, the Viet Minh government introduced its own currency, the đồng, to replace the French Indochinese piastre at par. Two revaluations followed, in 1951 and 1958. Notes dually denominated in piastres and đồng were issued in 1953 for the State of Vietnam, which evolved into South Vietnam in 1954.
On September 22, 1975, after the fall of Saigon, the currency in South Vietnam was changed to a "liberation đồng" worth 500 old Southern đồng. After Vietnam was reunified, the đồng was unified, on May 3, 1978. One new đồng equalled one Northern đồng or 0.8 Southern "liberation" đồng. On September 14, 1985, the đồng was revalued, with the new đồng worth 10 old đồng; this started a cycle of chronic inflation. For earlier modern Vietnamese coins, please see North Vietnamese đồng or South Vietnamese đồng. In 1978, aluminium coins, were introduced in denominations of 1, 2, 5 hào and 1 đồng; the coins were minted by the Berlin mint in the German Democratic Republic and bear the state crest on the obverse and denomination on the reverse. Due to chronic inflation, these coins lost all their relevant value and no coins circulated for many years after this series. Commemorative coins in copper, copper-nickel and gold have been issued since 1986, but none of these have been used in circulation; the State Bank of Vietnam resumed issuing coins on December 17, 2003.
The new coins, minted by the Mint of Finland, were in denominations of 200, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 5,000 đồng in either nickel-clad steel or brass-clad steel. Prior to its reintroduction, Vietnamese consumers had to exchange banknotes for tokens with a clerk before purchasing goods from vending machines; this was to help the state ease the cost of producing large quantities of small denomination banknotes which tended to wear hard after every transaction. Many residents expressed excitement at seeing coins reappear after many years, as well as concern for the limited usefulness of the 200 đồng coins due to ongoing inflationary pressures. There had been rumors of children mistaking coins for candies, some vendors believing them to be fakes, since coins had long been absent from use in Vietnam, but these reports have been difficult to verify. Since the launch of the 2003 coin series, the State Bank has had some difficulties with making the acceptance of coins universal despite the partial discontinuation of smaller notes, to the point of some banks refusing coin cash deposits or the cashing in of large numbers of coins.
This has prompted laws requiring private and municipal banks to transact and offer services for coins and the full discontinuation of small denomination and cotton based notes. In 1978, the State Bank of Vietnam introduced notes in denominations of 5 hào, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 đồng dated 1976. In 1980, 2 and 10 đồng notes were added, followed by 30 and 100 đồng notes in 1981; these notes were discontinued in 1985 as they lost value due to inflation and economic instability. In 1985, notes were introduced in denominations of 5 hào, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 500 đồng; as inflation became endemic, these first banknotes were followed by 200, 1,000, 2,000, 5,000 đồng notes in 1987, by 10,000 and 50,000 đồng notes in 1990, by a 20,000 đồng note in 1991, a 100,000 đồng note in 1994, a 500,000 đồng note in 2003, a 200,000 đồng note in 2006. Banknotes with denominations of 5,000 đồng and under have been discontinued from production, but as of 2015 are still in wide circulation. Five banknote series have appeared.
Except for the current series, dated 2003, all were confusing to the user, lacking unified themes and coordination in their designs. The first table below shows the latest banknotes, of 100 đồng or higher, prior to the current series. On June 7, 2007, the government ordered cessation of the issuance of the cotton 50,000 and 100,000₫ notes, they were taken out of circulation by September 1, 2007. State Bank of Vietnam 10,000 and 20,000₫ cotton notes are no longer in circulation as of January 1, 2013. In 2003 Vietnam began replacing its cotton banknotes with plastic polymer banknotes, claiming that this would reduce the cost of printing. Many newspapers in the country criticized these changes, citing mistakes in printing and alleging that the son of the governor of the State Bank of Vietnam benefited from printing contracts; the government clamped down on these criticisms by banning two newspapers from publishing for a month and considering other sanctions against other newspapers. Though the 2003 series banknotes listed in the table below have now replaced the old notes of the same denominations, as of 2019 the cotton fiber banknotes of 200, 500, 1000, 2000 and 5,000 đồng still remain in wide circulation and are universally accepted.
Eth is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic and Elfdalian. It was used in Scandinavia during the Middle Ages but was subsequently replaced with dh and d, it is transliterated as d. The lowercase version has been adopted to represent a voiced dental fricative in the International Phonetic Alphabet. In Old English, ð was used interchangeably with þ to represent the Old English dental fricative phoneme /θ/, which exists in modern English phonology as the voiced and voiceless dental fricatives now spelled "th". Unlike the runic letter þ, ð is a modified Roman letter. Ð was not found in the earliest records of Old English. A study of Mercian royal diplomas found that ð began to emerge in the early 8th century, with ð becoming preferred by the 780s. Another source indicates that the letter is "derived from Irish writing"; the lowercase version has retained the curved shape of a medieval scribe's d, which d itself in general has not. Ð was used throughout the Anglo-Saxon era but fell out of use in Middle English disappearing altogether by 1300.
In Icelandic, ð represents a voiced dental fricative, the same as the th in English that, but it never appears as the first letter of a word, where þ is used in its stead. The name of the letter is pronounced in isolation as and therefore with a voiceless rather than voiced fricative. In Faroese, ð is not assigned to any particular phoneme and appears for etymological reasons. In the Icelandic and Faroese alphabets, ð follows d. In Olav Jakobsen Høyem's version of Nynorsk based on Trøndersk, ð was always silent and was introduced for etymological reasons. Ð has been used by some in written Welsh to represent /ð/, represented as dd. U+1D9E ᶞ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL ETH is used in phonetic transcription. U+1D06 ᴆ LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL ETH is used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet; the letter ð is sometimes used in mathematics and engineering textbooks as a symbol for a spin-weighted partial derivative. This operator gives rise to spin-weighted spherical harmonics. A capital eth is used as the currency symbol for Dogecoin.
Thorn D with stroke African D Insular script Ladefoged, Peter. The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19814-8. Pétursson, Magnus, "Étude de la réalisation des consonnes islandaises þ, ð, s, dans la prononciation d'un sujet islandais à partir de la radiocinématographie", Phonetica, 33: 203–216, doi:10.1159/000259344 "Thorn and eth: how to get them right", Briem "Älvdalsk ortografi", Förslag till en enhetlig stavning för älvdalska, February 2007, Archived from the original on February 6, 2007CS1 maint: Unfit url
An alphabet is a standard set of letters that represent the phonemes of any spoken language it is used to write. This is in contrast to other types such as syllabaries and logographic systems; the first phonemic script, the Proto-Canaanite script known as the Phoenician alphabet, is considered to be the first alphabet, is the ancestor of most modern alphabets, including Arabic, Latin, Cyrillic and Brahmic. Peter T. Daniels, distinguishes an abugida or alphasyllabary, a set of graphemes that represent consonantal base letters which diacritics modify to represent vowels, an abjad, in which letters predominantly or represent consonants, an "alphabet", a set of graphemes that represent both vowels and consonants. In this narrow sense of the word the first "true" alphabet was the Greek alphabet, developed on the basis of the earlier Phoenician alphabet. Of the dozens of alphabets in use today, the most popular is the Latin alphabet, derived from the Greek, which many languages modify by adding letters formed using diacritical marks.
While most alphabets have letters composed of lines, there are exceptions such as the alphabets used in Braille. The Khmer alphabet is the longest, with 74 letters. Alphabets are associated with a standard ordering of letters; this makes them useful for purposes of collation by allowing words to be sorted in alphabetical order. It means that their letters can be used as an alternative method of "numbering" ordered items, in such contexts as numbered lists and number placements; the English word alphabet came into Middle English from the Late Latin word alphabetum, which in turn originated in the Greek ἀλφάβητος. The Greek word was made from the first two letters and beta; the names for the Greek letters came from the first two letters of the Phoenician alphabet. Sometimes, like in the alphabet song in English, the term "ABCs" is used instead of the word "alphabet". "Knowing one's ABCs", in general, can be used as a metaphor for knowing the basics about anything. The history of the alphabet started in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian writing had a set of some 24 hieroglyphs that are called uniliterals, to represent syllables that begin with a single consonant of their language, plus a vowel to be supplied by the native speaker. These glyphs were used as pronunciation guides for logograms, to write grammatical inflections, to transcribe loan words and foreign names. In the Middle Bronze Age, an "alphabetic" system known as the Proto-Sinaitic script appears in Egyptian turquoise mines in the Sinai peninsula dated to circa the 15th century BC left by Canaanite workers. In 1999, John and Deborah Darnell discovered an earlier version of this first alphabet at Wadi el-Hol dated to circa 1800 BC and showing evidence of having been adapted from specific forms of Egyptian hieroglyphs that could be dated to circa 2000 BC suggesting that the first alphabet had been developed about that time. Based on letter appearances and names, it is believed to be based on Egyptian hieroglyphs; this script had no characters representing vowels, although it was a syllabary, but unneeded symbols were discarded.
An alphabetic cuneiform script with 30 signs including three that indicate the following vowel was invented in Ugarit before the 15th century BC. This script was not used after the destruction of Ugarit; the Proto-Sinaitic script developed into the Phoenician alphabet, conventionally called "Proto-Canaanite" before ca. 1050 BC. The oldest text in Phoenician script is an inscription on the sarcophagus of King Ahiram; this script is the parent script of all western alphabets. By the tenth century, two other forms can be distinguished, namely Aramaic; the Aramaic gave rise to the Hebrew script. The South Arabian alphabet, a sister script to the Phoenician alphabet, is the script from which the Ge'ez alphabet is descended. Vowelless alphabets, which are not true alphabets, are called abjads exemplified in scripts including Arabic and Syriac; the omission of vowels was not always a satisfactory solution and some "weak" consonants are sometimes used to indicate the vowel quality of a syllable. These letters have a dual function since they are used as pure consonants.
The Proto-Sinaitic or Proto-Canaanite script and the Ugaritic script were the first scripts with a limited number of signs, in contrast to the other used writing systems at the time, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Linear B. The Phoenician script was the first phonemic script and it contained only about two dozen distinct letters, making it a script simple enough for common traders to learn. Another advantage of Phoenician was that it could be used to write down many different languages, since it recorded words phonemically; the script was spread by the Phoenicians across the Mediterranean. In Greece, the script was modified to add vowels, giving rise to the ancestor of all alphabets in the West; the vowels have independent letter forms separate from those of consonants. The Greeks chose letters representing sounds. Vowels are significant in the Greek language, the syllabical Linear B scri
Old Italic script
Old Italic is one of several now-extinct alphabet systems used on the Italian Peninsula in ancient times for various Indo-European languages and non-Indo-European languages. The alphabets derive from the Euboean Greek Cumaean alphabet, used at Ischia and Cumae in the Bay of Naples in the eighth century BC. Various Indo-European languages belonging to the Italic branch used the alphabet. Faliscan, Umbrian, North Picene, South Picene all derive from an Etruscan form of the alphabet; the Germanic runic alphabet may have been derived from one of these alphabets by the 2nd century AD. The Etruscan alphabet originated as an adaptation of the Western Greek alphabet used by the Euboean Greeks in their first colonies in Italy, the island of Pithekoussai and the city of Cumae in Campania. In the alphabets of the West, X had the sound value, Ψ stood for; the earliest Etruscan abecedarium, the Marsiliana tablet which dates to c. 700 BC, lists 26 letters corresponding to contemporary forms of the Greek alphabet which retained digamma and qoppa but which had not yet developed omega.
Until about 600 BC, the archaic form of the Etruscan alphabet remained unchanged, the direction of writing was free. From the 6th century, the alphabet evolved, adjusting to the phonology of the Etruscan language, letters representing phonemes nonexistent in Etruscan were dropped. By 400 BC, it appears that all of Etruria was using the classical Etruscan alphabet of 20 letters written from left to right: An additional sign, in shape similar to the numeral 8, transcribed as F, was present in both Lydian and Etruscan, its origin is disputed. Its sound value was /f/ and it replaced the Etruscan digraph FH, used to express that sound; some letters were, on the other hand, falling out of use. Etruscan did not have any voiced stops, for which B, C, D were intended; the B and D therefore fell out of use, the C, simpler and easier to write than K, was adopted to write /k/ displacing K itself. Since Etruscan had no /o/ vowel sound, O disappeared and was replaced by U. In the course of its simplification, the redundant letters showed some tendency towards a semi-syllabary: C, K and Q were predominantly used in the contexts CE, KA, QU.
This classical alphabet remained in use until the 2nd century BC when it began to be influenced by the rise of the Latin alphabet. The Romans, who did have voiced stops in their language, revived B and D for /b/ and /d/, used C for both /k/ and /g/, until they invented a separate letter G to distinguish the two sounds. Soon after, the Etruscan language itself became extinct; the Osci adopted the archaic Etruscan alphabet during the 7th century BC, but a recognizably Oscan variant of the alphabet is attested only from the 5th century BC. Ú came to be used to represent Oscan /o/, while U was used for /u/ as well as historical long */oː/, which had undergone a sound shift in Oscan to become ~. The Nucerian alphabet is based on inscriptions found in southern Italy, it is attested only between the 6th and the 5th century BC. The most important sign is the /S/, shaped like a fir tree, a derivation from the Phoenician alphabet; the Alphabet of Lugano, based on inscriptions found in northern Italy and Canton Ticino, was used to record Lepontic inscriptions, among the oldest testimonies of any Celtic language, in use from the 7th to the 5th centuries BC.
The alphabet has 18 letters, derived from the archaic Etruscan alphabet: The alphabet does not distinguish voiced and unvoiced occlusives, i.e. P represents /b/ or /p/, T is for /t/ or /d/, K for /g/ or /k/. Z is for /ts/. U /u/ and V /w/ are distinguished. Θ is for /t/ and X for /g/. There are claims of a related script discovered in Glozel; the alphabet of Sanzeno, about 100 Raetic inscriptions. The alphabet of Magrè, east Raetian inscriptions. Alphabet of Este: Similar but not identical to that of Magrè, Venetic inscriptions. Inscribed abecedarium on rock drawings in Valcamonica. 21 of the 26 archaic Etruscan letters were adopted for Old Latin from the 7th century BC, either directly from the Cumae alphabet, or via archaic Etruscan forms, compared to the classical Etruscan alphabet retaining B, D, K, O, Q, X but dropping Θ, Ś, Φ, Ψ, F. The South Picene alphabet, known from the 6th century BC, is most like the southern Etruscan alphabet in that it uses Q for /k/ and K for /g/, it is: ⟨.⟩ is a reduced ⟨o⟩ and ⟨:⟩ is a reduced ⟨8⟩, used for /f/.
The Old Italic alphabets were unified and added to the Unicode Standard in March, 2001 with the release of version 3.1. The Unicode block for Old Italic is U+10300–U+1032F without specification of a particular alphabet. Writing direction varies based on the language and the time period. For simplicity most scholars use left-to-right and this is the Unicode default direction for the Old Italic block. For this reason, the glyphs in the code chart are shown with left-to-right orientation. Euboean alphabet Negau he
Delta is the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 4, it was derived from the Phoenician letter dalet, Letters that come from delta include Latin D and Cyrillic Д. A river delta is so named. Despite a popular legend, this use of the word delta was not coined by Herodotus. In Ancient Greek, delta represented a voiced dental plosive /d/. In Modern Greek, it represents a voiced dental fricative /ð/, like the "th" in "that" or "this", it is romanized as dh. The uppercase letter Δ can be used to denote: Change of any changeable quantity, in mathematics and the sciences. Delta is the initial letter of the Greek word διαφορά diaphorá, "difference"; the Laplace operator: Δ f = ∑ i = 1 n ∂ 2 f ∂ x i 2 The discriminant of a polynomial equation the quadratic equation: Δ = b 2 − 4 a c The area of a triangle Δ = 1 2 a b sin C The symmetric difference of two sets A macroscopic change in the value of a variable in mathematics or science Uncertainty in a physical variable as seen in the uncertainty principle An interval of possible values for a given quantity Any of the delta particles in particle physics The determinant of the matrix of coefficients of a set of linear equations That an associated locant number represents the location of a covalent bond in an organic compound, the position of, variant between isomeric forms A simplex, simplicial complex, or convex hull In chemistry, the addition of heat in a reaction In legal shorthand, it represents a defendant In the financial markets, one of the Greeks, describing the rate of change of an option price for a given change in the underlying benchmark A major seventh chord in jazz music notation In genetics, it can stand for a gene deletion The American Dental Association cites it as the symbol of dentistry.
The anonymous signature of James David Forbes. Determinacy in philosophical logic; the lowercase letter δ can be used to denote: A change in the value of a variable in calculus A Functional derivative in Functional calculus An auxiliary function in calculus, used to rigorously define the limit or continuity of a given function The Kronecker delta in mathematics The degree of a vertex The Dirac delta function in mathematics The transition function in automata Deflection in engineering mechanics The force of interest in actuarial science The chemical shift of nuclear magnetic resonance in chemistry The relative electronegativity of different atoms in a molecule, δ− being more electronegative than δ+ Text requiring deletion in proofreading. In some of the manuscripts written by Dr. John Dee, the character of delta is used to represent Dee. A subunit of the F1 sector of the F-ATPase The declination of an object in the equatorial coordinate system of astronomy The dividend yield in the Black–Scholes option pricing formula Ratios of environmental isotopes, such as 18O/16O and D/1H from water are displayed using delta notation – δ18O and δD The rate of depreciation of the aggregate capital stock of an economy in an exogenous growth model in macroeconomics In a system that exhibits electrical reactance, the angle between voltage and current Partial charge in chemistry The maximum birrefringence of a crystal in optical mineralogy Greek Delta / Coptic DaldaLatin DeltaTechnical and Mathematical symbolsMathematical DeltaThese characters are used only as mathematical symbols.
Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style. ∆ D, d Д, д ẟ - Latin delta ∂ - the partial derivative symbol, sometimes mistaken for a lowercase Greek letter Delta. Ð - the small eth appears similar to a small delta, represents a d sound in some contexts Th Greek letters used in mathematics and engineering ∇ - Nabla symbol
The Cherokee syllabary is a syllabary invented by Sequoyah to write the Cherokee language in the late 1810s and early 1820s. His creation of the syllabary is noteworthy as he could not read any script, he first experimented with logograms, but his system developed into a syllabary. In his system, each symbol represents a syllable rather than a single phoneme. Although some symbols resemble Latin and Cyrillic letters, the relationship between symbols and sounds is different; each of the characters represents one syllable, as in the Japanese kana and the Bronze Age Greek Linear B writing systems. The first six characters represent isolated vowel syllables. Characters for combined consonant and vowel syllables follow; the charts below show the syllabary in recitation order, left to right, top to bottom as arranged by Samuel Worcester, along with his used transliterations. He played a key role in the development of Cherokee printing from 1828 until his death in 1859; the Latin letter'v' in the transcriptions, seen in the last column, represents a nasal vowel, /ə̃/.
The Cherokee character Ꮩ do has a different orientation in old documents, resembling a Greek Λ rather than a Latin V as in modern documents. Note that the 86th character is obsolete. There is a handwritten cursive form of the syllabary; the phonetic values of these characters do not equate directly to those represented by the letters of the Latin script. Some characters represent two distinct phonetic values, while others may represent multiple variations of the same syllable. Not all phonemic distinctions of the spoken language are represented. For example, while /d/ + vowel syllables are differentiated from /t/ + vowel by use of different graphs, syllables beginning with /ɡ/ are all conflated with those beginning with /k/, so that in most cases, /k/ is written with a glyph in the g row. Long vowels are not ordinarily distinguished from short vowels, tones are not marked, there is no regular rule for representing consonant clusters. However, in more recent technical literature, length of vowels can be indicated using a colon.
Six distinctive vowel qualities are represented in the Cherokee syllabary based on where they are pronounced in the mouth, including the high vowels i and u, mid vowels e, v, o, low vowel a. The syllabary does not distinguish among syllables that end in vowels, h, or glottal stop. For example, the single symbol, Ꮡ, is used to represent su in su: dali; this same symbol Ꮡ represents suh as in suhdi, meaning'fishhook'. Therefore, there is no differentiation among the symbols used for syllables ending in a single vowel versus that vowel plus "h." When consonants other than s, h, or glottal stop arise with other consonants in clusters, the appropriate consonant plus a "dummy vowel" is used. This dummy vowel is either chosen arbitrarily or for etymological reasons. For example, ᏧᎾᏍᏗ represents the word ju:nsdi, meaning'small.' Ns in this case is the consonant cluster that requires the following dummy vowel, a. Ns is written as ᎾᏍ /nas/; the vowel is included in the transliteration, but is not pronounced in the word..
Adult speakers can distinguish words by context. If a labial consonant such as p or b appears in a borrowed word or name, it is written using the qu row; this /kw/ ~ /p/ correspondence is a known linguistic phenomenon that exists elsewhere. Some Cherokee words pose a problem for transliteration software because they contain adjacent pairs of single letter symbols that would be combined when doing the back-conversion from Latin script to Cherokee. Here are a few examples: ᎢᏣᎵᏍᎠᏁᏗ = itsalisanedi = i-tsa-li-s-a-ne-di ᎤᎵᎩᏳᏍᎠᏅᏁ = uligiyusanvne = u-li-gi-yu-s-a-nv-ne ᎤᏂᏰᏍᎢᏱ = uniyesiyi = u-ni-ye-s-i-yi ᎾᏍᎢᏯ = nasiya = na-s-i-yaFor these examples, the back conversion is to join s-a as sa or s-i as si. One solution is to use an apostrophe to separate the two: itsalis ` anedi. Other Cherokee words contain character pairs. Examples: ᏀᎾ transliterates as nahna, yet so does ᎾᎿ; the former is nah-na, the latter is na-hna. If the Latin script is parsed from left to right, longest match first without special provisions, the back conversion would be wrong for the latter.
There are several similar examples involving these character combinations: naha nahe nahi naho nahu nahv. A further problem encountered in transliterating Cherokee is that there are some pairs of different Cherokee words that transliterate to the same word in the Latin script. Here are some examples: ᎠᏍᎡᏃ and ᎠᏎᏃ both transliterate to aseno ᎨᏍᎥᎢ and ᎨᏒᎢ both transliterate to gesviWithout special provision, a round trip conversion may change ᎠᏍᎡᏃ to ᎠᏎᏃ and change ᎨᏍᎥᎢ to ᎨᏒᎢ; the usual alphabetical order for Cherokee runs across the rows of the syllabary chart from left to right, top to bottom—this is the one used in the Unicode block: Ꭰ, Ꭱ, Ꭲ, Ꭳ, Ꭴ, Ꭵ, Ꭶ, Ꭷ, Ꭸ, Ꭹ, Ꭺ, Ꭻ, Ꭼ, Ꭽ, Ꭾ, Ꭿ, Ꮀ, Ꮁ, Ꮂ, Ꮃ, Ꮄ, Ꮅ, Ꮆ, Ꮇ, Ꮈ, Ꮉ, Ꮊ, Ꮋ, Ꮌ, Ꮍ, Ꮎ, Ꮏ, Ꮐ, Ꮑ, Ꮒ, Ꮓ, Ꮔ, Ꮕ, Ꮖ, Ꮗ, Ꮘ, Ꮙ, Ꮚ, Ꮛ, Ꮜ, Ꮝ, Ꮞ, Ꮟ, Ꮠ, Ꮡ, Ꮢ, Ꮣ, Ꮤ, Ꮥ, Ꮦ, Ꮧ, Ꮨ, Ꮩ, Ꮪ, Ꮫ, Ꮬ (dla