New Braunfels, Texas
New Braunfels is a city in Comal and Guadalupe counties in the U. S. state of Texas, located in the northeastern part of Greater San Antonio. It is 32 miles from Downtown San Antonio; the city covers 44.9 square miles and has a 2017 estimated population of 79,152. New Braunfels was established in 1845 by Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels, Commissioner General of the Adelsverein known as the Noblemen's Society. Prince Solms named the settlement in honor of his home of Germany; the Adelsverein organized hundreds of people in Germany to settle in Texas. Immigrants from Germany began arriving at Galveston in July 1844. Most traveled by ship to Indianola in December 1844, began the overland journey to the Fisher-Miller land grant purchased by Prince Solms. At the urging of John Coffee Hays, who realized the settlers would not have time to build homes and plant crops further inland before winter, as the German settlers were traveling inland along the Guadalupe River, they stopped near the Comal Springs.
Prince Solms bought two leagues of land from Rafael Garza and Maria Antonio Veramendi Garza for $1,111.00. The land was located northeast of San Antonio on El Camino Real de los Tejas and had the strong freshwater Comal Springs, known as Las Fontanas, when the Germans arrived, it was the lower portions of the Fisher-Miller land grant. The first settlers forded the Guadalupe River on Good Friday, March 21, 1845, near the present-day Faust Street bridge; as the spring of 1845 progressed, the settlers built the "Zinkenburg", a fort named for Adelsverein civil engineer Nicolaus Zink, divided the land, began building homes and planting crops. Prince Solms would lay the cornerstone for the Sophienburg, a permanent fort and center for the immigrant association. In 1844, Prince Solms was so disillusioned with the logistics of the colonization that he asked the Vereins to remove him as commissioner-general and appoint a successor; when John O. Meusebach arrived, the finances were in disarray, due in part to Prince Solms' lack of business experience and his refusal to keep financial records.
To a larger degree, the financial situation happened because the Adelsverein was an organization of noblemen with no practical backgrounds at running businesses. They were on the other side of the world and did not witness the situation with which both Prince Solms and Meusebach were dealing. Henry Francis Fisher had not supplied transport and supplies for which the Verein advanced money to him. Meusebach found Prince Solms in Galveston trying to return to Germany, detained by authorities for unpaid bills. Meusebach made good on the debts, so Prince Solms could depart. Meusebach discovered that Prince Solms' choice of the inadequate Carlshafen as a port of entry, as well as the isolated route to New Braunfels, was deliberately chosen to keep the Germans from interacting with any Americans. According to Nicolaus Zink, Prince Solms had planned to establish a German feudal state by secretly bringing in immigrants and placing them in military fortresses. Meusebach, who had renounced his own title of nobility, took a different approach and invited Americans to settle in the Vereins territory.
Prince Solms, being an officer of the Imperial Army of Austria, had kept a uniformed military unit at the ready in Indianola. Meusebach converted the military unit to a more needed work detail. A finance and business structure for the colony was put in place by Meusebach, he provided for adequate food and shelter for the colonists. On August 11, 1845, Hermann Friedrich Seele became the first teacher for the German-English school in New Braunfels. Meusebach established friendly relations with a local tribe of Waco Indians. Upon seeing his reddish-blonde hair, they called him Ma-be-quo-si-to-mu, "Chief with the burning hair of the head". In May 1846, Meusebach received a letter from Count Castell informing him 4,304 emigrants were on their way to Texas. With no funds and no new settlements, the mass of emigrants was stalled at Carlshafen. Meusebach's requests to the Verein for more money, his warnings of pending bankruptcy for the Verein, brought no results; as a last resort, Meusebach instructed D.
H. Klaener to publish the plight in the German news media. Embarrassed by the publicity, the Verein established a $60,000 letter of credit; the amount was not adequate for sustaining the total number of German emigrants in Texas, but Castell sent Philip Cappes as special commissioner to observe the situation. Cappes had been instructed by Castell to observe Meusebach and to secretly report back every detail. By the time Cappes departed in March 1847, he recommended another $200,000 be advanced. Cappes invited Henry Francis Fisher to New Braunfels, in spite of Fisher not being trustworthy to the Verein; as of February 11, 1845, Fisher had been involved in coercing newly arrived immigrants to sign documents stating their intent to depart from the Verein and align with Fisher's friend Dr. Friedrich Schubbert known as Friedrich Strubberg. Cappes was not in town when Meusebach was breakfast host to Fisher on December 31, 1846. Posters had mysteriously appeared about town maligning Meusebach, saying "Curses upon Meusebach the slave driver", inciting colonists to free themselves from his "tyranny".
A group led by Rudolph Iwonski pushed their way into Meusebach's home, colonist C. Herber brandished a whip. Herber was an alleged counterfeiter. Meusebach and Herber shared a dislike of one another; the colonists' list of demands included Meusebach resigning as commissioner-general and turning the colonization over to Fisher. Meusebach kept his composure, but the group became so heated
Comal County, Texas
Comal County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 108,472, its county seat is New Braunfels. Comal County is part of TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. Along with Hays and Kendall Counties, Comal was listed in 2017 of the nation's 10 fastest-growing large counties with a population of at least 10,000. In 2017, Comal County, was second on the list, it grew grew by 5,675 newcomers, or 4.4% from 2015 to 2016. Kendall County was the second-fastest growing county in the nation in 2015 to 2016, grew by 5.16%. Hays County, third on the national list, had nearly 10,000 new residents during the year; as a result of this growth, the counties have experienced new home construction, traffic congestion, greater demand for public services. Bexar County, which includes San Antonio, grew by 1.75% during the year, but its sheer number of new residents exceeded 33,000. Early native American inhabitants include Tonkawa, Waco and Lipan Apache.
1700-1758 The area becomes known as “Comal”, Spanish for “flat dish”. Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe Mission at Comal Springs. 1825 Coahuila y Tejas issues land grant for Comal Springs to Juan Martín de Veramendi. 1842 Adelsverein organized in Germany to promote emigration to Texas. Fisher-Miller Land Grant sets aside three million acres to settle 600 families and single men of German, Swiss, Danish and Norwegian ancestry in Texas. 1844, June 26 - Henry Francis Fisher sells interest in land grant to Adelsverein 1845 Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels secures title to 1,265 acres of the Veramendi grant, including the Comal Springs and River, for the Adelsverein. Thousands of German immigrants are stranded at port of disembarkation Indianaola on Matagorda Bay. With no food or shelters, living in holes dug into the ground, an estimated 50% die from disease or starvation; the living begin to walk to their destinations hundreds of miles away. 200 German colonists who walked from Indianola found the town of New Braunfels at the crossing of the San Antonio-Nacogdches Road on the Guadalupe River.
John O. Meusebach arrives in Galveston. 1846 March - Texas legislature forms Comal County from the Eighth Precinct of Bexar County. New Braunfels is the county seat. 1850 Survey of 130 German farms in Comal reveals no slave laborers. 1852 Neu-Braunfelser Zeitung begins publication only in German, deriving its name 16th Century Germany's prototype of a newspaper titled Zeitung. 1854 County is divided into eight public school districts. The Texas State Convention of Germans meet in San Antonio and adopt a political and religious platform, including: 1) Equal pay for equal work. 1858 Final county boundaries determination with the separation of part of western Comal County to Blanco and Kendall counties. New Braunfels votes in a school tax. 1861 Comal County votes for secession from the Union. Contributes three all-German volunteer companies to the Confederate cause. 1887 Faust Street Bridge built over the Guadalupe River. 1898 Comal County limestone courthouse erected. Romanesque Revival style. Architect James Riely Gordon.
1920s - County establishes itself as a manufacturing and shipping center for textiles, garments and construction materials. 1960 Four students at St. Mary’s University San Antonio discover Natural Bridge Caverns, the largest known commercial caverns in the state of Texas. 1961 Comal’s first Wurstfest draws a crowd of 2,000. 1964 Canyon Lake impoundment, boosting tourism and related industries. Count Castell of the Adelsverein negotiated with the separate Darmstadt Society of Forty to colonize 200 families on the Fisher–Miller Land Grant territory in Texas. In return, they were to receive $12,000 in money and equipment, provisions for a year. After the first year, the colonies were expected to support themselves; the colonies attempted were Castell, Bettina and Meerholz in Llano County. Of these, only Castell survives; the colonies failed after the Adelsverein funding expired, due to conflict of structure and authorities. Some members moved to other Adelsverein settlements in Texas. Others returned to Germany.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 575 square miles, of which 559 square miles is land and 15 square miles is water; the Balcones Escarpment runs northeastward through the county just west of Interstate 35. West of the escarpment are the rocky canyons of the Texas Hill Country; the Guadalupe River flows southeastward through the county, is impounded by Canyon Lake. The Comal River rises from the Comal Springs in New Braunfels, joins the Guadalupe River. Interstate 35 U. S. Highway 281 State Highway 46 Blanco County Hays County Guadalupe County Bexar County Kendall County As of the census of 2010, there were 108,472 people, 29,066 households, 21,886 families residing in the county; the population density was 139 people per square mile. There were 32,718 housing units at an average density of 58 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.08% White, 0.95% Black or African American, 0.53% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander
Bexar County, Texas
Bexar County is a county of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,714,773, a 2017 estimate put the population at 1,958,578, it is the fourth-most populated in Texas. Its county seat is San Antonio, the second-most populous city in Texas and the seventh-largest city in the United States. Bexar County is included in TX metropolitan statistical area. Bexar County includes Government Canyon State Natural Area in the northwestern part of the county. Bexar County was created on December 20, 1836, encompassed the entire western portion of the Republic of Texas; this included the disputed areas of western New Mexico northward to Wyoming. After statehood, 128 counties were carved out of its area; the county was named for San Antonio de Béxar, one of the 23 Mexican municipalities of Texas at the time of its independence. San Antonio de Béxar—originally Villa de San Fernando de Béxar—was the first civil government established by the Spanish in the province of Texas; the municipality was created in 1731 when 55 Canary Islanders settled near the system of missions, established around the source of the San Antonio River.
The new settlement was named after the Presidio San Antonio de Béjar, the Spanish military outpost that protected the missions. The presidio, located at the San Pedro Springs, was founded in 1718 and named for Viceroy Balthasar Manuel de Zúñiga y Guzmán Sotomayor y Sarmiento, second son of the Duke of Béjar; the modern city of San Antonio in the U. S. state of Texas derived its name from San Antonio de Béjar. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,256 square miles, of which 1,240 sq mi is land and 16 sq mi is water. Bexar County is in south-central Texas, about 190 miles west of Houston and 140 mi from both the US-Mexican border to the southwest and the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast; the Balcones Escarpment bisects the county from west to northeast. South of the escarpment are the South Texas plains; the San Antonio River rises from springs north of Downtown San Antonio, flows southward and southeastward through the county. Bexar County has a comprehensive "wagon wheel" freeway system, with radial freeways and beltways that encircle Downtown San Antonio, allowing for simplified countywide freeway access, in a manner much like the freeways around Houston or Dallas.
San Antonio is unique, however, in that unlike Houston or Dallas, none of these highways is tolled. Kendall County Comal County Guadalupe County Wilson County Atascosa County Medina County Bandera County San Antonio Missions National Historical Park As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,714,773 people residing in the county. Of those, 72.9% were White, 7.5% Black or African American, 2.4% Asian, 0.8% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 12.7% of some other race and 3.5% of two or more races. 58.7% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, 1,392,931 people, 488,942 households, 345,681 families were residing in the county; the population density was 1,117 inhabitants per square mile. There were 521,359 housing units at an average density of 418 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.86% White, 7.18% Black or African American, 0.80% Native American, 1.61% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 17.80% from other races, 3.64% from two or more races. About 54.35 % of the population were Latino of any race.
Of 488,942 households, 36.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.50% were married couples living together, 15.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were not families. About 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.33. A Williams Institute analysis of 2010 census data found there were about 6.2 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the county, the population was distributed as 28.50% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 30.60% from 25 to 44, 19.90% from 45 to 64, 10.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males. The median income for a household was $38,328, for a family was $43,724. Males had a median income of $30,756 versus $24,920 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,363.
About 12.70% of families and 15.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.40% of those under age 18 and 12.20% of those age 65 or over. The Bexar County jail facilities are at 200 North Comal in downtown San Antonio, operated by the Bexar County Sheriff's Office. In late 2012, press reports noted an increase in the number of suicides at the facility; the issue was a topic of debate in the election for sheriff that year. The jail holds an average of about 3,800 prisoners in 2012, with a total capacity of 4,596, making it the fourth-largest in the state; the Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Dominguez Unit, a state jail for men, in an unincorporated section of Bexar County. In the fall of 2013, Bexar County opened BiblioTech - Bexar County's Digital Library, the nation's first bookless library. In 2016, for the third consecutive year, Bexar County increased the appraised value of businesses and residences. Most will hence find their prop
Bandera County, Texas
Bandera County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population is 20,485, its county seat is Bandera. The county was formed in 1856 from Uvalde counties; the county and its seat are named for Bandera Pass. Bandera County is part of TX Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county is recognized as the "Cowboy Capital of the World" by the Texas Legislature. 8000 to 4000 BC Earliest human habitation. In the 17th century Native Americans settled including Lipan Apache and Comanche. 1841 or 1843 – Battle of Bandera Pass, John Coffee Hays and a troupe of Texas Rangers defeat a large party of Comanche warriors. 1853 John James and Charles S. DeMontel plan the town of Bandera. A. M. Milstead, Thomas Odem, P. D. Saner, their families camp along the river and begin making cypress shingles. James and Company build a horse-powered sawmill and open a store. 1855 Sixteen Polish families arrive in Bandera to work in DeMontel's sawmill. August Klappenbach opens the first post office.
1856 The legislature marks off Bandera County from portions of Bexar County, the county is formally organized. 1860 Population 399, including 12 slaves. 1880 Sheep and Angora goats become more profitable for Bandera than farming. 1920 Cora and Ed Buck began beginning the tourist trade in Bandera. 1933 Frontier Times Museum opens to the public. 1979 Lost Maples State Natural Area opens to the public. 1982 Eighty-two percent of the land in the county is in ranches. 1984 Hill Country State Natural Area opens to the public. 2000 The Nature Conservancy purchases 1,400 acres of Love Creek Ranch from Baxter and Carol Adams, creating the Love Creek Preserve. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 798 square miles, of which 791 square miles is land and 6.7 square miles is water. Kerr County Kendall County Bexar County Medina County Uvalde County Real County As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 20,485 people residing in the county. 92.8% were White, 0.8% Native American, 0.5% Black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 3.8% of some other race and 1.8% of two or more races.
16.7% were Hispanic or Latino. 17.6 % were of 13.7 % English, 10.2 % Irish and 10.1 % American ancestry. As of the census of 2000, there were 17,645 people, 7,010 households, 5,061 families residing in the county; the population density was 22 people per square mile. There were 9,503 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.02% White, 0.33% Black or African American, 0.90% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 2.55% from other races, 1.86% from two or more races. 13.51% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,010 households out of which 29.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.80% were married couples living together, 7.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.80% were non-families. 23.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.92.
In the county, the population was spread out with 24.70% under the age of 18, 5.80% from 18 to 24, 25.70% from 25 to 44, 27.60% from 45 to 64, 16.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,013, the median income for a family was $45,906. Males had a median income of $31,733 versus $24,451 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,635. About 7.70% of families and 10.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.20% of those under age 18 and 9.40% of those age 65 or over. The following school districts serve Bandera County: Bandera Independent School District Medina Independent School District Northside Independent School District Utopia Independent School District Bandera Lake Medina Shores Lakehills Bandera Falls Medina Pipe Creek Tarpley Vanderpool List of museums in Central Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Bandera County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Bandera County Official website Bandera County Chamber of Commerce Bandera County Convention and Visitor Bureau Bandera County, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online Bandera County from the Texas Almanac Bandera County from the TXGenWeb Project Pioneer history of Bandera County: seventy-five years of intrepid history, published 1922, hosted by The Portal to Texas History
Medina County, Texas
Medina County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 46,006, its county seat is Hondo. The county is named for the Medina River; the Medina Dam, the fourth largest in the nation when completed in 1913, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The irrigation project, creating Medina Lake, was built by 1500 skilled workers who worked in shifts operating 24 hours a day to complete the dam in two years. Medina County is part of the San Antonio, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Texas Legislature formed Medina county on February 12, 1848 and enlarged it on February 1, 1850 using land taken from Bexar County. Castroville was the county seat, the county erected the first permanent courthouse there in 1854; the county seat moved to Hondo in 1892, a new courthouse was completed there in 1893. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,335 square miles, of which 1,325 square miles is land and 9.2 square miles is water.
Interstate 35 U. S. Highway 90 State Highway 16 State Highway 132 State Highway 173 Bandera County Bexar County Atascosa County Frio County Uvalde County As of the census of 2000, there were 39,304 people, 12,880 households, 10,136 families residing in the county; the population density was 30 people per square mile. There were 14,826 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 79.38% White, 2.20% Black or African American, 0.68% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 14.48% from other races, 2.88% from two or more races. 45.47% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 12,880 households out of which 39.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.20% were married couples living together, 11.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.30% were non-families. 18.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.91 and the average family size was 3.30.
In the county, the population was spread out with 29.00% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 21.50% from 45 to 64, 12.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,063, the median income for a family was $40,288. Males had a median income of $27,045 versus $21,734 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,210. About 12.00% of families and 15.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.80% of those under age 18 and 15.60% of those age 65 or over. D'Hanis Lake Medina Shores Dunlay Mico Pearson Rio Medina Yancey New Fountain Quihi Vandenburg, abandoned for New Fountain in 1846 National Register of Historic Places listings in Medina County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Medina County Holt, Jr. C. L. R.. Geology and ground-water resources of Medina County, Texas.
Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office. Castro Colonies Heritage Association, The History of Medina County, Dallas, TX: National Share Graphics, 1983). Houston B. Eggen, History of Public Education in Medina County, Texas, 1848–1928. Cyril Matthew Kuehne, S. M. Ripples from Medina Lake, San Antonio, TX: Naylor, 1966. Bobby D. Weaver, Castro's Colony: Empresario Development in Texas, 1842–1865, College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 1985. Media related to Medina County, Texas at Wikimedia Commons Medina County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games and does not utilize a standardized playing area, coping with the varied terrains encountered on different courses is a key part of the game; the game at the usual level is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes, though recreational courses can be smaller having 9 holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, a putting green containing the actual hole or cup 4 1⁄4 inches in diameter. There are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough and various hazards but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Golf is played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known as stroke play, or the lowest score on the most individual holes in a complete round by an individual or team, known as match play. Stroke play is the most seen format at all levels, but most at the elite level.
The modern game of golf originated in 15th century Scotland. The 18-hole round was created at the Old Course at St Andrews in 1764. Golf's first major, the world's oldest tournament in existence, is The Open Championship known as the British Open, first played in 1860 in Ayrshire, Scotland; this is one of the four major championships in men's professional golf, the other three being played in the United States: The Masters, the U. S. Open, the PGA Championship. While the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the game's ancient origins are unclear and much debated; some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, in which participants used a bent stick to hit a stuffed leather ball. One theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, evolved into the modern game. Others cite chuiwan as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and fourteenth centuries. A Ming Dynasty scroll dating back to 1368 entitled "The Autumn Banquet" shows a member of the Chinese Imperial court swinging what appears to be a golf club at a small ball with the aim of sinking it into a hole.
The game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages. Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as chambot in France; the Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven was played annually in Loenen, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier; the modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James II's banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery. James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503–1504: "For golf clubbes and balles to the King that he playit with". To many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records.
The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, played at Leith, Scotland. The world's oldest golf tournament in existence, golf's first major, is The Open Championship, first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club, in Ayrshire, with Scottish golfers winning the earliest majors. Two Scotsmen from Dunfermline, John Reid and Robert Lockhart, first demonstrated golf in the U. S. by setting up a hole in an orchard in 1888, with Reid setting up America's first golf club the same year, Saint Andrew's Golf Club in Yonkers, New York. A golf course consists of either 9 or 18 holes, each with a teeing ground, set off by two markers showing the bounds of the legal tee area, fairway and other hazards, the putting green surrounded by the fringe with the pin and cup; the levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green. While many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right.
This is called a "dogleg", in reference to a dog's knee. The hole is called a "dogleg left" if the hole angles leftwards and "dogleg right" if it bends right. Sometimes, a hole's direction may bend twice. A regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes. Early Scottish golf courses were laid out on links land, soil-covered sand dunes directly inland from beaches; this gave rise to the term "golf links" applied to seaside courses and those built on sandy soil inland. The first 18-hole golf course in the United States was on a sheep farm in Downers Grove, Illinois, in 1892; the course is still there today. Every round of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order. A "round" consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout; each hole is played once in the round on a standard course of 18 holes. The game can be played by any number of people, although a typ
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti