World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Piero di Cosimo
Piero di Cosimo known as Piero di Lorenzo, was an Italian painter of the Renaissance. He is most famous for the allegorical subjects he painted in the late Quattrocento; the High Renaissance style of the new century had little influence on him, he retained the straightforward realism of his figures, which combines with an whimsical treatment of his subjects to create the distinctive mood of his works. Vasari has many stories of his eccentricity, the mythological subjects have an individual and quirky fascination, he trained under Cosimo Rosselli, whose daughter he married, assisted him in his Sistine Chapel frescos. He was influenced by Early Netherlandish painting, busy landscapes feature in many works forests seen close at hand. Several of his most striking secular works are in the long "landscape" format used for paintings inset into cassone wedding chests or spalliera headboards or panelling, he was famous for designing the temporary decorations for Carnival and other festivities. The son of a goldsmith, Lorenzo di Piero, Piero was born in Florence and apprenticed under the artist Cosimo Rosseli, from whom he derived his popular name and whom he assisted in the painting of the Sistine Chapel in 1481.
In the first phase of his career, Piero was influenced by the Netherlandish naturalism of Hugo van der Goes, whose Portinari Triptych helped to lead the whole of Florentine painting into new channels. From him, most Cosimo acquired the love of landscape and the intimate knowledge of the growth of flowers and of animal life; the manner of Hugo van der Goes is apparent in the Adoration of the Shepherds, at the Berlin Museum. He journeyed to Rome in 1482 with Rosselli, he proved himself a true child of the Renaissance by depicting subjects of Classical mythology in such pictures as the Venus and Cupid, The Death of Procris, the Perseus and Andromeda series, at the Uffizi, many others. Inspired to the Vitruvius' account of the evolution of man, Piero's mythical compositions show the bizarre presence of hybrid forms of men and animals, or the man learning to use fire and tools; the multitudes of nudes in these works shows the influence of Luca Signorelli on Piero's art. During his lifetime, Piero acquired a reputation for eccentricity—a reputation enhanced and exaggerated by commentators such as Giorgio Vasari, who included a biography of Piero di Cosimo in his Lives of the Artists.
He was frightened of thunderstorms, so pyrophobic that he cooked his food. He resisted any cleaning of his studio, or trimming of the fruit trees of his orchard. If, as Vasari asserts, he spent the last years of his life in gloomy retirement, the change was due to preacher Girolamo Savonarola, under whose influence he turned his attention once more to religious art; the death of his master Roselli may have affected Piero's morose elder years. The Immaculate Conception with Saints, at the Uffizi, the Holy Family, at Dresden, illustrate the religious fervour to which he was stimulated by Savonarola. With the exception of the landscape background in Rosselli's fresco of the Sermon on the Mount, in the Sistine Chapel, there is no record of any fresco work from his brush. On the other hand, Piero enjoyed a great reputation as a portrait painter: the most famous of his work is in fact the portrait of a Florentine noblewoman, Simonetta Vespucci, mistress of Giuliano de' Medici. According to Vasari, Piero excelled in designing pageants and triumphal processions for the pleasure-loving youths of Florence, gives a vivid description of one such procession at the end of the carnival of 1507, which illustrated the triumph of death.
Piero di Cosimo exercised considerable influence upon his fellow pupils Albertinelli and Bartolomeo della Porta, was the master of Andrea del Sarto. Vasari gave Piero's date of death as 1521, this date is still repeated by many sources, including the Encyclopædia Britannica. However, contemporary documents reveal that he died of plague on 12 April 1522, he is featured in George Eliot's novel,'Romola.' Madonna and Child Enthroned with Sts. Peter, John the Baptist and Nicholas of Bari tempera and oil on panel, St. Louis Art Museum, St. Louis, Missouri Portrait of Simonetta Vespucci Oil on panel, 57 x 42 cm, Musée Condé, France The Visitation with Saints Nicholas and Anthony Wood, 184 x 189, National Gallery of Art, Washington Venus and Cupid Wood panel, 72 x 182 cm, Staatliche Museen, Berlin Vulcan and Aeolus Oil and tempera on canvas, National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa St Mary Magdalene Tempera on panel, 72,5 x 76 cm, Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome Mystical Marriage of St. Catherine of Alexandria Oil on panel, Ospedale degli Innocenti, Florence Jason and Queen Hypsipyle with the Women of Lemnos Private Collection Tritons and Nereids, Oil on Panel, 37x158 cm, Altomani collection Allegory Panel, National Gallery of Art, Washington St. John the Evangelest Oil on panel, Honolulu Museum of Art The Discovery of Honey Oil on panel, Art Museum, Massachusetts The Finding of Vulcan on Lemnos Oil and tempera on canvas, Wadsworth Atheneum, Connecticut Perseus Freeing Andromeda Oil on wood, 70 x 123 cm, Uffizi
Toplessness refers to the state in which a woman's torso is exposed above her waist or hips, or with at least her breasts and nipples being exposed in a public place or in a visual medium. The male equivalent is barechestedness commonly called shirtlessness. In the past and, in some cases, until the present, social conventions and concepts of modesty in some cultures required females to cover their bodies below the neck, sometimes above as well. Exposure of the torso, breasts and navel were taboo. While exposed breasts were and are normal in many indigenous societies, most developed countries today have formal or informal dress codes, legal statutes, or religious teachings that require females to cover their breasts in public from adolescence onward. Contemporary Western cultures permit displays of cleavage in appropriate social contexts, but exposing the areola and nipples is regarded as immodest and is sometimes prosecuted as indecent exposure, lewd behavior, or disorderly conduct; because of this, the topfreedom movement challenges laws that forbid females to go topless in places where males are permitted to be barechested, arguing that such restrictions amount to gender discrimination.
Toplessness is more common and less controversial in the fields of entertainment and the arts than it is in society as a whole when it is perceived to have artistic merit. From early prehistoric art to the present day, women have been depicted topless in visual media, from painting and sculpture to film and photography. In contemporary mainstream cinema, Academy Award–winning actresses such as Halle Berry, Kate Winslet, Nicole Kidman have appeared topless in their films. Cabaret and burlesque shows, as well as haute couture fashion shows and pictorials include toplessness or see-through clothing. Societies tend to view exposure of women's breasts in public less favorably if the intent is sexual arousal. Toplessness in adult entertainment, such as in strip clubs or softcore pornography, is regarded by some as indecent and is subject to more stringent government regulation or prohibitions. Public toplessness in Western cultures may be considered acceptable, depending on location and context. Many jurisdictions protect women's right to breastfeed in public or exempt breastfeeding from public indecency laws.
In many parts of Europe and Australia, as well as at many resort destinations around the world, it has become culturally, legally, acceptable for women to sunbathe topless on beaches. Topless sunbathing may be permitted in other areas, such as at some European parks and lakes, in designated areas on some cruise ships, around swimming pools at some hotels; the word "topless" refers to a woman, naked above her waist or hips or, at least, whose breasts are exposed to public view including her areola and nipples. It can describe a woman who appears, poses, or performs with at least her breasts exposed, such as a "topless model" or "topless dancer", or to an activity undertaken while not wearing a top, such as "topless sunbathing", it may indicate a designated location where one might expect to find women not wearing tops, such as a "topless beach" or "topless bar". It can be used to describe a garment, designed to reveal the breasts, such as the "topless swimsuit" designed by Rudi Gernreich in the 1960s.
The word "topless" may carry exhibitionist connotations. Because of this, advocates of women's legal right to uncover their breasts wherever men may go bare-chested have adopted the alternative term "topfree", not perceived to have these connotations. Attitudes towards toplessness have varied across cultures and over time; the lack of clothing above the waist for both females and males was the norm in traditional cultures of North America, Africa and the Pacific Islands until the arrival of Christian missionaries, it continues to be the norm in many indigenous cultures today. The practice was the norm in various Asian cultures before Muslim expansion in the 13th and 14th centuries. In many parts of northern India before the Muslim conquest of India, upper-class women in Maharashtra and the Ganges basin were clothed, while lower-class women were topless. Malayali people of Kerala required Hindu women other than Brahmins and Syrian Christian class to strip to waist in public until 1858 when the Kingdom of Travancore granted all women the right to cover their breasts in public.
Toplessness was the norm for women among several indigenous peoples of South India until the 19th or early 20th century, including the Tamils along the Coromandel Coast and other peoples on the Malabar Coast, Kadar of Cochin Island, Nayar, Kuruba, Koraga and the Uriya. In Thailand, the government of Field Marshal Plaek Pibulsonggram issued a series of cultural standards between 1939 and 1942. Mandate 10 issued on 8 September 1941 instructed Thai people to not appear in public places "without being appropriately dressed". Inappropriate dress included "wearing no shirt or wearing a wraparound cloth". Before the introduction of Western dress codes, Thai women were depicted both clothed and topless in public; until the early 20th century, women from northern Thailand wore a long tube-skirt, tied high above their waist and below their breasts, which were uncovered. In the late 19th century the influence of missionaries and modernization under King Chulalongkorn encouraged local women to cover their breasts with blouses.
In Laos, Henri Mouhot took a picture in 1858 of Laotian women that depicted virgins with clothed breasts and married women with their entire breasts exposed in publi
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
A status symbol is a perceived visible, external denotation of one's social position and perceived indicator of economic or social status. Many luxury goods are considered status symbols. Status symbol is a sociological term – as part of social and sociological symbolic interactionism – relating to how individuals and groups interact and interpret various cultural symbols; as people aspire to high status, they seek its symbols. As with other symbols, status symbols may change in value or meaning over time, will differ among countries and cultural regions, based on their economy and technology. For example, before the invention of the printing press, possession of a large collection of laboriously hand-copied books was a symbol of wealth and scholarship. In centuries, books became more common, so a private library became less-rarefied as a status symbol, though a sizable collection still commands respect. In some past cultures of East Asia and jade were major status symbols, reserved for royalty.
Similar legal exclusions applied to the toga and its variants in ancient Rome, to cotton in the Aztec Empire. Special colors, such as imperial yellow or royal purple were reserved for royalty, with severe penalties for unauthorized display. Another common status symbol of the European medieval past was heraldry, a display of one's family name and history. Status symbols indicate the cultural values of a society or a subculture. For example, in a commercial society, having money or wealth and things that can be bought by wealth, such as cars, houses, or fine clothing, are considered status symbols. Where warriors are respected, a scar can represent courage. Among intellectuals being able to think in an intelligent and educated way is an important status symbol regardless of material possessions. In academic circles, a long list of publications and a securely tenured position at a prestigious university or research institute are a mark of high status, it has been speculated that the earliest foods to be domesticated were luxury feast foods used to cement one's place as a "rich person".
A uniform symbolizes membership in an organization, may display additional insignia of rank, specialty and other details of the wearer's status within the organization. A state may confer decorations, medals or badges that can show that the wearer has heroic or official status. Elaborate color-coded academic regalia is worn during commencement ceremonies, indicating academic rank and specialty. In many cultures around the world, diverse visual markers of marital status are used. Coming of age rituals and other rites of passage may involve granting and display of symbols of a new status. Dress codes may specify who ought to wear particular kinds or styles of clothing, when and where specific items of clothing are displayed; the condition and appearance of one's body can be a status symbol. In times past, when most workers did physical labor outdoors under the sun and had little food, being pale and fat was a status symbol, indicating wealth and prosperity. Now that workers do less-physical work indoors and find little time for exercise, being tanned and thin is a status symbol in modern cultures.
Dieting to reduce excess body fat is practiced in Western society, while some traditional societies still value obesity as a sign of prosperity. Development of muscles through exercise disdained as a stigma of doing heavy manual labor, is now valued as a sign of personal achievement; some groups, such as extreme bodybuilders and sumo wrestlers use special exercise and diet to "bulk up" into an impressive appearance. Ancient Central American Maya cultures artificially induced crosseyedness and flattened the foreheads of high-born infants as a permanent, lifetime sign of noble status; the Mayans filed their teeth to sharp points to look fierce, or inset precious stones into their teeth as decoration. Luxury goods are perceived as status symbols. Examples may include a mansion or penthouse apartment, a trophy spouse, haute couture fashionable clothes, jewellery, or a luxury vehicle. A sizeable collection of high-priced artworks or antiques may be displayed, sometimes in multiple seasonally occupied residences located around the world.
Owned aircraft and luxury yachts are movable status symbols that can be taken from one glamorous location to another. Status symbols are used by persons of much more modest means. In the Soviet Union before the fall of the Berlin Wall, possession of American-style blue jeans or rock music recordings was an important status symbol among rebellious teenagers. In the 1990s, foreign cigarettes in China, where a pack of Marlboro could cost one day's salary for some workers, were seen as a status symbol. Mobile phone usage had been considered a status symbol, but is less distinctive today, because of the spread of inexpensive mobile phones. Nonetheless Apple products such as iPod or iPhone are common status symbols among modern teenagers. A common type of modern status symbol is a prestigious luxury branded item, whether apparel or other type of a good; the brand name or logo is prominently displayed, or featured as a graphic design element of decoration. Certain brands are so valued that cheap counterfeit goods or knock-off copies are purchased and displayed by those who do not want to, or are unable to, pay for the genuine item
Inigo Jones was the first significant English architect in the early modern period, the first to employ Vitruvian rules of proportion and symmetry in his buildings. As the most notable architect in England, Jones was the first person to introduce the classical architecture of Rome and the Italian Renaissance to Britain, he left his mark on London by his design of single buildings, such as the Queen's House, the first building in England designed in a pure classical style, the Banqueting House, Whitehall, as well as the layout for Covent Garden square which became a model for future developments in the West End. He made major contributions to stage design by his work as theatrical designer for several dozen masques, most by royal command and many in collaboration with Ben Jonson. Beyond the fact that he was born in Smithfield, the son of Inigo Jones, a Welsh cloth worker, baptised at the church of St Bartholomew-the-Less, little is known about Jones's early years, he did not approach the architectural profession in the traditional way, namely either by rising up from a craft or through early exposure to the Office of Works, although there is evidence that Christopher Wren obtained information that recorded Jones as an apprentice joiner in St Paul's Churchyard.
At some point before 1603 a rich patron sent him to Italy to study drawing after being impressed by the quality of his sketches. From Italy he travelled to Denmark where he worked for King Christian on the design of the palaces of Rosenborg and Frederiksborg. Jones first became famous as a designer of costumes and stage settings after he brought "masques" to the stage. Under Queen Anne's patronage he is credited with introducing movable scenery and the proscenium arch to English theatre. Between 1605 and 1640, he was responsible for staging over 500 performances, collaborating with Ben Jonson for many years, despite a relationship fraught with competition and jealousy: the two had arguments about whether stage design or literature was more important in theatre. Over 450 drawings for the scenery and costumes survive, demonstrating Jones's virtuosity as a draughtsman and his development between 1605 and 1609 from showing "no knowledge of Renaissance draughtsmanship" to exhibiting an "accomplished Italianate manner" and understanding of Italian set design that of Alfonso and Giulio Parigi.
This development suggests a second visit to Italy, circa 1606, influenced by the ambassador Henry Wotton. Jones learned to speak Italian fluently and there is evidence that he owned an Italian copy of Andrea Palladio's I quattro libri dell'architettura with marginalia that refer to Wotton, his architectural work was influenced by Palladio. To a lesser extent, he held to the architectural principles of the ancient Roman writer Vitruvius. Jones's first recorded architectural design is for a monument to Lady Cotton, circa 1608, showing early signs of his classical intentions. Around this time, Jones produced drawings for the New Exchange in the Strand and the central tower of St. Paul's Cathedral, displaying a similar practical architectural inexperience and immature handling of themes from sources including Palladio and Sangallo. In 1609, having accompanied Lord Salisbury's son and heir, Viscount Cranborne, around France, he appears as an architectural consultant at Hatfield House, making small modifications to the design as the project progressed, in 1610, Jones was appointed Surveyor to Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales.
He devised a masque for the Prince and was involved in some alterations to St James's Palace. On 27 April 1613, Jones was appointed the position of Surveyor of the King's Works and shortly after, embarked on a tour of Italy with the Earl of Arundel, destined to become one of the most important patrons in the history of English art. On this trip, Jones was exposed to the architecture of Rome, Florence, Vicenza and Venice among others, his surviving sketchbook shows his preoccupation with such artists as Schiavone. He is known to have met Vincenzo Scamozzi at this time, his annotated copy of Palladio's Quattro libri dell'architettura demonstrates his close interest in classical architecture: Jones gave priority to Roman antiquity rather than observing the contemporary fashion in Italy. He was the first Englishman to study these Roman remains first hand and this was key to the new architecture Jones introduced in England; the September 1615, Jones was appointed Surveyor-General of the King's Works, marking the beginning of Jones's career in earnest.
Both James I and Charles I spent lavishly on their buildings, contrasting hugely with the economical court of Elizabeth I. As the King's Surveyor, Jones built some of his key buildings in London. In 1616, work began on the Queen's House, for James I's wife, Anne. With the foundations laid and the first storey built, work stopped when Anne died in 1619. Work resumed in 1629, but this time for Henrietta Maria, it was finished in 1635 as the first classical building in England, employing ideas found in the architecture of Palladio and ancient Rome. This is Jones's earliest-surviving work. Between 1619 and 1622, the Banqueting House in the Palace of Whitehall was built, a design derived from buildings by Scamozzi and Palladio, to which a ceiling painted by Peter Paul Rubens was added several years later; the Whitehall palace was one of several projects where Jones worked with his personal assistant and nephew by marriage John Webb. The Queen's Chapel, St. James's Palace, was built betw
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin; this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea; the Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire. Classical Greek culture philosophy, had a powerful influence on ancient Rome, which carried a version of it to many parts of the Mediterranean Basin and Europe.
For this reason, Classical Greece is considered to be the seminal culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Greek culture gave great importance to knowledge. Science and religion were not separate and getting closer to the truth meant getting closer to the gods. In this context, they understood the importance of mathematics as an instrument for obtaining more reliable knowledge. Greek culture, in a few centuries and with a limited population, managed to explore and make progress in many fields of science, mathematics and knowledge in general. Classical antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC and ended in the 6th century AD. Classical antiquity in Greece was preceded by the Greek Dark Ages, archaeologically characterised by the protogeometric and geometric styles of designs on pottery. Following the Dark Ages was the Archaic Period, beginning around the 8th century BC.
The Archaic Period saw early developments in Greek culture and society which formed the basis for the Classical Period. After the Archaic Period, the Classical Period in Greece is conventionally considered to have lasted from the Persian invasion of Greece in 480 until the death of Alexander the Great in 323; the period is characterized by a style, considered by observers to be exemplary, i.e. "classical", as shown in the Parthenon, for instance. Politically, the Classical Period was dominated by Athens and the Delian League during the 5th century, but displaced by Spartan hegemony during the early 4th century BC, before power shifted to Thebes and the Boeotian League and to the League of Corinth led by Macedon; this period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon. Following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East; this period ends with the Roman conquest. Roman Greece is considered to be the period between Roman victory over the Corinthians at the Battle of Corinth in 146 BC and the establishment of Byzantium by Constantine as the capital of the Roman Empire in AD 330.
Late Antiquity refers to the period of Christianization during the 4th to early 6th centuries AD, sometimes taken to be complete with the closure of the Academy of Athens by Justinian I in 529. The historical period of ancient Greece is unique in world history as the first period attested directly in proper historiography, while earlier ancient history or proto-history is known by much more circumstantial evidence, such as annals or king lists, pragmatic epigraphy. Herodotus is known as the "father of history": his Histories are eponymous of the entire field. Written between the 450s and 420s BC, Herodotus' work reaches about a century into the past, discussing 6th century historical figures such as Darius I of Persia, Cambyses II and Psamtik III, alluding to some 8th century ones such as Candaules. Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Demosthenes and Aristotle. Most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities.
Their scope is further limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic and social history. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization. Literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. Objects with Phoenician writing on them may have been available in Greece from the 9th century BC, but the earliest evidence of Greek writing comes from graffiti on Greek pottery from the mid-8th century. Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern dictated by Greek geography: every island and plain is cut off from its neighbors by the sea or mountain ranges; the Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period. It was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, though Chalcis was the nominal victor.
A mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC. This