Rosalía de Castro
María Rosalía Rita de Castro, was a Galician romanticist writer and poet. Writing in Galego, the Galician language, after the period known as the Séculos Escuros, she became an important figure of the Galician Romantic movement, known today as the Rexurdimento, along with Manuel Curros Enríquez and Eduardo Pondal, her poetry is marked by saudade, an ineffable combination of nostalgia and melancholy. She married Manuel Murguía, a member of the important literary group known as the Royal Galician Academy, historian and editor of Rosalía's books; the couple had seven children: Alexandra, twins Gala and Ovidio, Amara and Valentina. Only two of Rosaía's children married, Aura in 1897 and Gala in 1922, their son Ovidio was a promising painter, his career cut short by early death. Rosalía published her first collection of poetry in Galician, Cantares gallegos, on 17 May 1863; this date, 17 May, is now known as the Día das Letras Galegas, commemorates Rosalía's achievement by dedicating, every year, this special day to a different writer, who must write in the Galician language, since 1963.
Día das Letras Galegas is an official holiday in the Autonomous Community of Galicia. Relative poverty and sadness marked Rosalía's life, in spite of this, she had a strong sense of commitment to the poor and to the defenseless, she was a strong opponent of authoritative abuse or abuse of authority and an ardent defender of women's rights. Rosalia suffered from uterine cancer and died in Padrón, province of A Coruña, Spain, on 15 July, 1885, she is buried in the Panteón de Galegos Ilustres, a pantheon in the Convent of San Domingos de Bonaval in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Rosalia de Castro is today one of the unquestionable poet laureates of Galicia. Educated, expected to speak and write in Spanish only, she took the bold, unconventional step of writing her early poems in the Galician language, her defiance earned her the contempt and spite of many that deemed Galician as a Spanish dialect fit "only for the illiterate and the churlish". However, Rosalía's defiant gesture won her the love and admiration of the common folk, who spoke Galician at home or on a daily basis.
Schools in Galicia, in Spain, in Russia and in Uruguay, cultural associations, parks, folklore groups, compositions of her poems, a Galician traditional morning song adorned with the lyrics of one of her poems, a professional sports team, monuments at home and abroad, a theater, restaurants, a label of white wine, lodgings, a banknote in circulation, a postage stamp, a FS98 Iberia Airbus A340, a sea-rescue plane, a school train and many streets have all taken her name. Small Stations Press published Rosalía de Castro's Galician Songs in English, translated by *Erín Moure, in 2013; the Moure translation of de Castro's New Leaves is expected to be published by Small Stations in September, 2016. Edwin Mellen Press published in 2010 "the most thorough and representative volume of poetry and prose from Rosalia de Castro translated into English." In 2007, Shearsman Books published a paperback of selected poems translated by Michael Smith. In 2004, Louis J. Rodrigues wrote for the literary magazine Babel a translation and analysis of two Rosalian poems, Nasín cando as prantas nasen and Negra Sombra.
In 1991, State University of New York Press launched an English anthology edited and translated by Anna-Marie Aldaz, Barbara N. Gantt and Anne C. Bromley. In 1977 Kathleen Kulp-Hill translated several Galician poems as part of her work entitled "Rosalía de Castro". In 1964 the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs published a selection of Galician poems translated into English by Charles David Ley. In Japan, the first volume of Rosalian poetry was translated in 2009 by Takekazu Asaka, available from DTP Publishing. In the nineteen-nineties Katsuyo Ohata wrote two articles in the journal, "The Review of Inquiry and Research" at Kansai Gaidai University on the Galician poet: "El inconsciente creativo de Rosalía de Castro" and "En las orillas del Sar: El mundo íntimo de Rosalía de Castro." Editoria Crisálida, in 2008, published an anthology of Rosalia's Galician poems in Portuguese, translated by Andityas Soares de Moura. There is a statue in her honor in the Galicia Square in the city of Porto, Portugal, by the sculptor Barata Feyo.
In the French-speaking world Folle Avoine in 2003 offered a French anthology of Galician poems translated by Jose-Carlos Gonzalez. The name Rosalía de Castro has been used by several institutions, public spaces and/or parks, on consumer goods, thus showing the social influence and impact this poet has had on the region. Today, it is possible to find schools and universities named after the writer in the Spanish Autonomous Region of Galicia as well as other parts of Spain. Russia and Uruguay have places that bear the name of this distinguished poet. Furthermore, there are numerous parks and streets, cultural associations, prizes granted to people that are intimately linked with the Galician and Spanish languages, folk groups, a wine with the name Rías Baixas. There is a plane from the airline Iberia, as well as an aircraft belonging to the Maritime Safet
Galicians are a national and ethnic group whose historic homeland is Galicia, in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula. Two Romance languages are spoken and official in Galicia: the native Galician and because of language shift, Castilian; the ethnonym Galicians derives from the Latin Gallaeci or Callaeci, itself an adaptation of the name of a local Celtic tribe known to the Greeks as Καλλαϊκoί, who lived in what is now northern Portugal and who were conquered by the Roman General Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in the 2nd century BCE. The Romans applied this name to all the people who shared the same culture and language in the northwest, from the Douro River valley in the south to the Cantabrian Sea in the north and west to the Navia River, encompassing tribes as the Celtici, the Artabri, the Lemavi and the Albiones, among others; the etymology of the name has been studied since the 7th century by authors such as Isidore of Seville, who wrote that "Galicians are called so because of their fair skin, as the Gauls", relating the name to the Greek word for milk.
However, modern scholars have derived the name of the ancient Callaeci either from Proto-Indo-European *kal-n-eH2'hill', through a local relational suffix -aik-, so meaning'the highlanders'. The most recent proposal comes from linguist Francesco Benozzo after identifying the root gall- / kall- in a number of Celtic words with the meaning "stone" or "rock", as follows: gall, gailleichan, kailhoù, galagh and gall. Hence, Benozzo explains the name Callaecia and its ethnonym Callaeci as being "the stone people" or "the people of the stone", in reference to the ancient megaliths and stone formations so common in Galicia. Galician is a Romance language belonging to the Western Ibero-Romance branch, it has official status in Galicia. Galician is spoken in the neighbouring autonomous communities of Asturias and Castile and León, near theirs borders with Galicia. Medieval or Old Galician known by linguists as Galician-Portuguese, developed locally in the Northwest of the Iberian Peninsula from Vulgar Latin, becoming the language spoken and written in the medieval kingdoms of Galicia and Portugal.
The Galician-Portuguese language developed a rich literary tradition from the last years of the 12th century. During the 13th century it substituted Latin as the language used in public and private charters and legal documents, in Galicia, in the neighbouring regions in Asturias and Leon. Galician-Portuguese diverged into two linguistic varieties - Galician and Portuguese - from the 15th century on. Galician became a regional variety open to the influence of Castilian Spanish, while Portuguese became the international one, as language of the Portuguese Empire; the two varieties are still close together, in particular northern Portuguese dialects share an important number of similarities with Galician ones. The official institution regulating the Galician language, backed by the Galician government and universities, the Royal Galician Academy, claims that modern Galician must be considered an independent Romance language belonging to the group of Ibero-Romance languages and having strong ties with Portuguese and its northern dialects.
However, the Associaçom Galega da Língua and Academia Galega da Língua Portuguesa, belonging to the Reintegrationist movement, support the idea that differences between Galician and Portuguese speech are not enough to justify considering them as separate languages: Galician is one variety of Galician-Portuguese, along with Brazilian Portuguese, African Portuguese, the Galician-Portuguese still spoken in Spanish Extremadura, other variations. Nowadays, despite the positive effects of official recognition of the Galician language, Galicia's socio-linguistic development has experienced the growing influence of Spanish due the media as well as legal imposition of Spanish in learning. Galicia boasts a rich oral tradition, in the form of songs and sayings, which has made a vital contribution to the spread and development of the Galician language. Still flourishing today, this tradition shares much with that of Portugal. Many Galician surnames have become Castilianized over the centuries, most notably after the forced submission of the Galician nobility obtained by the Catholic Monarchs in the last years of the 15th century.
This reflected the gradual spread of Spanish language, through the cities, in Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, A Coruña, Vigo and Ferrol, in the last case due to the establishment of an important base of the Spanish navy there in the 18th century. For example, surnames like Orxás, Outeiro, became Orjales, Otero. Toponyms like Ourense, A Coruña, Fisterra became Orense, La Coruña, Finisterre. In many cases this linguistic assimilation created confusion, for example Niño da Aguia was translated into Spanish as Niño de la Guía and Mesón do Bento was translated as Mesón del Viento. In pre-historic times Galicia was one of the primary foci of Atlantic European Megalithic Culture. Following on that, the gradual emergence of a Celtic culture gave way to a well established material Celtic civilization known as the Castro Culture. Galicia suffered a late and weak Romanisation, although it was after this event when Latin, considered to b
Santiago de Compostela
Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia, in northwestern Spain. The city has its origin in the shrine of Saint James the Great, now the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, as the destination of the Way of St. James, a leading Catholic pilgrimage route since the 9th century. In 1985, the city's Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Santiago is the local Galician evolution of Vulgar Latin Sanctus Iacobus "Saint James". According to legend, Compostela derives from the Latin Campus Stellae. Other etymologies derive the name from Latin compositum, local Vulgar Latin Composita Tella, meaning "burial ground", or from Latin compositella, meaning "the well-composed one". Other sites in Galicia share this toponym, akin to Compostilla in the province of León; the cathedral borders the main plaza of the well-preserved city. According to medieval legend, the remains of the apostle James were brought to Galicia for burial; this site was called Mount Libredon and its physical topography leads prevalent sea borne winds to clear the cloud deck overhead.
The shepherd reported his discovery to the bishop of Iria, Bishop Teodomiro. The bishop declared that the remains were those of the apostle James and notified King Alfonso II in Oviedo. To honour St. James, the cathedral was built on the spot where his remains were said to have been found; the legend, which included numerous miraculous events, enabled the Catholic faithful to bolster support for their stronghold in northern Spain during the Christian crusades against the Moors, but led to the growth and development of the city. Along the western side of the Praza do Obradoiro is the elegant 18th-century Pazo de Raxoi, now the city hall. Across the square is the Pazo de Raxoi, the town hall, on the right from the cathedral steps is the Hostal dos Reis Católicos, founded in 1492 by the Catholic Monarchs, Isabella of Castille and Ferdinand II of Aragon, as a pilgrims' hospice; the Obradoiro façade of the cathedral, the best known, is depicted on the Spanish euro coins of 1 cent, 2 cents, 5 cents.
Santiago is the site of the University of Santiago de Compostela, established in the early 16th century. The main campus can be seen best from an alcove in the large municipal park in the centre of the city. Within the old town there are many narrow winding streets full of historic buildings; the new town all around it has less character though some of the older parts of the new town have some big flats in them. Santiago de Compostela has a substantial nightlife. Both in the new town and the old town, a mix of middle-aged residents and younger students maintain a lively presence until the early hours of the morning. Radiating from the centre of the city, the historic cathedral is surrounded by paved granite streets, tucked away in the old town, separated from the newer part of the city by the largest of many parks throughout the city, Parque da Alameda. Santiago gives its name to one of the four military orders of Spain: Santiago, Alcántara and Montesa. One of the most important economic centres in Galicia, Santiago is the seat for organisations like Association for Equal and Fair Trade Pangaea.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Santiago de Compostela has a temperate oceanic climate, with mild to warm and somewhat dry summers and mild, wet winters. The prevailing winds from the Atlantic and the surrounding mountains combine to give Santiago some of Spain's highest rainfall: about 1,550 millimetres annually; the climate is mild: frosts are common only in December and February, with an average of just 8 days per year, while snow is rare. The city is governed by a mayor-council form of government. Following the May 24, 2015 municipal elections the mayor of Santiago is Martiño Noriega Sánchez of Compostela Aberta. No party has a majority in the city council; the population of the city in 2012 was 95,671 inhabitants, while the metropolitan area reaches 178,695. In 2010 there were 4,111 foreigners living in the city; the main nationalities are Brazilians and Colombians. By language, according to 2008 data, 21.17% of the population always speak in Galician, 15% always speak in Spanish, 31% in Galician and the 32.17% in Spanish.
According to a Xunta de Galicia 2010 study the 38.5% of the city primary and secondary education students had Galician as their mother tongue. The area of Santiago de Compostela was a Roman cemetery by the 4th century and was occupied by the Suebi in the early 5th century, when they settled in Galicia and Portugal during the initial collapse of the Roman Empire; the area was attributed to the bishopric of Iria Flavia in the 6th century, in the partition known as Parochiale Suevorum, ordered by King Theodemar. In 585, the settlement was annexed along with the rest of Suebi Kingdom by Leovigild as the sixth province of the Visigothic Kingdom. Raided from 711 to 739 by the Arabs, the bishopric of Iria was incorporated into the Kingdom of Asturias c. 750. At some point between 818 and 842, during the reign of Alfonso II of Asturias, bishop Theodemar of Iria claimed to have found some remains which we
James, son of Zebedee
James, son of Zebedee was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, traditionally considered the first apostle to be martyred. The son of Zebedee and Salome is James, styled "the Greater", to distinguish him from the Apostle James "the Less", with greater meaning older or taller, rather than more important, he was the brother of John the beloved disciple. James is described as one of the first disciples to join Jesus; the Synoptic Gospels state that James and John were with their father by the seashore when Jesus called them to follow him. James was one of only three apostles. James and John left in his glory. Jesus rebuked them, the other apostles were annoyed with them. James and his brother were rebuked by Jesus; the Acts of the Apostles records. James the Greater is traditionally believed to be the first of the Apostles martyred for his faith.. Nixon suggests that this may have been caused by James's fiery temper, for which he and his brother earned the nickname Boanerges or "Sons of Thunder". F. F. Bruce contrasts this story to that of the Liberation of Saint Peter, notes that "James should die while Peter should escape" is a "mystery of divine providence".
Saint James is the patron saint of Spain and, according to legend, his remains are held in Santiago de Compostela in Galicia. The traditional pilgrimage to the grave of the saint, known as the "Way of St. James", has been the most popular pilgrimage for Western European Catholics from the Early Middle Ages onwards, although its modern revival and popularity stems from Walter Starkie's 1957 book, The Road to Santiago; the Pilgrims of St. James; some 237,886 pilgrims registered in 2014 as having completed the final 100 km walk to Santiago to qualify for a Compostela. When 25 July falls on a Sunday, it is a "Jubilee" year and a special east door is opened for entrance into Santiago Cathedral. Jubilee years fall every 5, 6, 11 years. In the 2004 Jubilee year, 179,944 pilgrims received a Compostela. In 2010 the number had risen to 275,135; the feast day of St. James is celebrated on 25 July on the liturgical calendars of the Roman Catholic, Anglican and certain Protestant churches, he is commemorated on 30 April in the Orthodox Christian liturgical calendar.
The national day of Galicia is celebrated on 25 July, being St James its patron saint. The site of martyrdom is located within the Armenian Apostolic Cathedral of St. James in the Armenian Quarter of Jerusalem; the Chapel of St. James the Great, located to the left of the sanctuary, is the traditional place where he was martyred, when King Agrippa ordered him to be beheaded, his head is buried under the altar, marked by a piece of red marble and surrounded by six votive lamps. The 12th-century Historia Compostelana commissioned by bishop Diego Gelmírez provides a summary of the legend of St. James, as it was believed at Compostela. Two propositions are central to it: first, that St. James preached the gospel in Iberia, as well as in the Holy Land; the translation of his relics from Judea to Galicia in the northwest of Iberia was done, in legend, by a series of miraculous happenings: decapitated in Jerusalem with a sword by Herod Agrippa himself, his body was taken up by angels, sailed in a rudderless, unattended boat to Iria Flavia in Iberia, where a massive rock closed around his relics, which were removed to Compostela.
According to ancient local tradition, on 2 January AD 40, the Virgin Mary appeared to James on the bank of the Ebro River at Caesaraugusta, while he was preaching the Gospel in Iberia. She appeared upon a pillar, Nuestra Señora del Pilar, that pillar is conserved and venerated within the present Basilica of Our Lady of the Pillar, in Zaragoza, Spain. Following that apparition, St. James returned to Judea, where he was beheaded by King Herod Agrippa I in the year 44; the tradition at Compostela placed the discovery of the relics of the saint in the time of king Alfonso II and of bishop Theodemir of Iria. These traditions were the basis for the pilgrimage route that began to be established in the 9th century, the shrine dedicated to James at Santiago de Compostela, in Galicia in Spain, became the most famous pilgrimage site in the Christian world; the Way of St. James is a trio of routes that cross Western Europe and arrive at Santiago through Northern Spain. James became the patron saint of Spain.
James suffered martyrdom in AD 44. According to the tradition of the early Church, he had not yet left Jerusalem at this time. An argument supporting this assertion is based on the Epistle to the Romans, written after AD 44, in which Paul expressed his intention to avoid "building on someone else's foundation" by visiting Spain, suggesting that he knew of no previous evangelisation in Hispania; the suggestion began to be made from the 9th century that, as well as evang
History of Galicia
The Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for at least 500,000 years, first by Neanderthals and by modern humans. Galicia, northern Portugal, western León, Zamora formed a single megalithic area since the Neolithic and Chalcolithic Ages, around 4500–1500 BC; this was the first great culture to appear in Galicia, with a great capacity for construction and architecture. This was combined with a deep sense of religion, based on the cult of the dead, the mediators between man and the gods. Many historians believe that the Megalithic culture had two sources: an oriental source, predominant in the Mediterranean area, an Atlantic source, which originated north of the Tagus River; the latter, because of its geographical proximity to Galicia, would explain the abundant traces of megalithic culture in this area. As this was the first great culture, it was an important source of Galicia's cultural personality. From this era there remain thousands of dolmens, a type of tomb or sepulchre, throughout the entire territory.
From its social organization it has been confirmed that it corresponded to some type of clan structure. The introduction of bronze-working techniques introduced a new cultural era, in which the new importance of metals resulted in intense mining activity; some historians attribute this to the dry and warm climate of the time, resulting in erosion which revealed the rich mineral resources of the North. Peoples from the Castilian plateau moved to Galicia, thus increasing the population, because its position near the Atlantic Ocean gave it a humid climate; the increase in population caused certain conflicts, but led to increased mining and production of weapons, useful objects, ornamental objects of gold and bronze. Pieces of jewellery crafted from Galician metals circulated throughout the Iberian Peninsula and the rest of Europe. At the end of the Iron Age, people from northwestern Iberian Peninsula formed a homogeneous and distinct cultural group, identified by early Greek and Latin authors, who called them "Gallaeci" due to their apparent similarity with the Galli and Gallati.
The Gallaeci were a Celtic people who for centuries had occupied the territory of modern Galicia and northern Portugal. In ethnic terms, they were the first Galicians; the Gallaecians lived in fortified villages now called castros:, ranging from small villages of less than a hectare, to great hillforts with more than 10 hectares, named "Oppida" or "Citânia", which were more common in the southern half of the traditional settlement area. This mode of inhabiting the territory – in hillforts – was common throughout Europe during the Bronze and Iron Ages, having received in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula the name of "culture of hillforts" or "Castro Culture", what refers to this type of cultural manifestation before the arrival of the Roman Empire; however after the Roman's fall, the Gallaeci-Romans continued living in hillforts until the 8th century A. C. Only in the territory of actual Galicia exist more than two thousand hillforts, which shows the greatest dispersion of population from the Iron Age in Europe, which would be the origin of the Galician occupation of the territory inherited until nowadays, characterized by small and high numerous populations so distant from each other.
The Gallaeci's political organization was based on small independent states formed by a large number of hillforts. Each Gallaecian identified himself as a member of the hillfort where he lived, as well as the state / people to whom it belonged, which the Romans called Populus. Among the Galleci there were many named tribes: the Artabri, the Bracari, the Coelerni, the Grovii, the Nemetati, etc. In the same way, at the end of the 18th century, Galicians identified themselves with their parish and their county. In religious terms, the Gallaeci showed a Celtic religion based on the cult to pan-Celtic gods as Bormanus and Lugus; the knowledge that we have today about the society of the hillforts is limited. But today it appears that in the last five centuries BCE they developed an aristocratic and perhaps a feudal social model; the division of the country into concelhos, a concept similar to the counties of the islands or Romania, seems to be based on this class of social organization. The structure based on hillforts seems to be associated with a fortified occupation of the territory, resembling the Central European classic Celtic habitat.
On the other hand, this kind of territorial occupation was associated with its mineral resources. It is clear that the Romans' interest in this region was related to its gold mines; when Iberia was involved in the Punic Wars between the Carthaginians and the Romans, the strategic alliance that they maintained with the Phoenicians enabled Hannibal to recruit many Gallegans. When the Romans undertook the conquest of Iberia, the Gallaicoi faced them in 137 BC. in the battle at the river Douro that resulted in a great Roman victory against 60,000 Galicians. At the end of Brutus' campaigns, Rome controlled the territory between the Dour
Galicianism is a nationalist political movement in Galicia. The concept of Galicianism first appeared in the mid-nineteenth century. At that time in history it was known as "provincialism". Soon it was referred to as regionalism; this was a reaction to the increased centralization of the Spanish State which attempted to eradicate internal administrative, to some point cultural, differences within the country. The term Galicianism as such was coined after the establishment of the Irmandades da Fala, in 1916, the apparition of modern Galician nationalism; the Irmandades da Fala was an organization hosting members from both the lower-middle-class and intellectuals. This organization was led by Antón Vilar Ponte. Within the next decade, this organization was strengthened by two groups: the nationalists, led by the Partido Galeguista of Castelao, the federalist republicans of ORGA. ORGA was directed by Antón Vilar. In 1931, with the coming of the Spanish Second Republic, a number of drafts for a Statute of Autonomy were prepared by the Galicianists.
The final version was approved in December 1932 at the Municipal Assembly of the Galician capital, Santiago de Compostela. The Statute of Autonomy was approved by referendum on 28 June 1936, ratified by the Spanish Parliament in 1937. However, the Spanish Civil War and the subsequent dictatorship put an end to the prospect of autonomy. At the end of the war many Galicianists had to leave for exile; the foundation of the Editorial Galaxia in 1950, publishing house promoting Galician culture and Galician language, was a visible act of resistance. Clandestine organizations supporting the cause of Marxism flourished in the 1950s and 1960s following the example of Editorial Galaxia and taking advantage of a timid relaxation of the dictatorial regime; those new organizations and movements labelled themselves as nationalist, seeing themselves as the natural heirs of the early Galicianists. All those organizations would claim Alfonso Daniel Rodríguez Castelao's classic work, Sempre en Galiza, as the ideological cornerstone for Galician contemporary nationalism and for their own foundational principles.
With the end of the dictatorship in 1977 and the passing of a new constitution in 1978, Galicianism was further strengthened up to the point that today the vast majority of political forces in Galicia call themselves Galicianist, whether they are nationalist or not, left wing or right wing. For example, unlike in other Spanish autonomous communities, the conservative People's Party of Galicia includes Galicianism as one of its ideological principles; the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party has a strong regional flavour in Galicia, not to mention the actual main Galician nationalist party, the Galician Nationalist Bloc. A possible explanation for this is that Galician identity is so embedded in Galicians that any political party willing to participate in elections must at least show some degree of interest in the promotion of Galicianism, but it may range from moderate regionalism to outright claims for independence. Beramendi, J. and Núñez Seixas, X. M.: O nacionalismo galego, A Nosa Terra, Vigo Fernández Baz, M.
A.: A formación do nacionalismo galego contemporáneo, Laiovento Núñez Seixas, X. M.: Historiographical approaches to nationalism in Spain, Saarbrücken, Breitenbach Rodríguez Polo, X. R.: O triunfo do galeguismo. Opinión pública, partidos políticos e comportamento electoral na transición autonómica. Madrid: Editorial Dykinson. Rodríguez Polo, X. R.: Ramón Piñeiro e a estratexia do galeguismo. Vigo: Xerais. Galician nationalism Partido Galeguista A. D. R. Castelao Nationalities in Spain Galician Statute of Autonomy Galician Statute of Autonomy Irmandades da Fala
Santiago de Compostela derailment
The Santiago de Compostela derailment occurred on 24 July 2013, when an Alvia high-speed train travelling from Madrid to Ferrol, in the north-west of Spain, derailed at high speed on a bend about 4 kilometres outside of the railway station at Santiago de Compostela. Out of 222 people on board, around 140 were 80 died; the train's data recorder showed that it was travelling at about twice the posted speed limit of 80 kilometres per hour when it entered a bend in the rail. The crash was recorded on a track-side camera which shows all thirteen train cars derailing and four overturning. On 28 July 2013, the train's driver Francisco José Garzón Amo was charged with 79 counts of homicide by professional recklessness and an undetermined number of counts of causing injury by professional recklessness; the crash was Spain's worst rail catastrophe in 40 years, since a crash near El Cuervo, Seville, in 1972. The Torre del Bierzo crash in 1944 remains the deadliest. Spain has one of the world's most extensive high-speed railway networks and maintained by the state-owned infrastructure company Adif and run by the operator Renfe, a state-owned company that manages the rolling stock.
The Olmedo-Zamora-Galicia high-speed rail line is only completed, with some sections of the HSR in service while other sections still remain as a conventional railway line. The RENFE Class 730 passenger train is in service on this line, as it can run on both conventional and high-speed tracks, it has two generator cars that allow its electric traction motors to function on non-electrified lines, but which bring its weight per axle well over the normal value for high velocity trains. It is a hybrid system, it is built up of pieces which had not been accredited as a whole, it has a top speed of 180 kilometres per hour when running in diesel mode, around 260 kilometres per hour when running on overhead electrification. At 20:41 CEST on 24 July 2013 the passenger train, on an express route from Madrid Chamartín railway station to Ferrol, derailed on a section of conventional track at the end of the Olmedo-Zamora-Galicia line, at Angrois in Santiago de Compostela. All vehicles, the two power cars, their adjacent generator cars – both with diesel tanks – at both ends of the train and the nine intermediate carriages, derailed as the train rounded the A Grandeira curve.
A track-side CCTV camera video indicates that the front generator car was the first to leave the rails, followed by the leading passenger coaches, the front power car, the rear generator car and the rear power car. The train was carrying 218 passengers at the time of the crash. Three of the carriages were torn apart in the accident and another caught fire due to gaseous leaking diesel fuel; the rear generator car caught fire. Further investigation revealed that the train was travelling at over twice the posted speed limit when it entered the curve. Out of 218 passengers, there were 79 fatalities and the remaining 139 were injured. Among the dead were foreigners: 1 French, 1 Algerian, 1 Brazilian, 2 Italians, 1 Mexican, 1 Dominican, 1 American. One of the victims was Spanish journalist Enrique Beotas; the train's two drivers survived. On 25 July, 36 of the injured were still listed as being in critical conditions; the regional government leader, Alberto Núñez Feijóo, remarked, "There are bodies lying on the railway track.
It's a Dante-esque scene". About 320 Spanish national police were dispatched to the scene of the accident. Festivities planned for 25 July, a regional holiday, were cancelled. Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy called an emergency ministerial meeting, saying, "I want to express my affection and solidarity with the victims of the terrible train accident in Santiago." On 25 July, Rajoy declared three days of national mourning. King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofía visited injured survivors in hospital at Santiago de Compostela. On 9 August, the Spanish Government announced that there would be a nationwide review of all railway lines, their signalling and the route knowledge of train drivers; the Comisión de Investigación de Accidentes Ferroviarios is responsible for the investigation of railway accidents in Spain. A government spokesperson said that all signs pointed to the Santiago de Compostela derailment being an accident and said there was no evidence that terrorism was a factor. Sabotage was ruled out.
Eyewitnesses said. This was confirmed by data from the train's black box which revealed that 250 m before the start of the curve the train was travelling at 195 km/h, in spite of the emergency brakes being applied was still travelling at 179 km/h when it derailed four seconds later. In court the train's driver, Garzón Amo, stated that the train was travelling at 180–190 km/h at the time of the accident; that was more than double the speed limit for that curve, 80 km/h. Various media outlets reported that Garzón Amo had, over a year ago, boasted on his personal Facebook page, of the speeds at which his trains would travel. One Facebook posting, reported by Spanish media, attributed to Garzón Amo, stated: "It would be amazing to go alongside police and overtake them and trigger off the speed camera", accompanied by a photo of a train’s speedometer clocking 200 km/h. A follow-up comment attributed to Garzón Amo reads: "Ha ha ha, that would be a lovely fine for Renfe." However, these speeds are normal and permitted on the high-speed line sections.
The bend where the accide