El Bola is a 2000 Spanish drama film, directed by Achero Mañas. It won the Goya Award for Best Film at the 15th Goya Awards, it is available in the United States from Filmmovement. Pablo a.k.a. "El Bola" is a twelve-year-old boy. His violent family situation prevents him from having friends at school until a new kid, arrives at school; the warm, caring atmosphere in Alfredo's family provides a stark contrast to Pablo's oppressive situation under his father. Soon, Pablo finds a different reality in his new friend's family who teaches him to confront with courage his worst fears. Juan José Ballesta as Bola Pablo Galán as Alfredo Alberto Jiménez as José Manuel Morón as Mariano Ana Wagener as Laura Nieve de Medina as Marisa Gloria Muñoz as Aurora Javier Lago as Alfonso Omar Muñoz as Juan El Bola on IMDb El Bola at AllMovie
A car bomb, lorry bomb, or truck bomb known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device, is an improvised explosive device placed inside a car or other vehicle and detonated. Car bombs can be divided into two main categories; the latter type may be either parked. It is used as a weapon of terrorism or guerrilla warfare to kill people near the blast site or to damage buildings or other property. Car bombs act as their own delivery mechanisms and can carry a large amount of explosives without attracting suspicion. Car bombs are activated in a variety of ways, including opening the vehicle's doors, starting the engine, depressing the accelerator or brake pedals or lighting a fuse or setting a timing device; the gasoline in the vehicle's fuel tank may make the explosion of the bomb more powerful by dispersing and igniting the fuel. Car bombs are effective weapons as they are an easy way to transport a large amount of explosives to the intended target. A car bomb produces copious shrapnel, or flying debris, secondary damage to bystanders and buildings.
In recent years, car bombs have become used by suicide bombers. Defending against a car bomb involves keeping vehicles at a distance from vulnerable targets by using roadblocks and checkpoints, Jersey barriers, concrete blocks or bollards, metal barriers, or by hardening buildings to withstand an explosion. Since the height of the Provisional Irish Republican Army campaign in 1991, the entrance to Downing Street has been closed, preventing the general public from getting near Number 10. Where major public roads pass near buildings, road closures may be the only option; these tactics have encouraged potential bombers to target "soft" or unprotected targets, such as markets. In the Syrian Civil War, Iraq, the car bomb concept was modified so that it could be driven and detonated by a driver, but armoured to withstand incoming fire; the vehicle would be driven to its target area, in a similar fashion to a kamikaze plane of WW2. These were known by VBIEDs; this saw civilian cars with armour plating added, that would protect the car for as long as possible, so that it could reach its intended target.
Cars were sometimes driven into incoming enemy columns. Most the SVIEDs were used by ISIS against Government forces, but used by Syrian rebels against government troops; the vehicles became more sophisticated as time went, with armour plating on the vehicle, protected vision slits, armour plating over the wheels so they would withstand being shot at, in some cases, additional metal grating over the front of the vehicle designed to activate rocket propelled grenades before hitting the actual surface of the vehicle. In some cases trucks were used, as well as cars, they were sometimes used to start an assault. The vehicles had a large space that would contain heavy explosives. In some cases, animal drawn carts with improvised explosive devices have been used either mules or horses. Tactically, a single vehicle may be used, or an initial "breakthrough" vehicle followed by another vehicle. While many car bombs are disguised as ordinary vehicles, some that are used against military forces have improvised vehicle armour attached to prevent the driver from being shot when attacking a fortified outpost.
Car bombs can be seen as the remote descendants of the 16th century hellburners, explosive-loaded ships which were used to deadly effect by the besieged Dutch forces in Antwerp against the besieging Spanish. Though using a less refined technology, the basic principle of the hellburner is similar to that of the car bomb; the first possible suicide car bombing was the Bath School bombings of 1927, where 45, including the bomber, were killed and half of a school was blown up. Mass-casualty car bombing, suicide car bombing, is a predominantly Middle Eastern phenomenon; the tactic was first introduced to the region by the Zionist paramilitary organization Lehi, who used it extensively against Palestinian and British military targets. The tactic was used in the Lebanese Civil War by the Islamic fundamentalist group Hezbollah. A notable suicide car bombing was the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing, when two simultaneous attacks killed 241 U. S. Marines and 58 French military personnel; the perpetrator of these attacks has never been positively confirmed.
In the Lebanese Civil War, an estimated 3,641 car bombs were detonated. While not an adaptation of a vehicle meant to carry people, the WW2 German Goliath remote control tank, has many parallels with a VBIED, it approached a target at some speed, exploded, destroying itself and the target. It was armoured so. However, it wasn't driven by a person, it was instead operated by remote control, by German infantry, from a safe distance, it was an armoured suicide drone. Car bombs and detonators function in a diverse manner
Días contados (film)
Días contados is a 1994 Spanish thriller film directed by Imanol Uribe, starring Javier Bardem, Candela Peña, Carmelo Gómez and Ruth Gabriel. Antonio, a brazen, individualistic ETA terrorist, travels with two fellow cell members and Lourdes to Madrid, where they intend to carry out a terrorist attack on a police station. Just like Lourdes, with whom he shares a complex romantic liaison, Antonio is caught in a downward spiral of disenchantment and despondency with respect to the organization and the life he has led so far, he moves into the area under the guise of an unassuming photographer for the press, finds himself falling for his neighbor, Charo, a naive prostitute with an impending drug problem, unaware of Antonio's activities. She reciprocates, Antonio uses her whimsical desire to have their first tryst in Granada as an excuse to flee Madrid right after he shoots a police officer. Meanwhile, matters become complicated when Antonio's identity as a terrorist is made public and Charo's sleazy, drug-addicted acquaintance Lisardo, incidentally an informant, gives Antonio's identity away to corrupt police officer Rafa.
The film ends on a tragical note as the car bomb and the police car carrying Charo haplessly converge in front of the police station. Fuelled by his love, a self-destructive streak, or both, Antonio follows the car to the station gate right as Carlos presses the detonator. Días contados was nominated for Goya Awards in 19 categories and won for the following: Best Actor Best Director Best Editing Best Film Best New Actress Best Screenplay – Adapted Best Special Effects Best Supporting Actor Días contados on IMDb Días contados at Rotten Tomatoes
An informant is a person who provides privileged information about a person or organization to an agency. The term is used within the law enforcement world, where they are known as confidential or criminal informants, it can refer pejoratively to someone who supplies information without the consent of the involved parties. The term is used in politics, industry and academia. Informants are found in the world of organized crime. By its nature, organized crime involves many people who are aware of each other's guilt, in a variety of illegal activities. Quite confidential informants will provide information in order to obtain lenient treatment for themselves and provide information, over an extended period of time, in return for money or for police to overlook their own criminal activities. Quite someone will become an informant following their arrest. Informants are extremely common in every-day police work, including homicide and narcotics investigations. Any citizen who provides crime related information to law enforcement by definition is an informant.
The CIA has been criticized for leniency towards drug lords and murderers acting as paid informants, informants being allowed to engage in some crimes so that the potential informant can blend into the criminal environment without suspicion, wasting billions of dollars on dishonest sources of information. Informants are regarded as traitors by their former criminal associates. Whatever the nature of a group, it is to feel strong hostility toward any known informers, regard them as threats and inflict punishments ranging from social ostracism through physical abuse and/or death. Informers are therefore protected, either by being segregated while in prison or, if they are not incarcerated, relocated under a new identity. Informants, criminal informants, can be motivated by many reasons. Many informants are not themselves aware of all of their reasons for providing information, but nonetheless do so. Many informants provide information while under stress, duress and other life factors that can impact the accuracy or veracity of information provided.
Law enforcement officers, defense lawyers and others should be aware of possible motivations so that they can properly approach and verify informants' information. Informants' motivations can be broken down into self-interest, self-preservation and conscience. A list of possible motivations includes: Self-Interest: Financial reward Pre-trial release from custody Withdrawal or dismissal of criminal charges Reduction of sentence Choice of location to serve sentence Elimination of rivals or unwanted criminal associates. Elimination of competitors engaged in criminal activities. Diversion of suspicion from their own criminal activities. RevengeSelf-Preservation: Fear of harm from others. Threat of arrest or charges. Threat of incarceration. Desire for witness protection program. Conscience: Desire to go straight Guilty conscience Genuine desire to assist law enforcement and society. Corporations and the detective agencies that sometimes represent them have hired labor spies to monitor or control labor organizations and their activities.
Such individuals may be recruits from the workforce. They may be willing accomplices, or may be tricked into informing on their co-workers' unionization efforts. Paid informants have been used by authorities within politically and oriented movements to weaken and break them. Informers alert authorities regarding government officials that are corrupt. Officials may be taking bribes, or participants in a money loop called a kickback. Informers in some countries receive a percentage of all monies recovered by their government. Lactantius described an example from ancient Rome involved the prosecution of a woman suspected to have advised a woman not to marry Maximinus II: "Neither indeed was there any accuser, until a certain Jew, one charged with other offences, was induced, through hope of pardon, to give false evidence against the innocent; the equitable and vigilant magistrate conducted him out of the city under a guard, lest the populace should have stoned him... The Jew was ordered to the torture till he should speak as he had been instructed...
The innocent were condemned to die.... Nor was the promise of pardon made good to the feigned adulterer, for he was fixed to a gibbet, he disclosed the whole secret contrivance. Jailhouse informants, who report hearsay which they claim to have heard while the accused is in pretrial detention in exchange for sentence reductions or other inducements, have been the focus of particular controversy; some examples of their use are in connection with Stanley Williams, Cameron Todd Willingham, Gerald Stano, Thomas Silverstein, Marshall "Eddie" Conway, a suspect in the disappearance of Etan Patz. The Innocence Project has stated that 15% of all wrongful convictions exonerated because of DNA results were accompanies by false testimony by jailhouse informants. 50% of murder convictions exonerated by DNA were accompanied by false testimony by jailhouse informants. Slang terms for informants include: Stikker — Danish term meaning "stabber". Used in relation to World War Two. Blabbermouth cheese eater canary -- derives from the fact.
"Singing" is street slang for providing information or talking to the police. Dog — Australian. May refer to police wh
Belle Epoque (film)
Belle Epoque is a 1992 Spanish comedy-drama film directed by Fernando Trueba. The title does not derive from the period in French history known as the Belle Époque but from the days before the Spanish Civil War. Belle Epoque received the Goya Award for Best Film along with eight other Goya Awards and was named Best Foreign Language Film at the 66th Academy Awards; the year is 1931. Spain is politically divided between Republicans and Traditionalists and on the verge of the Spanish Second Republic. Fernando, a young soldier, deserts, he befriends an old man with a large house in the country. Fernando is enchanted by Manolo's four daughters; as he meets each of the first three one by one, he falls in love and has sex with each of them, determining to marry but with each one a complication arises: Clara, a widow who only lost her husband and who seeks solace with Fernando. Heartbroken each time, the father of the girls encourages him to have patience; each of the daughters represents a different aspect of feminine sexuality.
The youngest of the family, represents naïveté. While Fernando is pursuing her sisters, Luz gets progressively angry and jealous but Fernando realizes that she is the best one of the four to marry. Jorge Sanz as Fernando Fernando Fernán Gómez as Manolo Miriam Díaz Aroca as Clara Ariadna Gil as Violeta Maribel Verdú as Rocío Penélope Cruz as Luz Gabino Diego as Juanito Michel Galabru as Danglard Agustín González as Don Luis Chus Lampreave as Doña Asun Mary Carmen Ramírez as Amalia Juan José Otegui as Guard Jesús Bonilla as Guard María Galiana as La Polonia Joan Potau as Paco Belle Epoque received positive reviews getting a 93% on rottentomatoes.com. The film is mentioned in the 2010 American film The Fighter. 1993 Goya Awards Best Film Best Director – Fernando Trueba Best Lead Actress – Ariadna Gil Best Supporting Actor – Fernando Fernán Gómez Best Supporting Actress – Chus Lampreave Best Original Screenplay – Rafael Azcona, José Luis García Sánchez, Fernando Trueba Best Cinematography – José Luis Alcaine Best Production Design – Juan Botella Best Editing – Carmen Frías 1993 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film 43rd Berlin International Film Festival Golden Bear List of submissions to the 66th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Spanish submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Belle Epoque on IMDb Belle Epoque at Box Office Mojo Belle Epoque at Rotten Tomatoes
ETA (separatist group)
ETA, an acronym for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, was an armed leftist Basque nationalist and separatist organization in the Basque Country. The group was founded in 1959 and evolved from a group promoting traditional Basque culture to a paramilitary group engaged in a violent campaign of bombing and kidnappings in the Southern Basque Country and throughout Spanish territory, its goal was gaining independence for the Basque Country. ETA was the main group within the Basque National Liberation Movement and was the most important Basque participant in the Basque conflict. Between 1968 and 2010, it killed injured thousands more. ETA was classified as a terrorist group by Spain, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union; this convention was followed by a plurality of domestic and international media, which referred to the group as "terrorists". There are more than 260 imprisoned former members of the group in Spain and other countries. ETA declared ceasefires in 1989, 1996, 1998 and 2006.
On 5 September 2010, ETA declared a new ceasefire that remained in force, on 20 October 2011, ETA announced a "definitive cessation of its armed activity". On 24 November 2012, it was reported that the group was ready to negotiate a "definitive end" to its operations and disband completely; the group announced on 7 April 2017 that it had given up all its explosives. On 2 May 2018, ETA made public a letter dated to 16 April 2018 according to which it had "completely dissolved all its structures and ended its political initiative". ETA's motto was Bietan jarrai, referring to the two figures in its symbol, a snake wrapped around an axe. ETA changed its internal structure on several occasions for security reasons; the group used to have a hierarchical organization with a leading figure at the top, delegating into three substructures: the logistical and political sections. Reports from Spanish and French police pointed towards significant changes in ETA's structures in its years. ETA divided the three substructures into a total of eleven.
The change was a response to captures, possible infiltration, by the different law enforcement agencies. ETA's intention was to reduce the impact of detentions; the leading committee comprised 7 to 11 individuals, ETA's internal documentation referred to it as Zuba, an abbreviation of Zuzendaritza Batzordea. There was another committee named Zuba-hitu; the eleven different substructures were: logistics, international relations with fraternal organisations, military operations, prisoner support, information, recruitment and treasury. ETA's armed operations were organized in different taldes or commandos composed of three to five members, whose objective was to conduct attacks in a specific geographic zone; the taldes were coordinated by the cúpula militar. To supply the taldes, support groups maintained safe zulos; the small cellars used to hide the people kidnapped are named by ETA and ETA's supporters "people's jails". The most common commandos were itinerant, not linked to any specific area, thus were more difficult to capture.
Among its members, ETA distinguished between legales/legalak, those members who did not have police records and lived normal lives. There were imprisoned members of the group, serving time scattered across Spain and France, that sometimes still have significant influence inside the organisation. In the past there was the figure of the deportees, expelled by the French government to remote countries where they lived freely. ETA's internal bulletin was named replacing the earlier one Zutik. ETA promoted the kale borroka, that is, violent acts against public transportation, political parties offices or cultural buildings, destruction of private property of politicians, military, council members, anyone voicing criticism against ETA, bank offices, graffiti of political mottoes, general rioting using Molotov cocktails; these groups were made up of young people, who were directed through youth organisations. Many members of ETA started their collaboration with the group as participants in the kale borroka.
The former political party Batasuna, disbanded in 2003, pursued the same political goals as ETA and did not condemn ETA's use of violence. Known as Euskal Herritarrok and "Herri Batasuna", it was banned by the Spanish Supreme Court as an anti-democratic organisation following the Political Parties Law, It received 10% to 20% of the vote in the Basque Autonomous Community. Batasuna's political status was controversial, it was considered to be the political wing of ETA. Moreover, after the investigations on the nature of the relationship between B