Park Glienicke, is an English landscape garden in the southwestern outskirts of Berlin, Germany. It is located in the locality of Wannsee in the Steglitz-Zehlendorf borough. Close to Glienicke Bridge the park is open to the general public; the park is Parks of Potsdam and Berlin. Within the ensemble it is one of the five main parks, the others being Sanssouci Park, New Garden, Babelsberg Park and Peacock Island. Regarding diversity in gardening styles within the Potsdam park ensemble Park Glienicke is only superseded by Sanssouci Park. Furthermore, it is a park characterized by one personality due to the intense involvement of Prince Charles of Prussia; the park covers 116 hectares In 1682 Frederick William of Brandenburg, the Great Elector, commissioned the first hunting lodge Jagdschloss Glienicke next to the uninhabited village Klein-Glienicke which suffered badly in the Thirty Years' War. The lodge had a garden with four carp ponds. South of the lodge was an enclosed wildlife park. Since 1660 the first wooden Glienicke Bridge linked the area to Potsdam.
In 1715 under Frederick William, the Soldier King, the lodge became a military hospital for soldiers to be quarantined. In 1747 the hospital head Dr. Mirow bought the tree garden and the new vineyard which were neglected since the Soldier King's death and established there an estate where besides farming kilns for bricks and lime were operated. In 1758 the lodge itself was turned into a wallpaper factory which became an orphanage in 1827. From 1789 on the Berlin-Potsdam chaussee was built distinctly separating former lodge and new estate; the Mirow estate had different owners until the Prussian lieutenant general and head equerry Count Carl von Lindenau bought it in 1796 and converted it into an ornamented farm./ After the Prussian Chancellor Karl August von Hardenberg had purchased the estate in 1814, he commissioned the Prussian gardener Peter Joseph Lenné to design a park in 1816. The first part was the pleasure ground inspired by English landscape gardening. In 1822 Germany's renowned landscape gardener Prince Hermann von Pückler-Muskau brought the English architect John Adey Repton to Glienicke.
After his return to England J. A. Repton designed a Hardenberg basket inspired by a wooden basket containing a bed of roses in Glienicke. In November 1822 Chancellor Hardenberg died. In 1824 the estate was sold to Prince Charles of Prussia, it has remained a mystery why the unmarried third-born son of the Prussian king was the first son to get his own estate. While the mansion was converted into Glienicke Palace, designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Prince Charles developed the park together with Lenné and other gardeners in the following decades to the extent, still visible today. Being a particular anglophile he had the nickname „Sir Charles Glienicke“ within the Prussian royal family, yet he never travelled to England as he was opposed to British politics like his anglophile sister Charlotte, the wife of Russian Emperor Nicholas I. Visiting his sister Prince Charles travelled several times to Saint Petersburg, where he was fascinated by Pavlovsk Park, designed as a classic English landscape garden.
Park Glienicke was well known to the European aristocracy as the protocol for state visits to the Prussian capital required to pay a visit to Prince Charles in Glienicke. On 14 August 1858 Prince Consort Albert visited Palace and Park Glienicke. Earlier that year their daughter Victoria had married Charles' nephew Crown Prince Frederick William of Prussia. After the park had been called Prince's Charles of Prussia Park since 1824 it was renamed to Prince's Friedrich Leopold of Prussia Park in 1885; as Charles' son Friedrich Carl of Prussia survived him by only two years the grandson Friedrich Leopold inherited Palace and Park Glienicke. Despite the instruction in Charles' will that the heirs should spend each year 30,000 Mark on the park Friedrich Leopold neglected the park; when Germany became a republic in 1919 Palace and Park Glienicke remained part of the Prince's property. Palace and park suffered further neglect as Friedrich Leopold moved to Lugano in Switzerland and took several pieces of art with him to pay off his debts.
In 1924 the Prussian state bought the part of Böttcherbergpark. A development plan of 1928 for that area was not carried out. Friedrich Leopold's intention to sell off the areas of the 1841 park extension was blocked by the Prussian state resulting in a lawsuit which ended with the Prince's death in 1931. After the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 the City of Berlin bought most of the park in 1934 and 1935. Julius Lippert, Reichskommissar of Berlin pressed the legal guardian of the heir to sell and used the confiscated assets of the German bank manager and art collector Herbert M. Gutmann to pay; the Prince's family kept an triangular area in the southwest of the park including palace and pleasure ground. The park was opened to the public and named Volkspark Glienicke indicating Lippert's populist intention; the official opening was on Adolf Hitler's birthday. The following years the park suffered e.g. from the changes to the Berlin-Potsdam chaussee which became part of the Reichsstraße 1. After being appointed mayor of Berlin in 1937 Julius Lippert planned to have Glienicke as his official residence and let acquire the remaining part, not owned by the city.
In 1940 Lippert lost his offic
Köllnischer Park is a public park located near the River Spree in Mitte, Berlin. It is named after one of the two cities which came together to form Berlin. 1 hectare in area, the park came into existence in the 18th and 19th centuries on the site of fortifications. It was redesigned as a public park in 1869–73 and was further modified in the 20th century with the addition of first a bear enclosure, the Bärenzwinger, a permanent exhibition of sculpture, the Lapidary; the park is a registered Berlin landmark. The park contains five buildings, the first of them being the Märkisches Museum, a complex of buildings; the complex was built between 1907 and 1907, was designed by Ludwig Hoffmann. The second was the Bärenzwinger, next to the south entrance to the park; this was built between 1938 and 1939 on the site of a former sanitation depot, was designed by Ludwig Hoffmann. The Bärenzwinger has contained up to five bears at once, however no longer contains any following the death of Schnute, Berlin's last official city bear in 2015.
At the east end of the park there is the Landesversicherungsanstalt building, a large office building designed by Alfred Messel, to be the headquarters of the Landesversicherungsanstalt, an insurance company. The fourth building is the AOK building, a six-storey steel-framed office building built from purplish brick, on the south side of the park, opposite the Bärenzwinger; the final building is the Volksbadeanstalt, on the western side of the park. It was built in 1888 as a public bath; the park lies between Wallstraße on the north side, the Straße am Köllnischen Park on the east side, Rungestraße on the south side and Inselstraße on the west side. Its boundaries are not delimited; the western edge is dominated by a large office building built in 1903/04 as the headquarters of the Landsversicherungsanstalt, used for the past few years by the Department of Urban Development of the Senate of Berlin, the southern by the 1931/32 building of the German health insurance group Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse, which under the German Democratic Republic was the Parteihochschule Karl Marx.
The park is accessible via the Märkisches Museum U-Bahn station on line U2 and bus number 147. It is close to the promenade, created along the bank of the Spree south of the Jannowitzbrücke; the site of Köllnischer Park was just outside Cölln in the Middle Ages. Until the mid-17th century, it was undeveloped low-lying, swampy land prone to flooding by the Spree. Following the decision by Frederick William, the'Great Elector' to encircle Berlin with fortifications, this became the location of Bastion VII, known at the time as "the bulwerk in the morass'; the work required the creation of large embankments and lasted until 1683. After such lengthy construction, the works were out of date militarily, after 1700 served only to control the comings and goings of visitors and residents, prevent desertion, enable the collection of tolls on those entering the city. By 1700, Mulberry trees had been planted on the walls, but only'persons of rank' were permitted to promenade along them. After Berlin had grown and the Customs Wall had been built around it, King Frederick William I ordered the defensive walls to be demolished.
Civilian buildings had grown up on the bastions. Some of the rubble from the demolished fortifications was used to build up Wilhelmstraße. In 1736, Frederick William I gave the site of the park and the Märkisches Museum to one of his generals, Friedrich Sebastian Winnibald Truchseß, Count of Waldburg, who built a house there and laid out an extensive garden. After his death in the Battle of Hohenfriedberg, David Splitgerber, a merchant and banker, bought the land and was given the remaining eastern bastion section. In 1779, the baroque garden was mentioned by the bookseller and author Friedrich Nicolai: "It has charming areas, in particular it includes an open pavilion on a rise, small, but has tall trees growing upon it"; the sugar plant was forced to close in 1788. The buildings on the site were used in succession as tobacco storage, a hospital, a workhouse, a men's lunatic asylum; the Märkisches Museum was built there. Splitgerber's heirs sold the garden and in 1799 it was acquired by a Freemason lodge, the Große National-Mutterloge zu den drei Weltkugeln.
The Freemasons built a lodge building which opened in December 1800, developed the remainder into a landscape garden, one of the most attractive gardens in Berlin. In 1858/59 Inselstraße was extended through the garden to connect Köpenicker Straße to the city centre, the Lodge was forced to sell the larger, eastern portion of the site to the city; the Köllnisches Gymnasium was built there. How to use the remainder of the site was discussed for years. On 15 April 1869, the Assembly of City Deputies decided to establish a public playground (probably one of t
Volkspark Friedrichshain is a large urban park on the border of the Berlin neighborhoods of Friedrichshain and Prenzlauer Berg. The oldest public park in Berlin, at 52 hectares, it is the fourth-largest, after Tempelhofer Park and Jungfernheide; the park was conceived by the landscape gardener Peter Joseph Lenné, in 1840 the Berlin city council decided to construct it on the occasion of the centennial of Frederick the Great's ascension to the Prussian throne. The oldest parts of the park were laid out in 1846-1848 based on plans by Johann Heinrich Gustav Meyer, a landscape architect who held the post of city park director, learned his craft in the botanical garden of Schöneberg; the park was constructed on the space of a former vineyard, opened in 1848 with an area of 46 hectares. The size and layout of the park have changed over the intervening years. In 1848, the Friedhof der Märzgefallenen was created. Another of the earliest changes was due to the construction of Berlin's first urban hospital, Krankenhaus im Friedrichshain, built in 1868 to 1874 in the southeast part of the park.
The hospital, designed by Martin Gropius and Heino Schmieden, was directed by the notable Rudolf Virchow. An element of the park that has survived the destruction wrought during the Second World War is the Fairy Tale Fountain. Designed in 1913 by Berlin's city building director, Ludwig Hoffmann, the fountain contains 106 stone sculptures representing characters from traditional German fairy tales; the fountain was created for the children of Berlin, during a time in which rickets and typhoid were endemic, took 12 years to complete. The Second World War had a dramatic impact upon the rest of the park; the Nazi military made use of the park, constructing flak towers in 1941, as well as bunkers, as a result much of the park was destroyed by Allied bombing during the war. At the end of the war Berlin was divided into four parts by the Allied Powers, the Volkspark resided in the Soviet Sector; the reconstruction of the park was therefore undertaken by the German Democratic Republic. A plan was devised by Reinhold Linger, the GDR director of landscape and park architecture, to create two small artificial mountains in the park out of rubble from the bombed-out city.
In 1946 the bunkers were destroyed and covered by over two million cubic meters of rubble from the ruins of destroyed buildings. The larger of the two hills became known as both "Mont Klamott" and "Großer Bunkerberg", the "tall bunker mountain", is 78 meters tall; the smaller hill, "Kleiner Bunkerberg", the "small bunker mountain", has a height of 48 meters. With the passage of time and the growth of greenery, the hills now appear to be natural features; the park continued its evolution during the cold war. An open air theater was constructed at the southern end of the park in 1950, after recent renovation remains open today. In preparation for the 3rd World Festival of Youth an Students two pools were constructed during the period from 1949–1951; the complex included a 5-meter deep pool for diving, an 8-lane, 50-meter long swimming pool, along with stands for up to 8000 spectators. Around 1963, the swimming pool received a collapsible mobile roof that allowed for winter use, although the roof was incorrectly constructed as it was too low.
School swimming events, competitions training took place at the stadium, it served for other mass events such as Hauff and Henkler's appearance during the 10th World Festival of Youth and Students in 1973. Due to the conditions of the pool basins and degradation of the bleachers, the facility was demolished in 1999. Only the four lantern pillars of the western gate remain, which were made in the workshop of Karl Souradny in 1951. In GDR times a youth recreation camp existed in the Indianerdorf. In 1989, a Japanese Pavilion which included a Peace Bell dedicated to unity against nuclear war was constructed in between the two Schuttberge as a gift from Japan to East Berlin; the period from 1995 to 2004 saw a period of renovation and reconstruction, during which the Fairy Tale Fountain was cleaned of a great deal of vandalism that had taken place following German reunification. The swimming pools built in the GDR period have been replaced by a sports complex for beach volleyball, rock climbing and cycling.
The Volkspark abounds in monuments. In 1989, a Japanese Pavilion which included a Peace Bell dedicated to unity against nuclear war was constructed in between the two Schuttberge as a gift from Japan to East Berlin; the park has monuments to Frederick the Great, the March Revolution of 1848, the 1918 Red Sailors' Revolution, the Memorial to Polish Soldiers and German Anti-Fascists and the Spanish Civil War. The Gedenkstätte der 3000 Interbrigadisten, located on the Friedenstrasse, was built in 1968 and commemorates 3000 fighters who served in International Brigades during the Spanish Civil War; the six-meter-high bronze figure was designed by Fritz Cremer, with reliefs created by Siegfried Krepp. The period from 1995 to 2004 saw a period of renovation and reconstruction, during which the Fairy Tale Fountain was cleaned of a great deal of vandalism that had taken place following German reunif
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Berlin Blockade was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Western control; the Soviets offered to drop the blockade if the Western Allies withdrew the newly introduced Deutsche Mark from West Berlin. The Western Allies organised the Berlin airlift to carry supplies to the people of West Berlin, a difficult feat given the size of the city's population. Aircrews from the United States Air Force, the Royal Air Force, the French Air Force, the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force, the Royal New Zealand Air Force, the South African Air Force flew over 200,000 sorties in one year, providing to the West Berliners up to 12,941 tons of necessities in a day, such as fuel and food, with the original plan being to lift 3,475 tons of supplies. However, by the end of the airlift, that number was met twofold.
The Soviets did not disrupt the airlift for fear this might lead to open conflict though they far outnumbered the allies in Germany and Berlin. By the spring of 1949, the airlift was succeeding, by April it was delivering more cargo than had been transported into the city by rail. On 12 May 1949, the USSR lifted the blockade of West Berlin, although for a time the U. S. U. K and France continued to supply the city by air anyway because they were worried that the Soviets were going to resume the blockade and were only trying to disrupt western supply lines; the Berlin Blockade served to highlight the competing ideological and economic visions for postwar Europe and was the first major multinational skirmish of the cold war. From July 17 to August 2, 1945, the victorious Allies reached the Potsdam Agreement on the fate of postwar Europe, calling for the division of defeated Germany into four temporary occupation zones; these zones were located around the then-current locations of the allied armies.
Divided into occupation zones, Berlin was located 100 miles inside Soviet-controlled eastern Germany. The United States, United Kingdom, France controlled western portions of the city, while Soviet troops controlled the eastern sector. In the eastern zone, the Soviet authorities forcibly unified the Communist Party of Germany and Social Democratic Party in the Socialist Unity Party, claiming at the time that it would not have a Marxist–Leninist or Soviet orientation; the SED leaders called for the "establishment of an anti-fascist, democratic regime, a parliamentary democratic republic" while the Soviet Military Administration suppressed all other political activities. Factories, technicians and skilled personnel were removed to the Soviet Union. In a June 1945 meeting, Stalin informed German communist leaders that he expected to undermine the British position within their occupation zone, that the United States would withdraw within a year or two and that nothing would stand in the way of a united Germany under communist control within the Soviet orbit.
Stalin and other leaders told visiting Bulgarian and Yugoslavian delegations in early 1946 that Germany must be both Soviet and communist. A further factor contributing to the Blockade was that there had never been a formal agreement guaranteeing rail and road access to Berlin through the Soviet zone. At the end of the war, western leaders had relied on Soviet goodwill to provide them with access. At that time, the western allies assumed that the Soviets' refusal to grant any cargo access other than one rail line, limited to ten trains per day, was temporary, but the Soviets refused expansion to the various additional routes that were proposed; the Soviets granted only three air corridors for access to Berlin from Hamburg, Bückeburg, Frankfurt. In 1946 the Soviets stopped delivering agricultural goods from their zone in eastern Germany, the American commander, Lucius D. Clay, responded by stopping shipments of dismantled industries from western Germany to the Soviet Union. In response, the Soviets started a public relations campaign against American policy and began to obstruct the administrative work of all four zones of occupation.
Until the blockade began in 1948, the Truman Administration had not decided whether American forces should remain in West Berlin after the establishment of a West German government, planned for 1949. Berlin became the focal point of both US and Soviet efforts to re-align Europe to their respective visions; as Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov noted, "What happens to Berlin, happens to Germany. Berlin had suffered enormous damage. After harsh treatment, forced emigration, political repression and the hard winter of 1945–1946, Germans in the Soviet-controlled zone were hostile to Soviet endeavours. Local elections in 1946 resulted in a massive anti-communist protest vote in the Soviet sector of Berlin. Berlin's citizens overwhelmingly elected non-Communist members to its city government. Meanwhile, to coordinate the economies of the British and United States occupation zones, these were combined on 1 January 1947 into what was referred to as the Bizone. After March 1946 the British zonal advisory board was established, with representatives of the states, the central offices, political parties, trade unions, consumer organisations.
As indicated by its name, the zonal advisory board had no legislative p
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Volkspark am Weinberg
The Volkspark am Weinberg is the only Volkspark in Berlin's Mitte locality in the district of the same name and covers an area of 4.3 hectares. It is bordered by Weinbergsweg to the southeast, Brunnenstraße to the southwest, Veteranenstraße to the northwest and Fehrbelliner Straße to the northeast; the name Weinberg goes back to the vineyards that occupied the hill on which the park is now situated. Since the late 1970s, the park has been designated as a garden monument. A Gründerzeit development existed on the current park's location since the middle of the 18th century. In the area along the Invaliden- and Brunnenstraße, from Fehrbelliner Straße up to the level of Zehdenicker Straße, was used as Mullberry plantation and housed the Villa Wollank; the space was used as a garden pub and amusement site. From 1936, a part of the villa belonging to the park was leased to the city of Berlin and opened to the public. Several theatres opened on either side of the park, including the Walhalla-Theater with Carows Lachbühne.
During the Second World War, Allied Air Raids from 1943 onwards destroyed the buildings and developments around the current Weinberg park, with the area being cleared of debris after the war. In 1954-1956, the park was constructed according to the plans of landscape architect Helmut Kruse, who planned a richly structured park with diverse design and utilisation areas taking into account the hillside location. Between 1957 and 1958, the Café am Weinberg building was constructed on the elevated plateau, offering visitors a panoramic view of the park; the building was designed by Max Kowohl. In the southwestern corner of the park, a kidney-shaped pond was laid out, surrounded by a central lawn for sunbathing; the park occupied a special position in the Berlin green plan of the 1950s, as it is the only park of its size and independent formal form, at a time when the restoration or renewal of war-damaged parks was the city's main focus. Between the remaining buildings of the Invalidenstrasse and the Weinbergsweg lies a rose garden with a fountain, a playground and a sports facility with a football pitch and table tennis tables, separated by a height offset on the north side.
Other themed gardens, such as the Heidegarten, Schau- und Sichtungsgarten and the Alpinum, designed to introduce Berliners to a wide variety of plant types, are located along the main access paths surrounding the central lawn. In the northwest of the park stands Waldemar Grzimek's 1955 monument to poet Heinrich Heine, planned to be displayed in Kastanienwäldchen in 1956. However, the sculpture was erected here in this people's park in 1958. On the base of the statue a quote from Heinrich Heine can be read: "We do not seize an idea but the idea seizes us and enslaves us and whips us into the arena like forced gladiators to fight for it." The lawn on the southwest slope is a popular summer sunbathing spot for locals. Below the lawn is an artificial pond, above a Swiss restaurant and café, the rose garden, a playground and a sports complex with a football pitch and table tennis tables, all of which are used intensively. Although the residential area in the surrounding area is one of the areas with the highest number of children in Berlin, the park has not been adequately maintained for years.
Only after residents demanded the repair in neighbourhood talks and by collecting signatures in order to counter the establishment of a drug scene, did the Senate make funds available for this garden monument. Regular checks are carried out in the park through the police station directly adjacent to the park; this and the reports in the tabloid press sparked a debate against a sweeping condemnation of dealers. Soon thereafter, in August 2007, the district council provided funds for the repair and extension of the park’s lighting system. Since the end of 2005, the Volkspark am Weinberg has been renovated with a budget of around one million euros. Julie Gräbert, better known as Mutter Gräbert, was in charge of the Suburban Theatre at the Weinbergsweg from 1854 onwards; the theatre became known in the city because of its „primal Berlinism“. Here the'Berliner Posse' found a home next to the established Königsstädtisches Theater|Wallner-Theater; the Suburban Theatre was a victim of the Gründerzeit period - after Gräbert's death in 1871, it was demolished in 1873 and Zehdenicker Straße was built in its place.
Julie Gräbert was buried in the nearby Elisabeth-Kirchhof cemetery. Entries in the Berlin State Monument List: am Weinberg, Café Weinberg im Volkspark Weinbergspark at brunnenstrasse.de