The Alpine Rhine Valley is a glacial alpine valley, formed by the part of the Alpine Rhine between the confluence of the Anterior Rhine and Posterior Rhine at Reichenau and the Alpine Rhine's mouth at Lake Constance. It covers the full length of the Apine Rhine is 93.5 km. From Reichenau, the Alpine Rhine flows east, passing Chur and turning north, before it turns north-east at Landquart, roughly north, east of Sargans. From here, the Alpine Rhine forms the border between the canton of St. Gallen of Switzerland on the left, west side, the Principality of Liechtenstein on the east side. About 28 kilometres further down, the Rhine meets the Austrian federal state Vorarlberg and flows into Lake Constance, south of Lindau, no longer part of the Rhine Valley; the Swiss-Austrian border follows the historical bed of the Rhine, but today the river follows an artificial canal within Austria for the final 5 kilometres. The Rhine Valley's upper third has the character of an Alpine valley, enclosing a bottom plain of about 1 to 4 kilometres across.
Downstream of Vaduz, the valley widens developing into a broad plain, measuring some 10 kilometres across at its lower end along the southeastern shores of Lake Constance. From the point of the Rhine's emergence from Lake Constance, it is known as High Rhine. Right tributaries of the Alpine Rhine are the Plessur in Chur, the Landquart in the village of the same name, the Ill and Frutz on the Upper Land of the Austrian plain near Feldkirch; the Alpine Rhine has no major left tributaries. Though all left tributaries in the St. Gall Rhine Valley are collected by the Rheintaler Binnenkanal, which flows into Lake of Constance by Alter Rhein, never meets the Alpine Rhine anymore; the alpine valley is flanked by its mountain ranges, some higher than 3,000 metres. The highest mountain of the Alpine Rhine Valley, the Ringelspitz, lies at the beginning, above Tamins. At 3'247 m, it is the highest peak of the canton of St. Gallen, bordering the Alps valley with its southeast flank. Geographical parts of the Alpine Rhine Valley are: Upper half: Chur Rhine Valley, or Grisonian Rhine Valley: The name refers to the town of Chur, or its canton Graubünden, respectively.
It ends east of Sargans. Lower half: To the north, the Bündner Rheintal crosses into the Rhine valley between Sargans and Lake of Constance, where it forms the border between the canton of St. Gallen on the west side and Liechtenstein and Austria on its east side. On both sides, the valley is called the Rhine Valley, though the Swiss sometimes call it the St. Gall Rhine Valley in order to distinguish it from its upper half. St. Gall Rhine Valley: On its western side, the Rhine Valley is politically further divided into Werdenberg and Rheintal, though geographically it is separated by the Hirschensprung near Rüthi. Eastern side: On its eastern side, the upper half of the valley is called the Lichtenstein Rhine Valley. Vorarlberg Rhine Valley: The lower half is called the Voralberg Rhine Valley, since it belongs to the Austrian federal state Voralberg, it is further referred to as the Upper and Lower Lands. The Lower Lands, sometimes called Vorderland, stretches from the shores of Lake Constance to the small hill Kummaberg to the south, the upper part lies south of it.
The Alpine Rhine begins in the centre of the Swiss canton of Grisons, forms the border between Switzerland to the west and Liechtenstein and Austria to the east. It is formed near Tamins-Reichenau by the confluence of the Posterior Rhine, it descends from an elevation of 585 to 396 metres. The river makes a distinctive turn to the north near Chur. At Landquart it turns north-east and to the north east of Sargans. Near Sargans a natural dam, only a few metres high, prevents it from flowing further to the north-west into the open valley, called Seeztal, consequently through Lake Walen; the mouth of the Rhine into Lake Constance forms an inland delta. The delta is delimited in the west in the east by a modern canalized section. Most of the delta is a nature reserve and bird sanctuary and has been designated as a Ramsar site since 1982.. It includes the Austrian towns of Höchst and Fußach; the natural Rhine branched into at least two arms and formed small islands by precipitating sediments. A regulation of the Rhine was called for, with an upper canal near Diepoldsau and a lower canal at Fußach, in order to counteract the constant flooding and strong sedimentation in the western Rhine Delta.
The Dornbirner Ach had to be diverted, it now flows parallel to the canalized Rhine into the lake. Its water has a darker color than the Rhine, it is expected. This has happened to the former Lake Tuggenersee; the cut-off Old Rhine at first formed a swamp landscape. An artificial ditch of about 2 kilometres was dug, it was made navigable to the Swiss town of Rheineck. The Alpine valley is ch
The Pfrimm is a 42.7-kilometre long, left or western tributary of the Rhine in the Rhineland-Palatinate. The Pfrimm rises in the southern part of the Donnersbergkreis, its spring lies in the northern part of the Palatinate Forest Nature Park, about 3 kilometres southeast of the municipality Sippersfeld in the protected area Sippersfelder Weiher, which contains several ponds in the Hinterwald area. The spring is in a valley surrounded by the hills Sperberhöhe in the east, Salweidenkopf in the south and Schnepfberg in the southwest. In 1927, the spring was encased in basalt stones. About 10 metres north of the spring, the Pfrimm river flows through a pond named Pfrimmweiher and subsequently through a pond named Sippersfelder Weiher, it does not flow thought the nearby pond Retzbergweiher, which lies nearby to the west. The Pfrimm flows through agricultural areas, about parallel to the federal road B47; the upper part of the river drains the northern parts of the North Palatine Uplands. Below the Sippersfelder Weiher, it flows to the north, past Pfrimmerhof, which belongs to the municipality of Sippersfeld west past the hill Pfrimmer Berg and through the village of Breunigweiler, where the Mohbach joins from the southeast.
After entering the Alzey Hills, the Pfrimm takes up the Bornbach and flows northeastward past Standenbühl, while the Donnersberg mountains are a few kilometers further northeast. Between Standenbühl and Dreisen, the Münsterhof, the former Premonstratensian abbey Münsterdreisen, is situated on the Pfrimm's southern shore. An old bulging sandstone bridge from 1770 spans the river at this point. Below Dreisen, the Häferbach joins from the west. In Marnheim, the Gerbach joins from the west. From here, the Pfrimm flows past Albisheim the Leiselsbach joins from the northwest, it flows east to Harxheim, where the Ammelbach joins from the south. The Pfrimm continues thereby into Rhenish Hesse, it flows via Wachenheim to Monsheim, where it crosses under federal road B121. The section between Marnheim and Monsheim is known as the Zellertal valley. Within the municipality Monsheim, the Pfrimm forms the boundary between the wards Monsheim and Kriegsheim; the Pfrimm reaches the urban district of Worms. It flows through the western ward of Pfeddersheim, where in 1525 the Battle of Pfeddersheim took place.
To the west of the village, we find the reacrational area Wiesenbrünnchen and the first of two so-called ox pianos. The Pfrimm crosses under the 30-metre high and 1,471.4-metre long bridge Talbrücke Pfeddersheim of the Autobahn A61. The Pfrimm flows through the city of Worms itself; this is the most canalized section of the river. It follows the Leiselheimer Damm, constructed in the Middle Ages and raised in 1841 as part of a Pfrimm improvement project. A footpath runs on top of the Damm alognside the river since 1890; the Pfrimm flows through the 300-metre long Pfrimmweiher pond and into the Karl-Bittel-Park, where the other "ox piano" can be found. The Pfrimm flows through the city center of Worms and turns north-northeast, it crosses under the Worms Port Railway. About 3 kilometres north of the city center, it flows into the Upper Rhine at Rhine kilometer 446.7. The Rhine forms the Worms city limit and the boundary between the states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse. In some years, the Pfrimm causes major flooding, for example in 1882, 1892, 1902, 1940, 1950, 1978, 1995 and 2003.
A high flood occurred on 27 November 1882, when all the mills along the river were flooded and the fields along the river were transformed into a series of lakes. The water flowed into Gaustraße street in the district of Neuhausen, north of the Worms Central Station; the water flowed into the Rhine near the Liebfrauenkirche Church. In the late 19th century and Hochheim were independent municipalities. A weir was constructed across the Pfrimm in the 1890s above the modern Karl-Bittel-Park. Directly below the weir a series of stepping stones was deployed below the weir in 1898, it is a combination of stone stairs leading down to Pfrimm steps and stepping stones lying in the river allowing pedestrians to cross. In the local vernacular it was called an "ox piano": "ox", because Karl Bittel, who constructed it, claimed an ox would be capable of crossing, "piano" because the stones were raised above the water like the black keys on a piano. A regular footbridge was built above the weir, so that the ox piano lost its importance.
The stones are still there and when the water level isn't too high, it can still be crossed. A fish ladder was added, allowing fish to overcome the weir. A much older ox piano could be found in the western part of in Pfeddersheimer in the middle of the Enzingerstraße. Here, a concrete dam and a weir were used to divert it into the Mühlbach. Water not needed by the mill was drained using an adjustable weir or, at higher water levels, across the entire width of the concrete barrier. Here, "ox piano" was constructed, allowing pedestrians to cross the Pfrimm with dry feet, if the water level permitted; the Mill Brook was about a meter deep, near the weir over two meters, was used by local residents for swimming and diving, as was the waterfall created by the weir. The Pfrimm is class
Enrique Domingo Dussel Ambrosini is an Argentine and Mexican academic, philosopher and theologian. He served as the interim rector of the Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México from 2013 to 2014. Enrique Dussel was born on December 1934 in La Paz, Argentina, he studied at the Universidad Nacional de Cuyo in Mendoza from 1953 to 1957, receiving an undergraduate degree in Philosophy, after which he travelled to Europe to continue his studies. He received a Doctorate from the Complutense University of Madrid, a Doctorate in History from the Sorbonne in Paris, an undergraduate degree in Theology obtained through studies in Paris and Münster. Between 1959 and 1961 he lived in Israel learning Arabic and Hebrew and working manual jobs at a cooperative led by French Jesuit Paul Gauthier, he returned to Argentina in 1969 and became influenced by Dependency Theory and the writings of Emmanuel Levinas, both of which were to become major influences on his thinking. In the events leading up to the military dictatorship in Argentina of 1976-1983, he was the target of violence, including death threats, the bombing of his house, sacking from the university.
He escaped to Mexico in 1975 as a political exile, where he continued his work as a Professor of Philosophy at the Iztapalapa campus of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana and in a teaching position at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Dussel received an honorary doctorate from the University of Fribourg in 1981, the University of San Andrés in 1995, the University of Buenos Aires in 2012, the Universidad Santo Tomás in 2015, the National University of San Martín in 2015, the University of Chile in 2017, he has produced an expansive body of work numbering some forty books on a range of subjects including the philosophy of liberation, political economy, theology and modernity/postmodernity. Much of his work is so far only limitedly available in English, some contend that his work has not received the broader attention it warrants. Additionally, he has been visiting professor for one semester at Frankfurt University, Notre Dame University, California State University, Los Angeles, Union Theological Seminary, Loyola University Chicago, Vanderbilt University, Duke University, Harvard University, others.
In March 2013 he was named the interim rector of the Autonomous University of Mexico City for a period of one year. Dussel has maintained dialogue with philosophers such as Karl-Otto Apel, Gianni Vattimo, Jürgen Habermas, Richard Rorty and Emmanuel Lévinas Author of more than 50 books, his thoughts cover many themes including: theology, philosophy, political philosophy and ontology, he has been a critic of postmodernity, preferring instead the term "transmodernity." Enrique Dussel is one of the primary figures along with others such as Rodolfo Kusch, Arturo Roig, Leopoldo Zea, in the philosophical movement referred to as the Philosophy of Liberation. The philosophical content is heterogenous but arises from and responds to the particular historical/socio-political context of Latin America as part of a global periphery; the movement originated in Argentina in the early 1970s but during the period of military dictatorship it dispersed across Latin America as many intellectuals were forced into exile.
Subsequently, the Philosophy of Liberation has been influential both in Latin America and beyond. The philosophy of liberation seeks to critique structures of colonialism, globalization and sexism, from the particular experience of exploitation and alienation of the global periphery, it poses a direct challenge to the discourses of Euro-American philosophy, emphasizes the socio-political responsibilities of Latin American philosophy towards the project of historical liberation. This work consists of edited versions of six lectures given by Dussel in 1972. Intended to sketch ideas developed in a second volume entitled Ethics and the Theology of Liberation, the text gives a wide-ranging account, focused on the history of the church and its role in Latin America, with the overarching goal of elaborating a distinctly Latin American Theology, centered around a liberatory politics. Dussel is concerned with history in constructing a sense of the history of Latin America, a sense of participation in a historical process towards liberation.
His account reaches back to human origins, includes topics ranging from Aztec and Inca belief systems and worldviews to the origins of Christianity, to the Byzantine Empire, to the role of the church in Spanish conquest. The second half of the book covers the 20th century, addressing the political upheavals of the 1960s, the violence and oppression endured under military regimes, the response of the church, the question of violent and non-violent resistance in Christian thinking. Dussel explores the compatibility of socialism with Christian doctrine, the possibility of a uniquely Latin American socialism; the single thread which runs most prominently through each section is the question of resistance to oppression. Dussel explores through exegesis the Christian obligation to overcome the sin of oppression through commitment to selfless action towards the goal of historical liberation. Ethics of Liberation: In the Age of Globalization and Exclusion, Duke University Press, Durham, 2013. Politics of Liberation, SCM Press, Philippines, 2011.
Twenty Theses on Politics, Silliman University Press, Durham, 2008. Beyond Philosophy: History and Liberation Theology and Littlefield, Maryland, 2003. Philosophy of Liberation, Wipf & S
The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north, it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery; the sea is a popular destination for recreation and tourism in bordering countries and more has developed into a rich source of energy resources including fossil fuels and early efforts in wave power. The North Sea has featured prominently in geopolitical and military affairs in Northern Europe, it was important globally through the power northern Europeans projected worldwide during much of the Middle Ages and into the modern era. The North Sea was the centre of the Vikings' rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus access to the world's markets and resources.
As Germany's only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geographical features. In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south, the coast consists of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the dense population, heavy industrialization, intense use of the sea and area surrounding it, there have been various environmental issues affecting the sea's ecosystems. Adverse environmental issues – including overfishing and agricultural runoff and dumping, among others – have led to a number of efforts to prevent degradation of the sea while still making use of its economic potential; the North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coast of Great Britain to the west and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.
In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the north-eastern part of the Atlantic; the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland and the Frisian Islands; the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea, including water from the Baltic Sea; the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some industrialized areas.
For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen, it has a maximum depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 m below the surface; this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms; these great banks and others make the North Sea hazardous to navigate, alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems. The Devil's Hole lies 200 miles east of Scotland; the feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long and two kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Fisher Bank and Noordhinder Bank; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows: On the Southwest.
A line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head in Scotland to Tor Ness in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy on to Breck Ness on Mainland through this island to Costa Head and to Inga Ness in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head and on to Seal Skerry and thence to Horse Island. On the North. From the North point of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness and across to Spoo Ness in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness, on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga all these being included in the North Sea area.
Düsseldorf is the capital and second-largest city of the most populous German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne, as well as the seventh-largest city in Germany. With a population of 617,280. At the confluence of the Rhine and its tributary Düssel, the city lies in the centre of both the Rhine-Ruhr and the Rhineland Metropolitan Regions with the Cologne Bonn region to its south and the Ruhr to its north. Most of the city lies on the right bank of the Rhine; the city is the largest in the German Low Franconian dialect area. "Dorf" meaning "village" in German, the "-dorf" suffix is unusual in the German-speaking area for a settlement of Düsseldorf's size. Mercer's 2012 Quality of Living survey ranked Düsseldorf the sixth most livable city in the world. Düsseldorf Airport is Germany's third-busiest airport after those of Frankfurt and Munich, serving as the most important international airport for the inhabitants of the densely populated Ruhr, Germany's largest urban area. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs, is headquarters to one Fortune Global 500 and two DAX companies.
Messe Düsseldorf organises nearly one fifth of premier trade shows. As second largest city of the Rhineland, Düsseldorf holds Rhenish Carnival celebrations every year in February/March, the Düsseldorf carnival celebrations being the third most popular in Germany after those held in Cologne and Mainz. There are 22 institutions of higher education in the city including the Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, the university of applied sciences, the academy of arts, the university of music; the city is known for its pioneering influence on electronic/experimental music and its Japanese community. When the Roman Empire was strengthening its position throughout Europe, a few Germanic tribes clung on in marshy territory off the eastern banks of the Rhine. In the 7th and 8th centuries, the odd farming or fishing settlement could be found at the point where the small river Düssel flows into the Rhine, it was from such settlements. The first written mention of Düsseldorf dates back to 1135. Under Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa the small town of Kaiserswerth to the north of Düsseldorf became a well-fortified outpost, where soldiers kept a watchful eye on every movement on the Rhine.
Kaiserswerth became a suburb of Düsseldorf in 1929. In 1186, Düsseldorf came under the rule of the Counts of Berg. 14 August 1288 is one of the most important dates in the history of Düsseldorf. On this day the sovereign Count Adolf VIII of Berg granted the village on the banks of the Düssel town privileges. Before this, a bloody struggle for power had taken place between the Archbishop of Cologne and the count of Berg, culminating in the Battle of Worringen; the Archbishop of Cologne's forces were wiped out by the forces of the count of Berg who were supported by citizens and farmers of Cologne and Düsseldorf, paving the way for Düsseldorf's elevation to city status, commemorated today by a monument on the Burgplatz. The custom of turning cartwheels is credited to the children of Düsseldorf. There are variations of the origin of the cartwheeling children. Today the symbol represents the story and every year the Düsseldorfers celebrate by having a cartwheeling contest. After this battle the relationship between the four cities deteriorated, because they were commercial rivals.
Today, it finds its expression in a humorous form and in sports. A market square sprang up on the banks of the Rhine and the square was protected by city walls on all four sides. In 1380, the dukes of Berg moved their seat to the town and Düsseldorf was made regional capital of the Duchy of Berg. During the following centuries several famous landmarks were built, including the Collegiate Church of St Lambertus. In 1609, the ducal line of the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg died out, after a virulent struggle over succession, Jülich and Berg fell to the Wittelsbach Counts of Palatinate-Neuburg, who made Düsseldorf their main domicile after they inherited the Electorate of the Palatinate, in 1685, becoming now Prince-electors as Electors Palatine. Under the art-loving Johann Wilhelm II, a vast art gallery with a huge selection of paintings and sculptures, were housed in the Stadtschloss. After his death, the city fell on hard times again after Elector Charles Theodore inherited Bavaria and moved the electoral court to Munich.
With him he took the art collection. Destruction and poverty struck Düsseldorf after the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon made Düsseldorf its capital. Johann Devaranne, a leader of Solingen's resistance to Napoleon's conscription decrees, was executed here in 1813. After Napoleon's defeat, the whole Rhineland including Berg was given to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815; the Rhine Province's parliament was established in Düsseldorf. By the mid-19th century, Düsseldorf enjoyed a revival thanks to the Industrial Revolution as the city boasted 100,000 inhabitants by 1882.
The Ergolz is the main river in the canton of Basel-Landschaft, Switzerland. It rises on Mount Geisflue in the Faltenjura mountains in the upper region of Basel-Landschaft, on the border with Aargau and Solothurn, joins the Rhine at Augst. Among the tributaries of the Ergolz are Eibach, Diegterbach, Orisbach, Röserenbach and Violenbach. Since 1934 the water level and discharge of the Ergolz have been measured at Liestal. During these more than 70 years, the average flow towards the Rhine was 3.73 cubic metres per second. During 2006, the average flow was 5.63 cubic metres per second. The peak in that year was on 10 April 2006, at 134 cubic metres per second; the extreme values measured at Liestal were a minimum of 0.1 cubic metres per second and a maximum of 155 cubic metres per second. The river supplied drinking water to the Roman city of Augusta Raurica. To this end, an aqueduct was constructed. Parts of the aqueduct still stand today. Two places where the aqueduct can be visited and walked today, are in the Heidenloch district of Liestal and north-east of the sewage treatment plant in Füllinsdorf.
The Ergolz was polluted during the first half of the 20th century. From 1960 onwards, pollution was countered by the construction of sewage treatment plants. Measurement data of the Federal Office for the Environment from 2006 Ergolz in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Water in the Jura mountains
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary