An abbey is a complex of buildings used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess. It provides a place for religious activities and housing of Christian monks and nuns; the concept of the abbey has developed over many centuries from the early monastic ways of religious men and women where they would live isolated from the lay community about them. Religious life in an abbey may be monastic. An abbey may be open to visitors; the layout of the church and associated buildings of an abbey follows a set plan determined by the founding religious order. Abbeys are self-sufficient while using any abundance of produce or skill to provide care to the poor and needy, refuge to the persecuted, or education to the young; some abbeys offer accommodation to people. There are many famous abbeys across Europe; the earliest known Christian monasteries were groups of huts built near the residence of a famous ascetic or other holy person. Disciples wished to be close to their holy man or woman in order to study their doctrine or imitate their way of life.
In the earliest times of Christian monasticism, ascetics would live in social isolation but near a village church. They would subsist whilst donating any excess produce to the poor. However, increasing religious fervor about the ascetic's ways and or persecution of them would drive them further away from their community and further into solitude. For instance, the cells and huts of anchorites have been found in the deserts of Egypt. In 312 AD, Anthony the Great retired to the Thebaid region of Egypt to escape the persecution of the Emperor Maximian. Anthony was the best known of the anchorites of his time due to his degree of austerity and his powers of exorcism; the deeper he withdrew into the wilderness, the more numerous his disciples became. They refused to be built their cells close to him; this became a first true monastic community. Anthony, according to Johann August Wilhelm Neander, inadvertently became the founder of a new mode of living in common, Coenobitism. At Tabennae on the Nile, in Upper Egypt, Saint Pachomius laid the foundations for the coenobitical life by arranging everything in an organized manner.
He built several monasteries, each with about 1,600 separate cells laid out in lines. These cells formed an encampment where the monks performed some of their manual tasks. There were nearby large halls such as the church, kitchen and guest house for the monk's common needs. An enclosure protecting all these buildings gave the settlement the appearance of a walled village; this layout, known as the laurae, became popular throughout Palestine. As well as the "laurae", communities known as "caenobia" developed; these were monasteries. The monks were not permitted to retire to the cells of a laurae before they had undergone a lengthy period of training. In time, this form of common life superseded that of the older laurae. In the late 300s AD, Palladius visited the Egyptian monasteries, he described three hundred members of the coenobium of Panopolis. There were seven smiths, four carpenters, twelve camel-drivers and fifteen tanners; these people were divided into subgroups, each with its own "oeconomus".
A chief steward was at the head of the monastery. The produce of the monastery was brought to Alexandria for sale; the moneys were given away as charity. Twice in the year, the superiors of several coenobia met at the chief monastery, under the presidency of an "archimandrite" in order to make their reports. Chrysostom recorded the workings of a coenobia in the vicinity of Antioch; the monks lived in separate huts. They were subject to an abbot, observed a common rule; the layout of the monastic coenobium was influenced by a number of factors. These included a need for defence, economy of space, convenience of access; the layout of buildings became orderly. Larger buildings were erected and defence was provided by strong outside walls. Within the walls, the buildings were arranged around one or more open courts surrounded by cloisters; the usual arrangement for monasteries of the Eastern world is exemplified in the plan of the convent of the Great Lavra at Mount Athos. With reference to the diagram, the convent of the Great Lavra is enclosed within a strong and lofty blank stone wall.
The area within the wall is between four acres. The longer side is about 500 feet in length. There is only one entrance, located on the north side, defended by three iron doors. Near the entrance is a large tower, a constant feature in the monasteries of the Levant. There is a small postern gate at L; the enceinte comprises two large open courts, surrounded with buildings connected with cloister galleries of wood or stone. The outer court, the larger by far, contains the granaries and storehouses, the kitchen and other offices connected with the refectory. Adjacent to the gateway is a two-storied guest-house, entered from a cloister; the inner court is surrounded by a cloister. In the centre of this court stands the katholikon or conventual church, a square building with an apse of the cruciform domical Byzantine type, approached by a domed narthex. In front of the church stands a marble fountain, covered by a dome supported on columns. Opening from the western side of the cloister, but s
Gymnasium, in the German education system, is the most advanced of the three types of German secondary schools, the others being Realschule and Hauptschule. Gymnasium emphasizes academic learning, comparable to the British grammar school system or with prep schools in the United States. A student attending Gymnasium is called a Gymnasiast. In 2009/10 there were 3,094 gymnasia in Germany, with c. 2,475,000 students, resulting in an average student number of 800 students per school. Gymnasia are public, state-funded schools, but a number of parochial and private gymnasia exist. In 2009/10, 11.1 percent of gymnasium students attended a private gymnasium. These charge tuition fees, though many offer scholarships. Tuition fees are lower than in comparable European countries; some gymnasia are boarding schools. Students are admitted at 10 years of age and are required to have completed four years of grundschule. In some states of Germany, permission to apply for gymnasium is nominally dependent on a letter of recommendation written by a teacher or a certain GPA, although when parents petition, an examination can be used to decide the outcome.
Traditionally, a pupil attended gymnasium for nine years in western Germany. However, since 2004, there has been a strong political movement to reduce the time spent at the gymnasium to eight years throughout Germany, nowadays most pupils throughout Germany attend the gymnasium for 8 years, dispensing with the traditional ninth year or oberprima, equivalent to the first year of higher education. Final year students take the abitur final exam; the gymnasium arose out of the humanistic movement of the sixteenth century. The first general school system to incorporate the gymnasium emerged in Saxony in 1528, with the study of Greek and Latin added to the curriculum later. Hebrew was taught in some gymnasia; the integration of philosophy and chemistry into the curriculum set the gymnasium apart from other schools. Due to the rise of German nationalism in the 1900s, the Gymnasium's focus on humanism came under attack, causing it to lose prestige. One of the harshest critics was Friedrich Lange, who assaulted the school's "excessive humanism and "aesthetic idealism.
He argued that they are not aligned with the aims of patriotism and the idea of Germanhood and that the country's history could provide the education and insights offered by the models of classical antiquity. After the Second World War, German education was reformed with the introduction of new system, content and ethos; the Gymnasium was retained, along with general schools. In Prussia, the Realgymnasium offered instead a nine-year course including Latin, but not Greek. Prussian Progymnasien and Realprogymnasien provided six- or seven-year courses, the Oberschulen offered nine-year courses with neither Greek nor Latin; the early twentieth century saw an increase in the number of Lyzeum schools for girls, which offered a six-year course. The rising prominence of girls' gymnasia was due to the ascendancy of the German feminist movement in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, corresponding to the rising demand for women's university education. Co-educational gymnasia have become widespread since the 1970s, today, single-sex gymnasia are rare in Germany.
When primary school ended with the fourth grade and pupils left German basic secondary schools at the end of the ninth or tenth grade, the gymnasium used special terms for its grade levels: The introduction of French and English as elective languages in the early twentieth century brought about the greatest change to German secondary education since the introduction of the Realschulen in the eighteenth century. Today, German gymnasia teach English, French, or Latin as a compulsory primary foreign language, while the compulsory second foreign language may be English, Latin, Ancient Greek, Spanish or Russian; the German State of Berlin, where secondary education begins in the seventh year of schooling, has some specialised gymnasia beginning with the fifth year which teach Latin or French as a primary foreign language. Teaching English as a subject has a long history at the Gymnasium and this is demonstrated by the time-honoured practices and subject matter that are unique to the gymnasia and could be baffling to outsiders.
It is offered in the last three years at school. Although some specialist gymnasia have English or French as the language of instruction, most lessons in a typical gymnasium are conducted in High German; this is true in regions where High German is not the prevailing dialect. Curricula differ from school to school, but include German, informatics/computer science, chemistry, geography, music, philosophy, civics / citizenship, social sciences, several foreign languages. For younger students nearly the entire curriculum of a gymnasium is compulsory. S. high school. Academic standards are high as the gymnasium caters for the upper 25-35% of the ability range. Schools concentrate not only on academic subjects
District 4, Düsseldorf
Rheinwiesen park District 4 is a city district of Düsseldorf, the state capital of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It has about 40,000 inhabitants. District 4 is the city's only district on the west bank of the Rhine and its quarters are popular residential areas. Across the river, it shares borders with Düsseldorf districts 5, 1 and 3. West and South-west, the district is bordered by the city of Neuss. District 4 is made up of four Stadtteile: The district is home to the headquarters of Vodafone Germany, bakery chain Kamps, world-leading tea bag producer Teekanne as well as the Rheinische Post publishing house. Largest Fair on the Rhine St. Antonius, Oberkassel Rheinwiesen The district is served by numerous railway stations and highway. Stations include a dense net of both Düsseldorf Stadtbahn light rail- and Rheinbahn tram-stations; the district can be reached via Bundesautobahn 57 and Bundesstraße 7. Theodor-Heuss-Brücke Oberkasseler Brücke Rheinkniebrücke The Japanische Internationale Schule in Düsseldorf first opened in a church building in Oberkassel on April 21, 1971, before moving to its permanent home in 1973.
From 1983 to 2001 junior high school students of the JISD attended classes at the former Lanker School in Oberkassel. Districts of Düsseldorf Media related to Districts of Düsseldorf at Wikimedia Commons Official webpage of the district
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes used carving and modelling, in stone, ceramics and other materials but, since Modernism, there has been an complete freedom of materials and process. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded or cast. Sculpture in stone survives far better than works of art in perishable materials, represents the majority of the surviving works from ancient cultures, though conversely traditions of sculpture in wood may have vanished entirely. However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, this has been lost. Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were an expression of religion or politics; those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, as well as many in Central and South America and Africa.
The Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, Greece is seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith; the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelo's David. Modernist sculpture moved away from traditional processes and the emphasis on the depiction of the human body, with the making of constructed sculpture, the presentation of found objects as finished art works. A basic distinction is between sculpture in the round, free-standing sculpture, such as statues, not attached to any other surface, the various types of relief, which are at least attached to a background surface. Relief is classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sometimes an intermediate mid-relief. Sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief is the usual sculptural medium for large figure groups and narrative subjects, which are difficult to accomplish in the round, is the typical technique used both for architectural sculpture, attached to buildings, for small-scale sculpture decorating other objects, as in much pottery and jewellery.
Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs of stone also containing inscriptions. Another basic distinction is between subtractive carving techniques, which remove material from an existing block or lump, for example of stone or wood, modelling techniques which shape or build up the work from the material. Techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work; the term "sculpture" is used to describe large works, which are sometimes called monumental sculpture, meaning either or both of sculpture, large, or, attached to a building. But the term properly covers many types of small works in three dimensions using the same techniques, including coins and medals, hardstone carvings, a term for small carvings in stone that can take detailed work; the large or "colossal" statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity. Another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades.
The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the "head", showing just that, or the bust, a representation of a person from the chest up. Small forms of sculpture include the figurine a statue, no more than 18 inches tall, for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Modern and contemporary art have added a number of non-traditional forms of sculpture, including sound sculpture, light sculpture, environmental art, environmental sculpture, street art sculpture, kinetic sculpture, land art, site-specific art. Sculpture is an important form of public art. A collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in some form of association with religion. Cult images are common in many cultures, though they are not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art, like the Statue of Zeus at Olympia; the actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were evidently rather small in the largest temples.
The same is true in Hinduism, where the simple and ancient form of the lingam is the most common. Buddhism brought the sculpture of religious figures to East Asia, where there seems to have been no earlier equivalent tradition, though again simple shapes like the bi and cong had religious significance. Small sculptures as personal possessions go back to the earliest prehistoric art, the use of large sculpture as public art to impress the viewer with the power of a ruler, goes back at least to the Great Sphinx of some 4,500 years ago. In archaeology and art history the appearance, sometimes disappearance, of large or monumental sculpture in a culture is regarded as of great significance, though tracing the emergence is complicated by the presumed existence of sculpture in wood and other perishable materials of which no record remains; the ability to s
Peter Schwickerath is a German sculptor. Born in 1942 in Düsseldorf, Peter Schwickerath studied from 1964 in the sculptor class of Adolf Wamper at the Folkwang University of the Arts in Essen. 1965 he became assistant to the sculptor Curt Beckmann. 1966 changed Schwickerath at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, where he studied sculpture under Manfred Sieler and Norbert Kricke. Since 1968 Peter Schwickerath is self-employed as a freelance sculptor with his own studio. 1988 on the occasion of the 700th anniversary of Düsseldorf, he was organizer of the ″Kunstachse – Skulptur D-88″, in which more than 40 objects were placed between the old town and the main courtyard. Some of them remained in place.1981-1982 idea and organization of: ″Das ambulante Museum I + II″, the Stinnes AG, Mülheim an der Ruhr. Peter Schwickerath lives and works in Düsseldorf and Punta del Este, Uruguay; the ratio of mass and space and space and the effect of surface directions in space, is the subject of his work. The surface of the body as a boundary, the line for coinciding body surfaces, as well as the color and structure of the material are the means.
Peter Schwickerath preferably defined shapes for his metal sculptures, such as the square pillar and the cylinder. These have, in their different arrangement and the interplay of mass and volume, display the destination, spatial relationships and to make recognizable. Schwickerath's special interest is the variety of ways in formal austerity. Numerous large sculptures are in public space, in sculpture parks at home and abroad, as well to private collections. Düsseldorf: Düsseldorf-Oberkassel, Kaiserpfalz Kaiserswerth Blomberg, North Rhine-Westphalia: Amts und Landgericht Arnsberg: Regierungspräsidium Mülheim: Deutsche Post, Hauptbahnhof Mülheim Herne, North Rhine-Westphalia: Skulpturenpark Flottmann-Hallen Ahlen: Skulpturenpark Kunstmuseum Marl, North Rhine-Westphalia: Skulpturenprojekt Lehnin: Oberfinanz-Akademie Göppingen: Christophsbad Unna: Hochschulcampus El Chorro, Uruguay: Fundación Pablo Atchugarry Punta del Este: La Concentida 1967: Modehaus Heinemann, Düsseldorf 1968: Winterausstellung, Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf 1969: Plastiken und Grafiken, Altes Kino Düsseldorf-Lohausen 1970: Skulptur, Knoll International, Düsseldorf 1972: Winterausstellung Museum Kunstpalast, Düsseldorf 1973: Forum Junger Kunst, Kunsthalle Recklinghausen 1974: Kunst in der Stadt, Stadthalle Solingen 1975: Nachbarschaft, Kunsthalle Düsseldorf 1977: 50 Künstler aus NRW, Cultureel Centrum, Venlo 1977: Grands et Jeunes du aujourd’hui, Grand Palais, Paris 1977: Das Revier als Faszination?, Schloss Oberhausen 1978: Drei Bildhauer in der Villa Engelhardt, Düsseldorf 1978: 100 deutsche Künstler, Polen 1981: Skulptur Drei mal Drei, Stadtmuseum Landeshauptstadt Düsseldorf 1982: Vier Düsseldorfer Bildhauer, Skulpturenmuseum Glaskasten, Marl 1983: Plastiken, Stadtgalerie Altena 1984: 80 von 400 Künstlern in der Mathildenhöhe, Darmstadt 1985: Art 16' 85, Basel 1986: Plastiken Thyssengas, Duisburg 1986: Vebiskus Kunstverein, Schaffhausen 1987: Westdeutscher Künstlerbund, Hagen 1988: Kunstverein und Städtisches Museum, Wesel 1988: Galerie Art and be, München 1990: Schwarz konkret, Städtische Galerie, Lüdenscheid 1991: Plastiken 91 Xylon, Museum Schwetzingen 1992: Skulptur und Grafik, Schwelm 1993: Skulptur und Grafik, Galerie Fochem, Krefeld 1994: Westdeutscher Künstlerbund, Kunsthalle Recklinghausen 1996: Skulptur und Zeichnung, Kunstmuseum Ahlen 1996: Skulptur und Zeichnung, Städtische Galerie Lüdenscheid 2000: Galerie am Eichholz, Murnau 2001: Galerie Fochem, Krefeld 2001: Westdeutscher Künstlerbund, Museum Bochum 2002: Perspektiven II, Galerie Meißner, Hamburg 2003: Egon Zehnder International, Hamburg 2004: Stahlskulptur aussen, Flottmann-Hallen, Herne 2004: FERRUM, Zeche Unser Fritz, Herne 2005: Galerie Fochem, Krefeld 2005: Galerie am Eichholz, Murnau 2006: 3.
Schweizerische Trienale der Skulptur, Bad Ragaz 2007: Städtisches Museum, Kalkar 2007: Leicht und schwer, Galerie Feder, Murnau 2009: 4. Schweizerische Trienale der Skulptur, Bad Ragaz 2010: Große Düsseldorfer Kunstausstellung 2010: Landpartie, Westdeutscher Künstlerbund 2010: Skulpturenpark, Flottmann–Hallen, Herne 2011: Galerie Fochem, Krefeld 2011: Blickachsen 8, Bad Homburg 2011: Galerie 15a, Niederlande 2011: Stahlzentrum, Düsseldorf 2011: Grosse Düsseldorfer, Düsseldorf 2011: Metall konkret, Galerie St. Johann, Saarbrücken 2012: Galerie 15a, Niederlande 2013: Galerie 15a, Niederlande 2014: Kunstverein Onomato, Düsseldorf 2014: Stahlplastik in Deutschland - gestern und heute, Kunstverein Wilhelmshöhe, Ettlingen 2015: Flottmann–Hallen, Herne 2015: Galerie Fochem, Krefeld 2016: Juego de Austeras Formas en Acero‘, Skulpturenpark Fundación Pablo Atchugarry, Punta del Este, Uruguay Vier Düsseldorfer Bildhauer: William Brauhauser, Hagen Hilderhof, Peter Schwickerath, Jun Suzuki. Ausstellung im Skulpturenmuseum Glaskasten Marl, 1982 Peter Schwickerath: Skulptur D-88, Ausst.
Kat. Düsseldorf 1988, Hrg. Verein zur Veranstaltung von Kunstausstellungen e. V. Düsseldorf, ISBN 3-923607-04-0 Stahl, Niederrhein. Kunstverein u. Städt. Museum Wesel, Galerie im Centrum, 1988, ISBN 3-7927-1043-9 Smerling, Walter und Ferdinand Ullrich: Public Art Ruhr. Die Metropole Ruhr und die Kunst im öffentlichen Raum. Köln 2012, S. 168f. Stahlskulptur aussen: Peter Schwickerath. Stadt Herne, Der Oberbürgermeister, Autoren: Uwe Rüth, Hermann Ühlein, ISBN 3-934940-15-3 Website Peter Schwickerath Kunst im öffentlichen Raum, Peter Schwickerath, Faltungen, Mülheim an der Ruhr Die gebogenen Skulpturen von Peter Schwickerath Westdeutsche Zeitung, November 24, 2011 kunstgebiet.ruhr, Peter Schwickerath Stahlschnitt, 2004 Fundación Pablo Atchugarry Sculpture Park, Fundación Pablo Atchugarry
District 1, Düsseldorf
District 1 is the central city district of Düsseldorf, the state capital of North Rhine-Westphalia and the city's commercial and cultural center. The district covers an area of 11.35 square kilometres and has about 75,000 inhabitants. Despite being one of Düsseldorf's smallest districts by area, Stadtbezirk 1 includes several distinct quarters: the city's Medieval Altstadt is known as an entertainment district with plenty of Altbier pubs and bars, while the adjacent Baroque-style Carlstadt has a Bohemian character. Stadtmitte is the city's shopping and central business district, extending into the three Gründerzeit quarters of Pempelfort and Golzheim - the latter three being popular as both business locations and residential areas; the entire district has a high density of institutions and enterprises associated with the arts and culture in general. The district shares borders with Düsseldorf districts 5, 6, 2, 3 and - over the Rhine - District 4. District 1 is made up of six Stadtteile: Düsseldorf Stock Exchange Königsallee Kunstakademie Marktplatz Schlossturm St. Lambertuskirche New Synagogue Drei-Scheiben-Haus Johannes-Church Deutsche Oper am Rhein Düsseldorfer Schauspielhaus Filmmuseum Forum NRW Hetjens Museum Institut Français Düsseldorf Komödchen Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen - K20 and K21 Kunsthalle Düsseldorf Marionettentheater Museum Kunst Palast Stadtmuseum Tanzhaus NRW Tonhalle Düsseldorf Kö Gallerie Schadow-Arkaden Sevens Königsallee Hofgarten Königsallee Rheinpark Rheinuferpromenade As the business center of Düsseldorf, District 1 is well served by numerous railway stations and highway.
Largest train station is Düsseldorf Hauptbahnhof, other stations include Düsseldorf Wehrhahn and a dense net of both Düsseldorf Stadtbahn underground- and Rheinbahn tram-stations. The Rheinufertunnel is part of Bundesstraße 1 and runs some 2 km along the right Rhine side, diverting car traffic away from the streets. Two large bridges cross the river into the left-Rhenish district of Oberkassel. Theodor-Heuss-Brücke Oberkasseler Brücke All Nippon Airways has its Düsseldorf Sales Office in Stadtmitte, District 1. Districts of Düsseldorf Media related to Districts of Düsseldorf at Wikimedia Commons Official webpage of the district
District 5, Düsseldorf
District 5 is a northern city district of Düsseldorf, the state capital of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Düsseldorf's International Airport is located in the district, it is the largest district by land area, but the least populated. The district covers an area of 50.96 square kilometres and has about 32,500 inhabitants. Stadtbezirk 5 borders with the Düsseldorf districts 1 and 6 to the South, - via a shared border across the Rhine - district 4 to the South-West. To the West - across the Rhine - it borders with Rhein-Kreis Neuss. Further it shares borders with the city of Duisburg to the North, Kreis Mettmann to the East. District 5 is made up of six Stadtteile: Kaiserswerth Imperial Palace, Kaiserswerth Messegelände incl. multifunctional Esprit Arena, Stockum St. Suitbertus, Kaiserswerth Kalkum Palace, Kalkum Nordpark The district is served by numerous railway stations and highway. Düsseldorf Airport is located in Lohausen, part of District 5. Stations include Düsseldorf Airport, Düsseldorf-Angermund and both Düsseldorf Stadtbahn light rail- and Rheinbahn tram-stations.
The district can be reached via Bundesautobahn 44, 52 and 59 as well as Bundesstraße 7 and 8. Flughafenbrücke Districts of Düsseldorf Rhine-Ruhr Media related to Districts of Düsseldorf at Wikimedia Commons Official webpage of the district